2 Table of Contents Why Measure Performance? Types of Measures AccountabilityStep 1:Define ExpectationsStep 2: Provide Tools & SkillsStep 3: Measure PerformanceStep 4: Provide FeedbackCase StudiesFollow-up Activities
3 You will learn:A sound foundation for developing or improving safety performance measuring systems;Strategies and techniques for measuring safety performance, emphasizing process measures, accountability, systematic monitoring, and goal setting;An understanding of how you can proactively use measurement systems to guide future performance;Key elements of contemporary safety measurement tools
5 Reasons for Measuring Performance Improvement project evaluationInput into bonus and incentive systemsA marketing toolBenchmarkingIncreased motivationA navigational toolAn early warning signAlter behaviorTo implement strategies and policiesTrend MonitoringImprovement prioritizationManual Page 7
6 Viewpoints of Measurement OrganizationalA macro view – how overall results are measured to determine whether safety efforts are paying off.PersonalA micro view – do measures insure individual performance or foster nonperformance.Manual Page 9
7 Turn & TalkHow does your company currently measure safety performance?Worksheet page 10 – GroupsDiscussion- Results vs. activities
8 Types of measures Trailing Downstream End of Pipeline Results Results MeasuresTrailingDownstreamEnd of PipelineResultsAchievementActivity MeasuresLeadingUpstreamPerformancePredictors
9 Results Measures Lost-Time Injury Rate Incidence Rate Severity Rate Accident CostsManual pages Students fill out page 18, costs associated with injuries.
10 INDIRECT COST IS 4 TIMES THE DIRECT COST INDIRECT COST DIRECT COST VS Review the Iceberg Direct / Indirect Theory.Ask for some examples from the class as to Uninsured or Indirect costs???7
11 Results-measures are good when.. They are broken down by unitThey give insight into the nature and causes of the accidentsThey are expressed eventually in terms of dollars per unitThey conform to any legal and insurance requirements
12 Limitations of Results Measures… Sometimes they measure only luck.They do not discriminate between poor and good performers.They do not diagnose problems.They can be unfair if used to judge individual performanceResults measures do not tell you“why an accident occurred” or“how to improve future performance”.
13 Activity MeasuresBehaviors/performance linked to accident prevention.These measures assess results of supervisor or workgroup, or organizational action taken before accidents occur.
14 What activities could prevent injuries from occurring at your company? DiscussionWhat activities could prevent injuries from occurring at your company?Page 23, students fill out list of activity measures to prevent injuries.
15 Safety Model Fatality Recordable First-Aid Case Near Property Miss Lost TimeRecordableFirst-Aid CaseNearMissPropertyDamageReference full model on page 24Add side bar info:ConsequencesCauseFactors that influence behaviorSafety programValuesBehaviors
16 How Do You Decide Which Activities to Measure? It depends on your goals and what you want to accomplish
17 Some Things To Look At: Organizational vision, Goals, Strategic Plans Perception surveysStructured InterviewsSafety Audits/InspectionsAccident AnalysisAccident TrendsBehavior Observation DataBack to page 10Classify on flip charts results & Activities
18 What is Your Vision For The Future? Vision Serves Three PurposesClarifies DirectionMotivates PeopleAligns IndividualsPage 27
19 Characteristics of an Effective Vision ImaginableDesirableFeasibleFocusedFlexibleCommunicablePage 27
34 Steps to Accountability Define expectations and explain rationale.Provide the tools and skills.Measure performance.Provide feedback.Page 39
35 Performance Formula Obstacles Motivation x Ability x Job Clarity Performance = safe job executionMotivation = desireAbility = mental/physical abilityJob Clarity = knows expectationsObstacles = The things that get in the way of great performance
36 How do your employees know what is expected of them? Turn & TalkHow do your employees know what is expected of them?Page 41
37 1. Define Expectations 2. Provide Tools & Skills 3 1. Define Expectations 2. Provide Tools & Skills 3. Measure Performance 4. Provide FeedbackPoliciesSafe Work PracticesJob Safety AnalysisPerformance GoalsJob DescriptionsPage 42
38 Safety policy criteria Express long-range purpose.Commit management at all levels to reaffirm and reinforce this purpose in daily decisions.Indicate the role lower-level management will have in the system.
39 The Policy should Include: Management’s intentScope of activity coveredResponsibilitiesAccountabilitySafety staff assistanceSafety committeesStandardsExamples of policies pages 44-49
40 Safe Work PracticesLeaders must communicate the need for all employees to understand the safety-related processes and procedures, and to actively participate in the organization’s safety programs.Page 50-53
41 Criteria for Safe Work Practices Reasonable and specificEnforceableEasily understoodPositiveRegularly reviewed and updated
42 Job Safety Analysis Break the job down into component steps. 1.Select a worker to observe.2. Observe the worker performing the job.3. Describe each step and number sequentially.4. Observe the worker several times to make sure all steps were noted.5. Check the listed steps with the worker for agreement.Examples pages 54-56
43 Job Safety Analysis B. Identify the potential hazards. 1. types of hazardsa. Contactb. Caughtc. Fallsd. Overexertione. Exposuref. Repetitive motion
44 Job Safety Analysis C. Safe work procedures 1. Explains how to do the job safely and efficiently, step by step.2. Involves developing solutions to the potential hazards identified.
46 Job Descriptions Ask who has job descriptions- are they updated. Go to case study for step 1
47 Needs assessment Measured Activity Training Tools Resources 1. Define Expectations 2. Provide Tools & Skills 3. Measure Performance 4. Provide FeedbackNeeds assessmentMeasured ActivityTrainingToolsResourcesPage 57
48 Division of Safety & Hygiene Classes / Workshops Ohio BWCDivision of Safety & Hygiene Classes / Workshops
49 Leading the ChangeTopics:How injuries affect profitabilityAccident CausationInjuries equal Management errorMotivationMeasurement and AccountabilityContemporary vs. Traditional Safety Programs
50 Safety Involvement Teams Topics:The benefits of teamsPhases of team developmentHow to deal with team conflictCommunication skillsTeam tools
51 Roles and responsibilities of the facilitator Facilitator TrainingTopics:Roles and responsibilities of the facilitatorTeam problem solving and decision makingRunning effective safety meetingsConflict resolution
52 Behavior-Based Safety Topics:Why behavior-based safety worksWhat to observeAt-risk behaviorsFeedbackPositive reinforcementCoachingManaging behavior data
53 1. Define Expectations 2. Provide Tools & Skills 3 1. Define Expectations 2. Provide Tools & Skills 3. Measure Performance 4. Provide FeedbackCriteria:Measure the performance of a task (rather than an outcome).Constructed to affect rewards.Specific and MeasurableWithin the person’s span of controlMeasure the presence of a safety activity (not its absence).Page 60
54 Criteria for Performance Measures continued… Provide a means for swift and continuing feedback.Be flexible and allow for individual styles and strategies.Be simple and administratively feasible.Be self monitoring.
55 Safety Performance Measurement Systems SCRAPESBOMenu (DSH Model)Balanced ScorecardManual pages 61-72Flip chart 6 steps to balanced scorecard processAll listed systems are designed to create and measure accountability
56 What Measures are Appropriate? Upper ManagementMiddle ManagementSupervisorsSafety DirectorEmployees100% Results50% Results50% Activities100% ActivitiesRefer back to page 10, How does your company measure? Results or Activities
57 1. Define Expectations 2. Provide Tools & Skills 3 1. Define Expectations 2. Provide Tools & Skills 3. Measure Performance 4. Provide FeedbackList types of feedback & recognitionPage 75, Group discussion, list itemsCase study #1 review all sections
58 Criteria for Performance Evaluations RolesNumerical RatingFlexibilityEE InvolvementCentral CoordinationAddressing EE WeaknessesAdditional ItemsSystem EvaluationWhatWhoWhenWhyHowSystems SupportPersonal ImpactOrganizational ImpactManual pages discuss each item.
59 Positive Reinforcement Find someone doing something right, and reward them.Construct consequences to increase the probability that the behavior that precedes the consequence will occur more often in the future.Page 80
61 Review Define Expectations Provide Tools and Skills Steps to AccountabilityDefine ExpectationsProvide Tools and SkillsMeasure PerformanceProvide Feedback
62 Next Steps Review current measurement systems. Get management support/commitment.Develop a vision.Develop performance measures and activities for all levels of the organization.
63 Next Steps5. Conduct a “Needs Assessment” for tools and training required.6. Determine how activities will be measured and reported.7. How will performance be recognized and rewarded?8. Re-evaluate the process.
64 How Do You Know when You Get There? You never get there.