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© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 14 Cake Mixing and Baking.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 14 Cake Mixing and Baking."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 14 Cake Mixing and Baking

2 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Cake Mixing and Baking Cakes are bases of many pastry items Understanding of the cake characteristics Three important considerations: Ingredients, formulas and processes Three important measurements: –Specific gravity, batter pH and batter temperature

3 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cake Mixing and Baking Introduction to Cake Mixing –Fat-Based Cakes High presence of fat and sugar Firm and dense texture, moist and fine crumb Types of fat: butter, shortening, liquid shortening Common methods: creaming, modified creaming, high-ratio and liquid shortening sponge –Foam-Based Cakes Based on the foam of whipped whole eggs, yolks, white or a combination Lighter and more fragile texture Common methods: sponge, separated egg sponge, whole egg sponge, chiffon and angel food

4 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cake Mixing and Baking Ingredient Selection and Functionality –Flour Soft wheat Protein content cake flour: 7-9% Bleached with chlorine gas –Starch Modified starch and pregelatinized starch Provides more viscosity to the cake batter

5 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cake Mixing and Baking Ingredient Selection and Functionality –Fat Helps trap air to aid leavening Create tender and moist texture Types: liquid vegetable oil, butter, emulsified solid shortening, liquid shortening –Sugar Effect on taste, texture and physical properties Tenderizing agent

6 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cake Mixing and Baking Ingredient Selection and Functionality –Eggs Contributes to the emulsion Speed of whipping egg white or whole eggs: start with slow, then fast, and medium at the end Create more stable emulsion by gently introducing air bubbles into the egg mixture –Leavening agents Mechanical and chemical leavening Baking soda and baking powder

7 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cake Mixing and Baking Ingredient Selection and Functionality –Liquids Water, egg, milk products Provides moisture

8 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cake Mixing and Baking Mise en Place for Cake Mixing and Baking –Small Wares Spatulas, whisks, bowl scrapers, parchment paper, etc. –Specialty Mixers Planetary mixers – small and mid-size bakeries Large planetary mixers – one or two stages –Ovens Revolving ovens, convection ovens, rack ovens, deck ovens, tunnel ovens

9 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cake Mixing and Baking General Guidelines for Cake Mixing and Baking –Scaling Sifting and warming of ingredients if necessary –Pan Preparation, Mixing and Make-up High-fat cakes: spray pan with oil, line with parchment paper Foam cake pans: must not be sprayed, but parchment circle placed on bottom Scrape down sides of the bowl as mixing Once the batter is portioned and spread out, place it into the oven as soon as possible

10 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cake Mixing and Baking General Guidelines for Cake Mixing and Baking –Baking Smaller cakes require higher heat, vice versa Double acting baking powder produces CO 2 in two stages during baking Sufficient spaces between pans Testing of doneness –High Altitude Baking Lower atmospheric pressure Adjustment of leavening agents and mixing time

11 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cake Mixing and Baking General Guidelines for Cake Mixing and Baking –Cooling and Storage Creaming cakes, high ratio cakes – unmold after minutes Large sheet cakes – transfer to racks to cool quickly This sheets should be transferred to room-temperature sheet pans Angel food cake and chiffon cake should cool upside down with sufficient airflow

12 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. High-Fat Cakes High level of shortening agents –Butter, emulsified shortenings in hard or liquid form –Creaming and whipping process –Scrape down the bowl several times to ensure thorough incorporation and emulsion

13 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. High-Fat Cakes Cake Mixing: Creaming Method –Mixing of hard fat and sugar –Emulsified shortening (high-ratio) helps to stabilize the emulsion Pan Preparation and Make-up –Spray or prepare with butter/flour mixture –Place parchment on bottom –Deposit batter by weight

14 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. High-Fat Cakes Cake Mixing Methods: Modified Creaming –Based on creaming method process, followed by folding in a soft-peak meringue –Batter needs to be baked immediately

15 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. High-Fat Cakes Cake Mixing Methods: High Ratio –High ratio of sugar and liquid ingredients to flour weight –Shortening with emulsifiers

16 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. High-Fat Cakes Cake Mixing Methods: Liquid Shortening Cakes –Liquid shortening = partially hydrogenated –Fat disperses quickly throughout the batter –Require attention to mixing time and rate

17 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Foam-Based Cakes Egg foams create a light and airy texture Mise en Place must be ready to ensure no interruption during the process Egg Foam Cakes: Basic Sponge Method –Drier texture than high-fat cakes –Variation: butter sponge, milk and butter sponge

18 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Foam-Based Cakes Egg Foam Cakes: Sponge Variations –Additional liquid and moisture –More tender crumb and enriched flavor –Butter Sponge Folding melted butter at the end of basic sponge method –Hot Milk and Butter Sponge Folding melted butter and hot milk mixture into the basic sponge bas in three stages after incorporation of flour

19 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Foam-Based Cakes Egg Foam Cakes: Separated Egg Sponge –Whole eggs and yolks are whipped to create the base –Medium-stiff peak meringue is incorporated to aerate the batter –The high sugar and fat content ensures a soft texture

20 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Foam-Based Cakes Egg Foam Cakes: Biscuit Jaconde –A variation of the separated egg sponge method –Additional nut flour, usually almond flour (TPT) –Pâte Décor to create decorative pattern

21 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Foam-Based Cakes Egg Foam Cakes: Chiffon Method –Leavened with meringue and baking powder –Combine the wet and dry ingredients to create slurry, then fold in whipped egg whites –No grease on the pan so the batter can stick –After baking, cool upside-down

22 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Foam-Based Cakes Egg Foam Cakes: Angel Food –Pure white crumb –Tartaric acid strength the egg foam and whitens the crumb –One half of the sugar is whipped with the egg whites, and another half is sifted with flour and folded in –All equipment should be properly cleaned to prevent contamination of fat

23 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Advanced Cake Mixing Different environment, ingredients and equipments can change the result Troubleshooting Cake Formulation

24 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Advanced Cake Mixing Batter Temperature –Affect on consistency of fats –Affect the baking powder and the gas released during the first stage of mixing –Controlling Batter Temperature Change temperature of liquid ingredients depending on the temperature of major ingredients and friction of the mixer Batter Temperature Factors and Calculation

25 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Advanced Cake Mixing pH of Cake Batter –Affect on crumb structure, crumb color, flavor and volume –Low pH leads to acidic flavor, a finer texture and reduction of crumb size and cake volume –High pH leads to a soapy or chemical taste, larger and coarser crumb, larger volume

26 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Advanced Cake Mixing pH of Cake Batter –Controlling pH By adjusting chemical leavening agents Maintain a balance of chemical leavening agents within the cake The desired pH – slightly acidic

27 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Advanced Cake Mixing Specific Gravity –The measure of multiple items and the comparison of their density in relation to weight or volume –Determines how much air is incorporated –Measured by dividing the weight of a given volume of batter by the weight o the same volume of water –Refer to the chart “Guideline for temperature, specific gravity an pH levels for select cake”

28 CHAPTER 14 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Conclusion A consistent mixing process and attention to detail while mixing leads to a more consistent product Understand ingredient functions and mixing processes is essential for consistent production.


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