2When we are done, you will be able to . . . Section OneExplain the roles played by Santa Anna and Travis during the Battle of the AlamoDescribe the events of the Battle of the AlamoIdentify the significance of the year 1836Section TwoExplain the significance of Fannin’s surrender at GoliadDescribe the contributions of Sam Houston to the Texas RevolutionExplain the significance of the Battle of San JacintoSection ThreeExplain the significance of the Convention of 1836
3The Battle of the AlamoMain Idea:After the Texans’ victory at San Antonio, Santa Anna led his army into Texas. He fought the Texas defenders at the Alamo in the most famous battle in Texas history.
4Santa Anna is angry!After hearing about the Mexican General Cos’ defeat and retreat and also Captain Tenorio’s capture, Santa Anna was enraged.As Cos and his men started retreating, Santa Anna and his large army headed north.Santa Anna felt an urgent need to reestablish Texas under Mexican control and get rid of the Anglo American and Tejano rebels who openly defied his rule.
5The Texans were unaware that Santa Anna had decided to lead his army to Texas. Since the Texans thought Santa Anna would wait until spring to attack, they were unorganized and unprepared.This is the reason the Texans lost the most famous military clash in Texas history…Battle of the Alamo
6Movement of the Mexican Troops Two main roads led into Texas from Mexico:Atascosito RoadPassed through Goliad and VictoriaTexan James Fannin and his men at the Presidio La Bahia (near Goliad) were to defend the Atascosito Road.Old San Antonio RoadPassed through Eagle Pass, San Antonio, and NacogdochesTexan James Neill’s forces were to guard this route.
8fortified – to make stronger with military force Neill realized that the Old San Antonio Road needed to be guarded well.Neill recruited engineer Green Jamison to strengthen the walls of the Alamo, a former mission, and turn it into a fort.The Texans fortified the Alamo with 21 cannons, making the Alamo the most heavily defended fortress in the western part of North America.fortified – to make stronger with military force
9The Mexican troops are coming! Santa Anna and his troops headed north toward San Antonio.Mexican General Urrea (ohh-RAY-uh) headed north up the Atascosito Road.
10WANTED: Volunteers to Fight Neill knew he needed more soldiers to defend the Alamo.Most of the Army of the People had returned homeOther Texans had gone on a mission to Matamoros to help reclaim land that had been taken from Texan Dr. James Grant by Santa Anna.Now, Neill had only 30 men at the Alamo.
11Colonel James Bowie and his men had reached San Antonio with orders from Sam Houston to destroy the Alamo.Instead, Bowie and Neill decided to stay and fight.Although Bowie’s men were somewhat rebels and not regular soldiers, they were welcomed to serve under Neill and help prepare the Alamo’s defenses.
13William Travis was to recruit 100 men and lead them to San Antonio to support Neill. Travis was only able to raise 29 men.David Crockett, a former volunteer colonel in Tennessee, arrived with about 12 men.These men were ready to join the fight for Texas.When Neill had to leave the Alamo for a family emergency, he put Travis (only 26 years old) in command.Bowie was a bit upset because he was more experienced in frontier fighting.
15Santa Anna arrives in San Antonio. Travis tried to recruit more defenders for the Alamo.Juan Seguin, James Bonham, and others carried letters to Goliad, Gonzales, and other communities asking for help.Santa Anna arrives in San Antonio.On February 23, the 13 day siege of the Alamo began.Desperately needing more soldiers, Travis sent John William Smith, who managed to slip through Santa Anna’s lines to Gonzales to deliver the message/letter asking for volunteers.~This letter has been called the most heroic document in Texas history.
16Commandancy of the Alamo Bejar Feby, 24th 1836- To the People of Texas & all Americans in the world – Fellow citizens & compartriots –I am besieged, by a thousand or more of the Mexicans under Santa Anna – I have sustained a continual Bombardment & cannonade for 24 hours & have not lost a man – The enemy has demanded a surrender at discretion otherwise the garrison are to be put to the sward, if the fort is taken – I have answered the demand with a cannon shot, & our flag still waves proudly from the walls – I shall never surrender or retreat. Then, I call on you in the name of Liberty, of patriotism & everything dear to the American character, to come to our aid, with all dispatch – The enemy is receiving reinforcements daily & will no doubt increase to three or four thousand in four or five days. If this call is neglected, I am determined to sustain myself as long as possible & die like a soldier who never forgets what is due to his own honor & that of his country – VICTORY OR DEATH.William Barret Travis,Lt. Col. Comdt.P.S. The Lord is on our side – When the enemy appeared in sight we had not three bushels of corn – We have since found in deserted houses 80 or 90 bushels & got into the walls 20 or 30 head of Beevs [cattle] –Travis
17TRAVIS’S ORIGINAL LETTER Commandancy of the AlamoBejar, Feby, 24th 1836—To the People of Texas & all Americans in the world—Fellowcitizens & compatriots—I am besieged, by a thousand or more of the Mexicans under Santa Anna—I have sustained a continual Bombardment & cannonade for 24 hours & have not lost a man—The enemy has demanded a surrender at discretion otherwise the garrison are to be put to the sword, if the fort is taken—I have answered the demand with a cannon shot, & our flag still waves proudly from the walls—I shall never surrender or retreat. Then, I call on you in the name of Liberty, of patriotism & everything dear to the American character, to come to our aid, with all dispatch—The enemy is receiving reinforcements daily & will no doubt increase to three or four thousand in four or five days.If this call is neglected, I am determined to sustain myself as long as possible & die like a soldier who never forgets what is due to his own honor & that of his country—VICTORY OR DEATH.William Barret Travis,Lt. Col. comdt.P.S. The Lord is on our side—When the enemy appeared in sight we had not three bushels of corn—We have since found in deserted houses 80 or 90 bushels & got into the walls 20 or 30 head of Beeves [cattle]—Travis
18Fall of the AlamoFor 13 days, Mexican cannonballs bombarded the Alamo while Mexican troops prepared for battle.By March 5 about 1,800 troops had surrounded the Alamo.
19Fall of the AlamoSanta Anna raised a blood-red flag from the top of San Fernando Cathedral which indicated to the Texans that “no quarter would be given”. Santa Anna was telling them that he would not show them mercy.
20Fall of the AlamoJust before dawn on March 6, 1836 Santa Anna ordered his bugler to play a song called, “Deguello”. That was the signal for the Mexican army to begin their attack.William Travis fought on the north wall and was one of the first defenders to die.James Bowie was on his death bed when he was killed by Mexican soldiers.Davy Crocket’s fate has been the subject of legend. Some say that Crocket was among the last to die fighting. However, one Mexican soldier claimed that Davy Crocket tried to surrender to Santa Anna and was executed.
21Mission Square Cannon Picket Fence Chapel Cattle Pens Old Convent CourtyardEntranceEntrenchment and EarthworksPicket FenceLong Barracks (Two stories)Old Mission PlazaMain GatewayBreak in WallSouth BarracksMission SquareStone Rooms Built Against WallProtected Portico
22Casualties and Survivors Most historians believe that EVERY Texan soldier at the Alamo was killed.About 600 Mexican soldiers were killed or wounded.The only Texan survivors were civilians and African American slaves (e.g. Susanna Dickenson, her daughter Angelina, and Travis’s slave, Joe).These survivors told the story of the Alamo to Texas. They also spread the word that Santa Anna was marching through Texas to drive out the Texans.
23Vocabulary Check Garrison – troops stationed at a military post. Fortify – to make stronger with military defense.Garrison – troops stationed at a military post.Bombard – to attack often with artillery.
24MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW 1 After the Texans’ victory at San Antonio, Santa Anna led his army into Texas. He fought the Texas defenders at the Alamo in the most famous battle in Texas history.WHY IT MATTERS NOWThe Alamo showed the world that a heroic fight can change the course of history even if the battle itself is lost.
25The Texas RevolutionFebruary – May 1836Chapter 10
26When we are done, you will be able to . . . Section OneExplain the roles played by Santa Anna and Travis during the Battle of the AlamoDescribe the events of the Battle of the AlamoIdentify the significance of the year 1836Section TwoExplain the significance of Fannin’s surrender at GoliadDescribe the contributions of Sam Houston to the Texas RevolutionExplain the significance of the Battle of San JacintoSection ThreeExplain the significance of the Convention of 1836
27The fighting continues... Section 2The fighting continues...Santa Anna continues to battle Texans at the Alamo.Another group of Mexican soldiers was led by General Urrea and in Texas ready to fight.General Urrea Marches NorthUrrea’s troops met up with Texas Colonel Johnson.Johnson had 50 men with him.Only Johnson and four other Texans survived the fight.Urrea’s troops also met up with Texas Dr. James Grant.Grant had 50 men with him.Only 6 Texans survived this battle.
28General UrreaGeneral Urrea won several small battles as he moved northeast along Atascosito Road.Near Goliad, he managed to surround the largest group of revolutionaries, about 420 soldiers under the command of Colonel Fannin.Although outnumbered, Fannin’s group managed to hold off the Mexicans.
29James FanninThe next day, the Texans weren’t so lucky. Colonel Fannin and his troops surrendered to Urrea and his reinforced army.This took place a few miles east of Goliad near Coleto Creek.This battle was known as the Battle of Coleto.
30What really happened?There is still much debate about what really happened at Goliad (Battle of Coleto).Fannin misunderstood Urrea thinking he promised not to execute Fannin and the rest of the Texans if they surrendered.The Texans were held for a week as prisoners.On March 27, Santa Anna ordered the Mexicans to shoot the Texans.Nearly all of the Texans under Fannin’s command were shot and killed, except for a handful that managed to escape.
31Goliad Massacre 9 Texans killed, 50 wounded. 50 Mexicans killed, 140 wounded.342 Texans executed by Santa Anna.28 managed to escape.Fannin was executed separately, being shot in the face. The bodies of the Texans were then burned.
33reconnaissance – a survey made to gather information about an enemy As Fannin was battling the Mexican soldiers, Texas Captain Amon King led some men on a reconnaissance mission.reconnaissance – a survey made to gather information about an enemyWhen Urrea’s soldiers discovered King’s reconnaissance mission, they killed or captured all of them.Those that were captured were sent to Goliad as prisoners.
34Sam Houston Takes Command At the Consultation, Houston had been named commander of the Texas army.Houston was alarmed and frustrated when the Texan soldiers were not organized or followed his orders.In order to not have to fight the Cherokees and the Mexicans at the same time, Houston traveled to East Texas to negotiate a peace treaty.The Cherokees agreed to be peaceful.Houston promised that the new government of Texas would issue land titles to the Cherokees.
36Houston wanted revenge! After being reappointed commander of the Texas army at the second meeting of the Consultation, Houston gathered 374 men in Gonzales.Houston sent Erastus “Deaf” Smith to San Antonio on a scouting expedition.“Deaf” returned only to tell Houston that ALL the Texans at the Alamo had been killed.Houston wanted revenge!
37Houston needed more time. Houston realized his troops were not prepared to fight the Mexican army.He needed more time to get his troops ready for battle.Houston ordered the Texans to abandon Gonzales and burn it.As Houston and his troops moved eastward, he trained his troops and camped out along the way.Houston’s troops were getting restless.They were ready to fight.
38Families living in Gonzales started to panic. Runaway ScrapeFamilies living in Gonzales started to panic.They heard of Santa Anna’s advance and Houston’s retreat from the area.Certain that Santa Anna intended to kill all Anglo Americans in Texas, many settlers headed east…many all the way to Louisiana.This flight is called the “Runaway Scrape”.
39Runaway ScrapeDilue Rose Harris was 10 years old when her family left their home and joined the Runaway Scrape. She later wrote about her experience.“One Thursday evening all of a sudden we heard a sound like distant thunder. When it was repeated father said it was a cannon and that the Texans and Mexicans were fighting…We left Liberty in half an hour…”
41Santa Anna Closes InAfter the Battle of the Alamo, Santa Anna regrouped his troops and set out to search for any of the remaining Texas forces.In addition to suffering great losses at the Alamo, the Mexican army was beginning to run low on food and ammunition.Most supply centers were very far away.Santa Anna’s troops had expected to get some supplies in Gonzales…but remember, Houston’s men had burned most of Gonzales!By April 1836, the Mexican troops were extremely short on ammunition and food.
42Santa Anna Closes InAs both armies marched eastward, Houston managed to stay ahead of Santa Anna.To make better time, Santa Anna pulled away from his slow moving army with 700 of his men.Santa Anna captured Harrisburg, the headquarters of the temporary Texas government.The Texas leaders in Harrisburg fled as Santa Anna chased them southward.The Texans managed to flee on a boat towards Galveston.When Santa Anna returned to the north, Houston’s army was waiting.
43Battle of San JacintoThe afternoon of April 20, a skirmish developed between the Mexican army and the Texan cavalry.skirmish – brief fight among a small number of troopscavalry – soldiers who are mounted on horsebackInitially, Houston’s troops (900 strong) outnumbered Santa Anna’s army.During the night and early morning, however, Santa Anna received reinforcement, making his army 1,350 strong.
44Battle of San JacintoAround 3:00P.M., Santa Anna’s army was resting up for the battle they expected to occur the next morning.Meanwhile, Houston sent “Deaf” Smith to burn a bridge to block the Mexicans’ retreat.The Texans attack!The Mexicans were totally unprepared and didn’t expect the attack.The Mexican army scrambled in confusion.
45Battle of San JacintoAs the Texans crossed the battlefield, they shouted, “Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad!”The battle lasted only 18 minutes.Fewer than 10 Texans died.2 deaths immediately and 30 wounded6 fatally wounded would die later630 Mexican soldiers died and 730 were captured!With a disguise, Santa Anna hid out in a marsh but was captured the next day and taken to General Houston.
48The Battle of San Jacinto ended Mexican rule over Texas. 2MAIN IDEAThe Texas Revolution intensified after the Battle of the Alamo. Mexican and Texan troops continued to clash as Santa Anna marched across Texas. The final battle occurred at San Jacinto, where Sam Houston and Santa Anna faced off.WHY IT MATTERS NOWThe Battle of San Jacinto ended Mexican rule over Texas.
49When we are done, you will be able to . . . Section OneExplain the roles played by Santa Anna and Travis during the Battle of the AlamoDescribe the events of the Battle of the AlamoIdentify the significance of the year 1836Section TwoExplain the significance of Fannin’s surrender at GoliadDescribe the contributions of Sam Houston to the Texas RevolutionExplain the significance of the Battle of San JacintoSection ThreeExplain the significance of the Convention of 1836
50TEXAS GAINS INDEPENDENCE Section 3TEXAS GAINS INDEPENDENCEAs the Texans battled Santa Anna and his troops at the Alamo, another group of Texans met to decide Texas’s fate.Texas had not officially declared independence from Mexico.Delegates met for a second meeting of the Consultation on March 1, 1836, hoping they would be able to make a decision on Texas’s future.
51The Convention of 1836This meeting is actually the second meeting of the Consulation…but they called it the Convention of 1836.With the temperature near freezing, the delegates quickly decided to declare Texas independent.This decision took only two days.
52Texas's Declaration of Independence Convention of 1836Most of the delegates were Anglo Americans, however, a couple Tejanos were also included.The delegates elected Richard Ellis as their chairperson.A committee was formed to write the declaration of independence.George Childress headed this committee.George Childress
53declared the rights of revolution The declaration Childress drafted was modeled after the U.S. Declaration of Independence, which was written by Thomas Jefferson 60 years earlier.The declaration had 3 main sections:SECTION 3proclaimed independence and pledges of support of all who signed the declarationSECTION 1declared the rights of revolutionSECTION 2listed complaints against the central government such as Austin’s arrest, failure to establish public education, and denial of rights (jury/trial)
54The Texas Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Consultation on March 2, 1836, by a unanimous vote.March 2nd is celebrated today as Texas Independence Day.
55Establishing a Government After creating a declaration of independence, the delegates wrote a constitution for the independent nation of Texas.The new nation was known as the Republic of Texas.Because the outcome of the Texas Revolution was still in doubt, the delegates established an ad intern government until the elections could be held.ad intern - temporary
56Who was elected? David Burnet – president of the republic Lorenzo de Zavala – vice presidentSamuel Carson – secretary of stateDavid Thomas – attorney generalThomas Rusk – secretary of warRobert Potter – secretary of the navySam Houston – commander-in-chiefHouston left the meeting to assume command of the troops.After the election, the delegates received news about the fall of the Alamo.
57Burnet, the ad interim president, initially established the government’s headquarters in Harrisburg. He remained there until Santa Anna’s army forced him to flee to Galveston.The government moved to Velasco after the Battle of San Jacinto.
58Treaties of VelascoOn April 22, Santa Anna was captured and brought to General Houston.Burnet negotiated with Santa Anna.Santa Anna wrote to the Mexican generals ordering them to retreat.Burnet’s negotiations produced two treaties:Secret TreatyPublic Treaty~Santa Anna promised to work for Mexico’s recognition of Texas’s independence~Establish the Rio Grande River as a boundary(This would increase the size of Texas.)~Santa Anna would never fight against Texas again~All Mexican troops would withdrawal from Texas.~The Mexican and Texan prisoners would be exchanged
59In return for signing these treaties, Santa Anna was to be released without harm. He was not released for some time.Many Texans wanted to execute him in revenge for killing those at the Alamo and Goliad.Santa Anna was finally released by the first elected president of the Republic of Texas, Sam Houston.
60Establishing a Republic An election was held for president of the Republic.Houston won by a landslide.On the same ballot 3,277 Texans voted to seek immediate annexation to the United States. Only 91 voted against it.annexation – the act of adding or joining a territory to an existing one
61TIMELINE FEBRUARY–MAY 1836 February 23 Siege at the Alamo beginsFebruary 27 General Urrea destroys Johnson’s forcesMarch 2 Texas Declaration of Independence is adoptedMarch 6 The Alamo fallsMarch 27 More than 300 Texans are executed at GoliadApril 21 Texas army defeats Mexican army at San JacintoMay 14 Treaties of Velasco are signed
62MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW 3 The Convention of 1836, held while the battles of the Texas Revolution were being fought, declared that Texas was independent of Mexico. The Treaties of Velasco marked the end of the Texas Revolution and the beginning of the Republic of Texas.WHY IT MATTERS NOWThe constitution written by the Texas delegates to the Consultation established the basis for Texas government today.
63BATTLES OF THE TEXAS REVOLUTION Alamo (San Antonio)San JacintoColetoRefugioSan PatricioWilliam Travis and James BowieFrancis Johnson andDr. James GrantAmon King and William WardJames FanninSam HoustonAntonio López de Santa AnnaJosé UrreaAntonio López deSanta AnnaBattle SiteLeader(s) of TexasTroopsMexican victory—all Texas soldiers were killed in battle, about 600 Mexicans killedMexican victory—only a few Texans escapedMexican victory—the Texans suffered numerous casualties. Many were later executed at GoliadMexican victory—all Texas soldiers were killed or captured and later executed at GoliadTexan victory—9 Texans killed, 630 Mexicans killed, Santa Anna capturedLeader of Mexican TroopsOutcome