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Providing First Aid and Handling Emergencies

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1 Providing First Aid and Handling Emergencies
Chapter 35 Providing First Aid and Handling Emergencies

2 First Aid - the immediate, temporary care given to a person who has become sick or who has been injured.

3 Priorities in an Emergency:
1.Check immediate surroundings 2.See if victim is conscious 3.Check breathing 4. Control bleeding 5. Check for poisoning 6. Send for help

4 Secondary Measures: *learn what happened, devise plan *safety and comfort of victim *maintain body temperature *loosen tight clothing !!Stay Calm!!

5 Types of open wounds: Abrasion - also known as a scrape - damages outer layers of skin - little or no bleeding - become infected easily - caused by scraping or rubbing


7 Laceration - or cut - have jagged or smooth edges - will have bleeding as well as damage to nerves,blood vessels, and soft tissues - may be caused by knife, broken glass, or blunt object

8 Laceration

9 Puncture - a piercing of the skin
- caused by pin, splinter, or pointed object - limited external bleeding - increased possibility of internal damage, bleeding, and infection


11 - usually occur in auto accidents and from animal bites
Avulsion - results when tissue is separated partly or completely from a person’s body - usually occur in auto accidents and from animal bites - severed part should be sent with person to hospital - pack part in ice or ice water

12 Avulsion

13 First Aid for Open Wounds
Stop the bleeding *pressure point - one of a number of points along the main artery supplying blood to an affected limb *apply direct pressure to wound or pressure point

14 2. Protect the wound - cover the wound with a clean cloth
3. Treat for shock *shock - the failure of the cardio- vascular system to keep adequate blood circulation to the vital organs of the body

15 Symptoms of shock include confusion, accelerated or slowed pulse rate, trembling, weakness in the arms and legs, pale or clammy skin, pale or bluish lips and fingernails, and enlarged pupils. Treatment - keep victim lying down, maintain body temperature, elevate feet if possible, and get medical help. Do not give food or drink.

16 4. Get help *Send someone for help or if you are alone shout for help. *Leave the victim only after you have performed first aid and feel that you have lessened the risk of further injury or death.

17 When calling 911, give the following information:
Check - Call - Care When calling 911, give the following information: *Telephone number *Exact location *Caller’s name *What happened *Number and condition of victims *What help is being given !!!Do not hang up first!!!

18 Blood Types Type May Receive A A, O B B, O
AB A, B, AB, O Universal Receiver O O Universal Donor Rh factor - a protein found in some blood

19 Severe Burns: First degree burns: - are superficial
- involve top layer of skin - heal in 5 to 6 days - example: most sunburns


21 Second degree burns: - involves top several layers of skin - will have blisters and appear blotchy - 3 to 4 weeks to heal



24 Third degree burns: - the most serious burns - destroys skin, nerves, muscles, fat, and bones - appears black or brown


26 First Aid for Severe Burns
Ease burn with plenty of cool water Place a clean dry dressing over the burned area to prevent infection Raise area above the level of the heart if possible Treat for shock

27 Do not attempt to remove clothing that is stuck to the burn or to treat burns where the skin has been burned away.

28 - between 1 and 2 million poisonings occur in US each year
can occur through swallowing or inhaling a toxic substance, through snakebite, or through contact with a poisonous plant or chemical - between 1 and 2 million poisonings occur in US each year -most involve children under age 6


30 Signs of oral poisoning:
- sharp abdominal cramps extreme drowsiness followed by loss of consciousness -vomiting -chemical odor on the breath -chemical burns on the lips -open container of a poisonous substance

31 First Aid for Swallowing Poison
Call poison control center 2. Have the following information: a. age and weight of victim b. name of suspected poison c. amount taken d. time it was taken, if known 3. Treat for shock Emetic- an agent that induces vomiting

32 Snakebites Poisonous ones in US:
1. Rattlesnake 3. Copperhead 2. Water moccasin 4. Coral snake First Aid: Get victim to hospital - keep the victim as still and quiet as possible. 2. Keep the bitten area at or below the level of the heart.

33 3.Call EMS for instructions
4. Do not put ice on bite, the venom does more damage in a cold environment. Venom - a poisonous substance secreted by a snake or other animal 5. Maintain breathing and prevent aggravation of the wound - move slowly and rest periodically


35 Contact Poisoning A. Plants 1. Poison ivy, poison oak,poison sumac
2. First defense - learn what they look like 3. Causes - rash, blistering, swelling, burning, itching, and possible a fever 4. First aid - remove contaminated clothing


37 2. All should be stored out of reach of children
- wash with soap and water - use Calamine lotion for itching -if severe, get medical help B. Chemicals 1. Household cleaning agents and pesticides are common causes of poisoning 2. All should be stored out of reach of children

38 3. Direct contact with a poison usually. causes a burning of the skin,
3. Direct contact with a poison usually causes a burning of the skin, resembling a sunburn. 4. First aid - remove any contaminated clothing - flood area with water for 15 minutes - contact poison control center

39 -universal choking signal - both hands placed at the throat
Lesson 3 - First Aid for Choking, Rescue Breathing, and CPR Choking - occurs when a piece of food becomes lodged in the trachea or windpipe. -universal choking signal - both hands placed at the throat

40 First Aid for Choking Heimlich maneuver or abdominal thrust
(conscious victim) Heimlich maneuver or abdominal thrust - the application of sudden pressure on the victim’s diaphragm so as to expel the substance blocking the airway 1. Wrap arms around the victim’s waist. Place your hand halfway between the lower sternum and the naval with your thumb side of your hand against their abdomen.

41 2. Grasp your fist with the other hand, and press into the abdomen with quick upward thrusts until the blockage is dislodged. ** if you are by yourself perform abdominal thrusts on yourself by leaning over the back of a chair or the edge of a table


43 Choking Infant (conscious)
1. Place the infant on a downward angle over your arm. 2. Using the heel of your other hand, give four quick blows to the baby’s back between the shoulder blades. 3.Turn the infant over. Press two fingers into the middle of the baby’s sternum (chest thrust), repeat four times. 4. Alternate administering back blows and chest thrusts until the object is dislodged.


45 Respiratory Failure - a state in which air is unable to reach the lungs
May occur because of: - lungs filling with water - gas poisoning - overdose of narcotics - electrocution

46 First Aid : 1. Artificial respiration or rescue breathing a. tilt victim’s head, look, listen, and feel b. if not breathing, pinch nostrils together, seal your mouth over theirs and exhale (2 full breaths)

47 c. keep head tilted - look, listen, and
c. keep head tilted - look, listen, and feel again, check for carotid pulse d. if there is a pulse but no breathing, continue breaths, one every five seconds (adults), one every four seconds (children), and one every three seconds (infants) e. continue until victim starts breathing or medical help arrives

48 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
CPR A lifesaving technique in which a heart that has stopped is forced to pump blood to the body by means of applied pressure

49 Breathing Circulation
Cardiovascular failure - failure of the heart to pump blood Three steps of CPR: Airway Breathing Circulation

50 Lesson 4 -More Common Emergencies
Fracture - to break a bone First Aid: 1. Try to keep the injured part from moving by immobilizing it 2. Use a splint to secure the injured part to the body 3. Seek medical help


52 Sprains - a condition caused by a stretching or tearing of the soft tissue bands, or ligaments, that hold bones together at a joint First Aid - R.I.C.E. procedure 1. R est 2. I ce 3. C ompression 4. E levation

53 Fainting - temporary loss of consciousness brought on by a reduced supply of blood to the brain
First Aid - 1. Lay person down and elevate their feet 8 to 12 inches 2. Loosen tight clothing 3. Open airway 4. Sponge face with water 5. Seek help if necessary

54 Animal Bites - First Aid: 1. Wash area with soap and water 2. Cover it with a clean dressing 3. Get the person to a doctor at once Rabies - a viral disease of the nervous system that eventually causes madness and death

55 dog bite rabies

56 2. Wash area with soap and water 3. Watch for allergic reactions
Bee Stings - 1. use a flat sharp-edged object to scrape the stinger away from the skin until you pull out the venom sac 2. Wash area with soap and water 3. Watch for allergic reactions Objects in the Eye - run water in the eye starting at the nose and work outward - if the object does not come out cover both eyes and seek medical attention !!!Do Not rub the eyes!!!

57 bee stings

58 Nosebleeds - 1. Keep person calm and lean head forward 2. Apply direct pressure by pressing on the bleeding nostril 3. Apply a cold towel to the person’s nose and face 4. Place a piece of cotton or gauze between the upper lip and teeth to stop the bleeding

59 Frostbite - a condition in which ice
Frostbite - a condition in which ice crystals form in the spaces between the cells - skin is yellowish or gray in color and feels clammy or doughy First Aid - 1. Rewarm frozen body part by soaking in lukewarm water 2. Place sheets of gauze between the warmed fingers and toes and bandage 3. Seek medical help ASAP Gangrene is the death of tissue in a part of the body. It often requires amputation of the affected part.

60 frostbite

61 gangrene

62 !!!Do not drink too much at once!!!
Heat Cramps - caused by loss of water and salt from the body - signs: muscle cramps, heavy sweating, headache, and dizziness First Aid - 1. Move out of heat 2. Massage the muscle 3. Give sips of water or sports drink (only 4 ounces every 15 minutes) !!!Do not drink too much at once!!!

63 Heat Stroke - a life-threatening condition caused by prolonged exposure to extremely high heat
First Aid - 1. Prompt action is essential! 2. Move person to shade 3. Immerse in cold water or place ice packs around the neck, in the groin, and under the arms 4. Get medical help

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