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Collegiate Design Series Suspension Tuning & Development Steve Lyman Formula SAE Lead Design Judge DaimlerChrysler Corporation.

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Presentation on theme: "Collegiate Design Series Suspension Tuning & Development Steve Lyman Formula SAE Lead Design Judge DaimlerChrysler Corporation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Collegiate Design Series Suspension Tuning & Development Steve Lyman Formula SAE Lead Design Judge DaimlerChrysler Corporation

2 Suspension Tuning and Development Part art, part science, and a little luck (but not much) Part art, part science, and a little luck (but not much) Successful organizations take methodical approach Successful organizations take methodical approach Thoughtful development saves time and money Thoughtful development saves time and money Development is the means for discovery of all of the stuff we didn’t think about when we designed the vehicle Development is the means for discovery of all of the stuff we didn’t think about when we designed the vehicle “ Development is only required to correct the ignorance of the designers.”— the late Keith Duckworth, the “worth” in Cosworth “ Development is only required to correct the ignorance of the designers.”— the late Keith Duckworth, the “worth” in Cosworth

3 Before We Leave For The Track ….. We need a plan…..testing or racing is more than just driving around We need a plan…..testing or racing is more than just driving around Know your parts Know your parts Know your car(s) Know your car(s) Line up support Line up support

4 We Need A Plan Program objectives Program objectives Realistic,aggressive team goal (1 st year team- no DNF, 2 nd year-top 20, 3 rd year-top 10, 4 th year-top 5, 5 th year-drink the milk) Realistic,aggressive team goal (1 st year team- no DNF, 2 nd year-top 20, 3 rd year-top 10, 4 th year-top 5, 5 th year-drink the milk) Timeline w/ key milestones (the race will be run whether or not you’re ready) Timeline w/ key milestones (the race will be run whether or not you’re ready) Winning programs “front load” development activity Winning programs “front load” development activity Testing is expensive- every test should take a step toward the goal Testing is expensive- every test should take a step toward the goal We wear out tires, brakes, diffs, engines. Make it count. We wear out tires, brakes, diffs, engines. Make it count. Agree on priorities, test procedures before you go test Agree on priorities, test procedures before you go test

5 Know Your Parts Every part should be inspected, labeled, measured and/or performance checkedEvery part should be inspected, labeled, measured and/or performance checked Component testing may seem boring, but it is the foundation for a winning carComponent testing may seem boring, but it is the foundation for a winning car History- how much running time, design level of part?History- how much running time, design level of part? Quantity- do we have enough to cover us for stuff wearing out, an accident, or race prep rebuild?Quantity- do we have enough to cover us for stuff wearing out, an accident, or race prep rebuild? Organize stuff so you can find it quicklyOrganize stuff so you can find it quickly Create Inventory or Bill of Laden  You really need this to run internationallyCreate Inventory or Bill of Laden  You really need this to run internationally

6 Know Your Car Visual, functional inspection of all systems Visual, functional inspection of all systems Brakes, Fuel, Steering, Suspension, Structure, Safety Brakes, Fuel, Steering, Suspension, Structure, Safety Record static corner weights Record static corner weights Physically measure center of gravity location (x,y,z)  You don’t know how much anti’s you have otherwise Physically measure center of gravity location (x,y,z)  You don’t know how much anti’s you have otherwise Physically measure bending and torsional stiffness of chassis Physically measure bending and torsional stiffness of chassis Measure and plot wheel alignment and bump steer front and rear through full suspension travel Measure and plot wheel alignment and bump steer front and rear through full suspension travel Keep a logbook, record all changes to car Keep a logbook, record all changes to car

7 Line Up Support Line up and delegate support Line up and delegate support Hero Driver Hero Driver Data acquisition whiz Data acquisition whiz Helpers/spotters/timers Helpers/spotters/timers Radios Radios Timing equipment Timing equipment Vehicle measurement equipment Vehicle measurement equipment Weather station Weather station Tow vehicle/trailer Tow vehicle/trailer Permission to use track or lot Permission to use track or lot Restrooms Restrooms Refreshments Refreshments Enough fuel? Tires? Enough fuel? Tires?

8 Care and Feeding of Tires Keep a 3 X 5 card on each tire Keep a 3 X 5 card on each tire Record popping pressures to seat beads Record popping pressures to seat beads Check durometer at each test along with ambient temperature Check durometer at each test along with ambient temperature Monitor inflation pressures before and after each run Monitor inflation pressures before and after each run Monitor tread temps (O/C/I) Monitor tread temps (O/C/I) Monitor treadwear (chunking, blisters, rubber flow, color change, fast wearout, uneven wear) Monitor treadwear (chunking, blisters, rubber flow, color change, fast wearout, uneven wear) When adjusting pressures more than 3 psi, recheck after one minute When adjusting pressures more than 3 psi, recheck after one minute Record tire temps right after each test Record tire temps right after each test Scrape junk of tread w/ hacksaw blade, not your hands Scrape junk of tread w/ hacksaw blade, not your hands

9 Take Some Of The Opinion Out of Testing Stop watches, 2-3, digital Stop watches, 2-3, digital Quality tire pressure gauge, 0-60 psi (2) Quality tire pressure gauge, 0-60 psi (2) Tire pyrometer- probe type (infrared not accurate) Tire pyrometer- probe type (infrared not accurate) Durometer-Shore hardness A Durometer-Shore hardness A 4 bathroom scales 4 bathroom scales Steel tape measure 12 ft, English/Metric Steel tape measure 12 ft, English/Metric Digital inclinometer Digital inclinometer Simple g-g measurement box (g-Tech,Escort, part of data acquisition system) Simple g-g measurement box (g-Tech,Escort, part of data acquisition system)

10 How to Test Warm up vehicle at part throttle to get fluids, tires, brakes up to operating temps Warm up vehicle at part throttle to get fluids, tires, brakes up to operating temps The engine should be performing well to make meaningful chassis adjustments The engine should be performing well to make meaningful chassis adjustments Driver must be prepared to push limits, stretch the envelope (maybe not terrified, but a little scared) Driver must be prepared to push limits, stretch the envelope (maybe not terrified, but a little scared) Stay out just long enough to feel the change (or not), 1-2 hot laps Stay out just long enough to feel the change (or not), 1-2 hot laps Make one change at a time, don’t be afraid to make big changes initially Make one change at a time, don’t be afraid to make big changes initially Bracket in on what seems to work Bracket in on what seems to work Record every lap time (segments if you have more helpers) and any notes/driver comments (if radio) Record every lap time (segments if you have more helpers) and any notes/driver comments (if radio) Create a track map/ driver debrief sheet for each session and use them Create a track map/ driver debrief sheet for each session and use them

11 More Advice for Productive Testing Don’t make more than one change at a time-at least in related areas Don’t make more than one change at a time-at least in related areas Don’t evaluate chassis performance on cold or worn out tires Don’t evaluate chassis performance on cold or worn out tires Don’t evaluate chassis performance until you have established good throttle response Don’t evaluate chassis performance until you have established good throttle response Don’t make miniscule changes until you are close to optimum performance- 1 click on dampers, for example Don’t make miniscule changes until you are close to optimum performance- 1 click on dampers, for example Don’t be afraid to try big changes—you can always go back to the previous iteration Don’t be afraid to try big changes—you can always go back to the previous iteration Don’t trust subjective judgments or lap times. Take corner and straight segment times to find out where you are gaining and losing time Don’t trust subjective judgments or lap times. Take corner and straight segment times to find out where you are gaining and losing time Don’t make or accept excuses—”we’re a half second slower, but we have our weak motor in the car or if we had new tires or if the sun wasn’t in the driver’s eyes….” Don’t make or accept excuses—”we’re a half second slower, but we have our weak motor in the car or if we had new tires or if the sun wasn’t in the driver’s eyes….” Don’t work with a physically or mentally exhausted driver Don’t work with a physically or mentally exhausted driver Testing is expensive. Be prepared, have a test plan in advance Testing is expensive. Be prepared, have a test plan in advance

12 Driver Feedback

13 What to Do with Feedback Break down the course in segments Break down the course in segments Corner entry- turn in response, weight transfer under braking, brake pull, transient roll balance, understeer/oversteer Corner entry- turn in response, weight transfer under braking, brake pull, transient roll balance, understeer/oversteer Mid-corner- understeer/oversteer, steer corrections, throttle applications, path firmness Mid-corner- understeer/oversteer, steer corrections, throttle applications, path firmness Corner exit- understeer/oversteer, progressiveness applying the power off of the corner (diff torque distribution, weight transfer under acceleration Corner exit- understeer/oversteer, progressiveness applying the power off of the corner (diff torque distribution, weight transfer under acceleration The straights : straight line tracking, pitch attitude (stiction leaving the corner)-can affect steering and aero lift/drag The straights : straight line tracking, pitch attitude (stiction leaving the corner)-can affect steering and aero lift/drag

14 Chassis Setup Overall ride frequency range Hz (FSAE), Hz (Mini-Baja) Overall ride frequency range Hz (FSAE), Hz (Mini-Baja) Remember Maurice Olley  shoot for 20% delta front to rear to achieve “flat ride” Remember Maurice Olley  shoot for 20% delta front to rear to achieve “flat ride” Tuning hierarchy: springs,anti-roll bars, and dampers Tuning hierarchy: springs,anti-roll bars, and dampers My philosophy: the springs contribute 60-75% of roll stiffness, use anti-roll bars to “trim out” the roll couple distribution My philosophy: the springs contribute 60-75% of roll stiffness, use anti-roll bars to “trim out” the roll couple distribution Dampers: Start at 3:1 rebound to bump ratio, bracket damping, charge dampers to about 200 psi (monotube), 100 psi (twin tube) Dampers: Start at 3:1 rebound to bump ratio, bracket damping, charge dampers to about 200 psi (monotube), 100 psi (twin tube) Tires: Use old tires for training, new tires/scuffs for testing/racing, use tire maker inflation recommendation to start Tires: Use old tires for training, new tires/scuffs for testing/racing, use tire maker inflation recommendation to start Wheel alignment hierarchy: toe, camber, caster Wheel alignment hierarchy: toe, camber, caster

15 Where Can We Find Time? Consider every option Consider every option We’re looking for tenths, not seconds (hopefully) We’re looking for tenths, not seconds (hopefully) There is no magic bullet There is no magic bullet

16 Damper Adjustments If you have adjustable dampers, start at settings that provide about 3:1 rebound to bump If you have adjustable dampers, start at settings that provide about 3:1 rebound to bump We need less bump since it damps the movement of the unsprung mass and doesn’t vary much due to dynamic loading, the rebound side damps the sprung mass reaction after the bump We need less bump since it damps the movement of the unsprung mass and doesn’t vary much due to dynamic loading, the rebound side damps the sprung mass reaction after the bump Dampers control rate of weight transfer, not the amount Dampers control rate of weight transfer, not the amount Overdamped- tire chatters over bumps, body control will be choppy, car will have nervous, darty feel, may lack progressivity in cornering with road camber, surface changes Overdamped- tire chatters over bumps, body control will be choppy, car will have nervous, darty feel, may lack progressivity in cornering with road camber, surface changes Underdamped- body floats, steering response is sluggish, bouncing off bump stops Underdamped- body floats, steering response is sluggish, bouncing off bump stops

17 Adjustable Dampers

18 Time for a Pit Stop Thanks for your attention Thanks for your attention Questions? Questions?


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