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Safety, Sanitation, & First Aid Submitted by Callie Parr and used in cooperation with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The materials that.

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Presentation on theme: "Safety, Sanitation, & First Aid Submitted by Callie Parr and used in cooperation with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The materials that."— Presentation transcript:

1 Safety, Sanitation, & First Aid Submitted by Callie Parr and used in cooperation with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The materials that appear in this document may be freely reproduced for educational/training activities. There is no requirement to obtain special permission for such uses. We do, however, ask that the following statement appear on all reproductions: This permission statement is limited to the reproduction of material for educational/training events. Systematic or large-scale reproduction or distribution (more than one hundred copies per year)—or inclusion of items in publications for sale—may be done only with prior written permission. Also, reproduction on computer disk or by any other electronic means requires prior written permission. Contact the University of Illinois Agricultural Education Program to obtain special permission. The University of Illinois and its affiliated entities, in addition to the individual submitting the materials, assumes no liability to original work or activities therein. SAFETY, SANITATION, & FIRST AID, by CALLIE PARR Materials produced for classroom use in conjunction with permission from the University of Illinois Agricultural Education Program.

2 Safety, Sanitation, & First Aid

3 Housekeeping If is smells clean, it is clean. Odor control is crucial “Would I want my animal to stay here?” Clean as you go No one is too “high up” to clean up after themselves.

4 Housekeeping Autoclave An appliance that sterilizes instruments Sharps Container A designated contain for needles and other hazardous materials

5 Housekeeping Cats need a litter pan Cleaning should occur morning and night Smaller quarters Remove uneaten food from the cage in a timely manner

6 Housekeeping Large animal stalls need to be cleaned daily Manure on boots and overalls needs to be left at the door and cleaned as soon as possible

7 Safety Hazards Animal patients can bite, scratch, kick Needles, scalpels, etc can injure Chemicals, drugs, etc can poison Urine, feces, medical wastes can contaminate Even over exposure to X-Rays

8 Preventing Accidental Injury Most common injuries are bites Goes back to knowing how to safely handle animals Practice makes perfect Start with easily handled animals and move to more difficult animals Assume that an animal will bite

9 Preventing Accidental Injury Learn animals’ body language Use restraining devices Do not rely on owners to restrain animals Keep pharmaceuticals in locked cabinets Keep chemicals clearly labeled

10 Preventing Accidental Injury MSDS (material safety data sheets) are published by manufacturers of all chemicals that outline the toxicity, special handling instructions, and first aid steps in case of contamination

11 Preventing Disease Preventing the spread of disease from one patient to the next is crucial Hand washing is the backbone of disease prevention Isolation of infected animals is also important

12 Preventing disease Feed and water sick animals after healthy animals Change smock/scrubs as needed Wear gloves as often as possible

13 First Aid Bites Usually a puncture or laceration Control bleeding Clean area Bandage the wound Investigate patient history to learn of infectious diseases

14 First Aid To control bleeding Apply pressure Use clean gauze if available Apply a bandage

15 First Aid To clean the area iodine tincture Hydrogen peroxide To apply a bandage Make sure it is snug to apply pressure Check for feeling and circulation

16 First Aid To control bleeding Apply pressure Use clean gauze if available Elevate the injured area above the heart

17 First Aid Broken Bones Immobilize the joint above and below the fracture Keep the patient quiet Seek doctor care

18 First Aid Chemical burns Eliminate the caustic agent Flush/wash with large amnts of water Loosely cover the area with a nonstick dressing Monitor the patient for shock

19 First Aid Poisoning (ingestion) Eliminate poison Follow directions on safety label of chemical Keep patient quiet Induce/restrict vomiting Monitor and treat symptoms as they present

20 First Aid Poisoning (inhalation) Eliminate poison by moving to fresh air Follow directions on safety label of chemical Restrict movement Monitor and treat symptoms as they present DO NOT become a victim yourself

21 First Aid Emergency and nonemergency ailments and traumas require immediate attention to prevent serious situations from turning into life threatening ones Some problems, like bleeding that cannot be stopped or convulsions require the immediate attention of an expert in veterinary medicine Other problems can be treated by the animal's owner

22 First Aid Supplies Gauze pads gauze roll/ bandages roll of cloth Thermometer Tweezers hydrogen peroxide antibiotic ointment Powered Electrolytes Vet wrap Bute or other animal analgesic Rope (for securing animal) rags/ rubber tubing for tourniquet instant cold pack

23 Fractured Bones Symptoms – Some bone breaks show obvious symptoms twisted or distorted limbs or bone fragments sticking through the skin Swelling of the affected area with 24 hours can be expected from any sort of fracture Less apparent breaks cause great pain and discomfort – Will cry or bite when the affected area is touched – will lie around, often on the affected area – will usually not walk, although in some cases it will walk despite the break notably when the pelvis is broken

24 Fractured Bones Treatment Treatment of compound fractures by a veterinarian should be sought as soon as possible Other breaks should be treated by a veterinarian within 24 hours

25 Fractured Bones Muzzle animal Gently lay animal on a board, wooden door, tarp, etc. padded with blankets Secure animal to the support Do not attempt to set the fracture If a limb is broken, wrap the leg in cotton padding, then wrap with a magazine, rolled newspaper, towel or two sticks and secure with tape Splint should extend one joint above the fracture and one joint below Make sure wrap does not constrict blood flow. If the spine, ribs, hip, etc. appears injured or broken, gently place the animal on the stretcher and immobilize it if possible

26 Electrical Burns Symptoms All burns are painful to the touch Electrical burns are the most serious and can cause heart attacks and death The burned area will show seared flesh, reddened skin, lesions, and blisters The animal may suffer respiratory distress paleness or blueness in lips, gums, and eyelid linings rigidity in limbs glassy stare Collapse and shock

27 Thermal & Friction Burns Thermal burns cause a singed or charred area The exposed skin is reddened or inflamed The wound is warm or hot to the touch Friction burns are similar in appearance to thermal burns, but the skin is chafed or scraped and has bare spots bare skin is rubbed raw is reddish in color is irritated or inflamed may leave cuts, lacerations, or embedded foreign matter

28 Burns Treatment Depending on the type and extent of the burn, it can often be treated at home Electrical burns can cause shock and must be treated immediately by a veterinarian if shock occurs, keep the animal warm with heating pads or hot water bottles and a blanket or heavy coat Thermal burns can be treated topically by applying aloe or vitamin E oil Friction burns can be treated topical ointment if foreign matter is embedded the animal should be taken to a veterinarian Chemical burns Flush immediately with large quantities of cold water

29 Constipation Symptoms The animal struggles or strains during a bowel movement without passing a stool avoids food becomes nervous or irritated Treatment Feed the animal brans, cereal foods, vegetables (peas, carrots, corn), kibble use infant-size glycerine suppositories or soap give an enema if the animal will allow it add a small amount of stool softener, such as Metamucil,® to food

30 Diarrhea Symptoms The animal passes liquid stool during bowel movement there may be abnormal coloration of the stool. Treatment Remove grease, oils, and milk from the animal's diet avoid high-fiber foods, kibble, and dry catmeal feed the animal a mix of one part cooked hamburger, drained of grease, and one part rice If diarrhea results from ingestion of foreign matter (from eating plants, soap, etc.), treat it with small doses of Pepto Bismol If symptoms persist for more than 24 hours, or if blood is present in the stool, consult a veterinarian

31 Respiratory Infections Symptoms Sneezing, coughing, runny eyes, swollen glands, difficulty swallowing, labored breathing, fever Treatment If symptoms such as sneezing, coughing, and runny eyes are present but the animal remains active and eats normally, the condition is probably not serious and no treatment is needed If the animal becomes lethargic and loses appetite, there are discharges of pus from its nose, congestion becomes heavy or labored breathing is continued, or fever of more than 102 degrees is present consult a veterinarian.

32 Shock Symptoms Weakness, collapse, pale or muddy-colored gums, fast heartbeat, difficulty breathing, no breathing, dilated pupils, low body temperature Treatment. Keep the animal warm by applying heating pads or hot water bottles and wrapping the animal in heavy blankets or coats Bring the animal to a veterinarian at once.

33 Sprains Symptoms Occur in the joints rapid swelling area will be hot to the touch The animal will not walk normally, if it walks at all

34 Treatment Apply cold compresses or ice packs gently to the swollen area keep the area cool for a day or two Wrap the affected area snugly with cloth, gauze, or athletic bandages secure the wrapping to be sure the animal does not scratch or bite it off Keep the animal quiet; discourage activity; avoid stairs For sprains that heal and reoccur apply hot towels or compresses keep the injured area moist and warm for several days If a sprain does not heal, or pain and swelling continue or are severe, see a veterinarian Sprains

35 Wounds Symptoms Cuts can be recognized by the presence of smoothly separated tissue and possible bleeding Lacerations result in jaggedly torn skin, bleeding, swelling, irritation, and black or blue discoloration of the skin Abrasions rub or scrape away the outer layers of skin, causing pain, swelling, redness, and heat Bruises or contusions leave black-and-blue tissue and swelling

36 Treatment. – Any serious wound should be treated by a veterinarian if the bleeding will not stop, if blood is gushing out, or if shock is present – Cuts that are bleeding Press thick gauze pad over wound. Hold firmly until clotting occurs. If bleeding is severe, apply a tourniquet between the wound and the heart. Loosen tourniquet for 20 seconds every 15-20 minutes. A tourniquet is dangerous and should only be used in life-threatening hemorrhaging of a limb. It may result in amputation or disability of the limb. Wounds

37 – clean the wound with hydrogen peroxide/iodine/bedadine – apply an antiseptic or antibiotic to a gauze square and wrap snugly in place – Keep the animal as quiet as possible – Change the dressing daily and keep the animal from removing it Lacerations can be treated in the same way as cuts an ice bag must be used to reduce swelling and prevent further inflammation Abrasions require the application of a soothing cream, ointment, or lotion a bandage is not needed the animal must be kept from licking the treated area Bruises and contusions are best treated with cold compresses or ice packs. Wounds

38 Bleeding (internal) Symptoms bleeding from nose, mouth, rectum; coughing blood; blood in urine; pale gums; collapse; rapid or weak pulse. Keep animal as warm and quiet as possible Seek veterinary attention as soon as possible

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