2 Table of Contents >Why Measure Performance? >Types of Measures >Accountability >Step 1:Define Expectations >Step 2: Provide Tools & Skills >Step 3: Measure Performance >Step 4: Provide Feedback >Case Studies >Follow-up Activities
3 You will learn: >A sound foundation for developing or improving safety performance measuring systems; >Strategies and techniques for measuring safety performance, emphasizing process measures, accountability, systematic monitoring, and goal setting; >An understanding of how you can proactively use measurement systems to guide future performance; >Key elements of contemporary safety measurement tools
4 Turn & Talk >Why measure performance?
5 Reasons for Measuring Performance >A navigational tool >An early warning sign >Alter behavior >To implement strategies and policies >Trend Monitoring >Improvement prioritization >Improvement project evaluation >Input into bonus and incentive systems >A marketing tool >Benchmarking >Increased motivation
6 Viewpoints of Measurement >Organizational A macro view – how overall results are measured to determine whether safety efforts are paying off. >Personal A micro view – do measures insure individual performance or foster nonperformance.
7 Turn & Talk >H>How does your company currently measure safety performance?
8 Types of measures >Results Measures Trailing Downstream End of Pipeline Results Achievement >Activity Measures Leading Upstream Performance Predictors
10 DIRECT COST INDIRECT COST VS INDIRECT COST IS 4 TIMES THE DIRECT COST
11 Results-measures are good when.. ❒ They are broken down by unit ❒ They give insight into the nature and causes of the accidents ❒ They are expressed eventually in terms of dollars per unit ❒ They conform to any legal and insurance requirements
12 Limitations of Results Measures… Sometimes they measure only luck. They do not discriminate between poor and good performers. They do not diagnose problems. They can be unfair if used to judge individual performance Results measures do not tell you “why an accident occurred” or “how to improve future performance”.
13 Activity Measures ❒ Behaviors/performance linked to accident prevention. These measures assess results of supervisor or workgroup, or organizational action taken before accidents occur.
14 Discussion >What activities could prevent injuries from occurring at your company?
15 Behaviors First-Aid Case Recordable Lost Time Fatality Safety Model Near Miss Property Damage
16 How Do You Decide Which Activities to Measure? >It depends on your goals and what you want to accomplish
17 Some Things To Look At: Organizational vision, Goals, Strategic Plans Perception surveys Structured Interviews Safety Audits/Inspections Accident Analysis Accident Trends Behavior Observation Data
18 What is Your Vision For The Future? >Vision Serves Three Purposes Clarifies Direction Motivates People Aligns Individuals
19 Characteristics of an Effective Vision >Imaginable >Desirable >Feasible >Focused >Flexible >Communicable
Safety Culture Assessment
22 The Perception Survey 100 questions Safety Categories Perceptions of all Employees
24 Survey Results
25 The Structured Interview 25% of Employees Facilitation of Discussion More detailed comments
Accountability The Key to Managing Safety
27 Rank the following: Quality Cost Containment Safety Customer Satisfaction Production Employee Morale
28 Video “Safety Accountability” >Safety must be managed the same as productivity and quality
29 The Key to Managing Safety >Accountability
30 What gets measured…. gets done
31 Who Is Responsible for Safety?
32 Line Management & Staff CEO President Vice President Plant Manager Supervisors Employees Safety Human Resources Purchasing Accounting Quality
34 Steps to Accountability 1.Define expectations and explain rationale. 2.Provide the tools and skills. 3.Measure performance. 4.Provide feedback.
35 > Performance Formula Motivation x Ability x Job Clarity Obstacles PERFORMANCE = Performance = safe job execution Motivation = desire Ability = mental/physical ability Job Clarity = knows expectations Obstacles = The things that get in the way of great performance
36 Turn & Talk >How do your employees know what is expected of them?
37 1. Define Expectations 2. Provide Tools & Skills 3. Measure Performance 4. Provide Feedback >Policies >Safe Work Practices >Job Safety Analysis >Performance Goals >Job Descriptions
38 Safety policy criteria >Express long-range purpose. >Commit management at all levels to reaffirm and reinforce this purpose in daily decisions. >Indicate the role lower-level management will have in the system.
39 The Policy should Include: >Management’s intent >Scope of activity covered >Responsibilities >Accountability >Safety staff assistance >Safety committees >Standards
40 Safe Work Practices >Leaders must communicate the need for all employees to understand the safety-related processes and procedures, and to actively participate in the organization’s safety programs.
41 Criteria for Safe Work Practices >Reasonable and specific >Enforceable >Easily understood >Positive >Regularly reviewed and updated
42 Job Safety Analysis A.Break the job down into component steps. 1.Select a worker to observe. 2. Observe the worker performing the job. 3. Describe each step and number sequentially. 4. Observe the worker several times to make sure all steps were noted. 5. Check the listed steps with the worker for agreement.
43 Job Safety Analysis B. Identify the potential hazards. 1. types of hazards a. Contact b. Caught c. Falls d. Overexertion e. Exposure f. Repetitive motion
44 Job Safety Analysis C. Safe work procedures 1. Explains how to do the job safely and efficiently, step by step. 2. Involves developing solutions to the potential hazards identified.
49 Leading the Change Topics: How injuries affect profitability Accident Causation Injuries equal Management error Motivation Measurement and Accountability Contemporary vs. Traditional Safety Programs
50 Safety Involvement Teams Topics: The benefits of teams Phases of team development How to deal with team conflict Communication skills Team tools
51 Facilitator Training Topics: Roles and responsibilities of the facilitator Team problem solving and decision making Running effective safety meetings Conflict resolution
52 Behavior-Based Safety Topics: Why behavior-based safety works What to observe At-risk behaviors Feedback Positive reinforcement Coaching Managing behavior data
53 1. Define Expectations 2. Provide Tools & Skills 3. Measure Performance 4. Provide Feedback >Measure the performance of a task (rather than an outcome). >Constructed to affect rewards. >Specific and Measurable >Within the person’s span of control >Measure the presence of a safety activity (not its absence). Criteria:
54 Criteria for Performance Measures continued… >Provide a means for swift and continuing feedback. >Be flexible and allow for individual styles and strategies. >Be simple and administratively feasible. >Be self monitoring.
59 Positive Reinforcement >Find someone doing something right, and reward them. >Construct consequences to increase the probability that the behavior that precedes the consequence will occur more often in the future.
61 Review >Steps to Accountability 1.Define Expectations 2.Provide Tools and Skills 3.Measure Performance 4.Provide Feedback
62 Next Steps 1.Review current measurement systems. 2.Get management support/commitment. 3.Develop a vision. 4.Develop performance measures and activities for all levels of the organization.
63 Next Steps 5. Conduct a “Needs Assessment” for tools and training required. 6. Determine how activities will be measured and reported. 7. How will performance be recognized and rewarded? 8. Re-evaluate the process.
64 How Do You Know when You Get There? >You never get there.