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Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved Cake Mixing and Baking 16
Mixing Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 The three main goals of mixing cake batters: 1. To combine all ingredients into a smooth, uniform batter. 2. To form and incorporate air cells in the batter. 3. To develop the proper texture in the finished product. Cake Mixing and Baking
Mixing Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 Combining Ingredients into a Homogeneous Mixture: Part of the purpose of mixing is to form an emulsion of the water and fat. Curdling occurs when the fat can no longer hold the water in emulsion. Factors that can cause curdling: Using the wrong type of fat. Having the ingredients too cold. Emulsions are best formed at 70°F (21°C). Mixing the first stage of the procedure too quickly. Adding the liquids too quickly. Adding too much liquid. Cake Mixing and Baking
Mixing Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 Forming Air Cells Air cells in cake batters are important for texture and leavening. Correct temperature is necessary for good air cell formation. Cold fat (below 60°F/16°C)is too hard and warm fat (above 75°F/24°C) is too soft. Mixing speed should be moderate or medium. Granulated sugar is best for creaming method cakes. In egg-foam cakes the egg-sugar mixture should be slightly warm. In egg-foam cakes whipping may be done at high speed at first, but final stages of whipping should be at medium speed. Cake Mixing and Baking
Mixing Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 Developing Texture A factor that affects texture is gluten development. Very little gluten development is necessary in cakes, so cake flour is used. In the creaming, sponge, and angel food methods, the flour is added at or near the end of the mixing process so the gluten is not overdeveloped. In the two-stage method, the flour is added in the first step. Since it is mixed with the shortening the flour is coated with the fat, limiting gluten development. Cake Mixing and Baking
High Fat Cakes Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 Creaming Method Scale ingredients. Place butter and/or shortening in the mixing bowl. Beat slowly until smooth and creamy. Add the sugar; cream at moderate speed until fluffy. Cake Mixing and Baking
High Fat Cakes Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 Creaming Method (continued) Add the eggs a little at a time. Beat until eggs are absorbed before adding more. Scrape sides of bowl. Add the sifted dry ingredients alternately with the liquids. One-fourth of the dry ingredients. One-third of the liquid. Repeat until all ingredients are used. The reason for adding dry and liquid alternately is the batter may not absorb all the liquid unless flour is present. Cake Mixing and Baking
High Fat Cakes Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 Two-Stage Method—developed for use with high ratio plastic shortenings. Two rules for using the two-stage mixing method: Mix at low speed and observe correct mixing times. Stop the mixer frequently and scrape down the sides of the bowl. Scale ingredients accurately. Sift the flour, baking powder, soda, and salt into the mixing bowl. Add the shortening. Mix at low speed for 2 minutes. Scrape down the bowl and beater and mix again for 2 minutes. Add the remaining sifted dry ingredients and add part of the water or milk. Mix at low speed for 3 to 5 minutes. Combine the remaining liquids and lightly beaten eggs. With the mixer running, add this mixture to the batter in 3 parts. Scrape down the bowl after adding each part. Continue mixing for a total of 5 minutes. Cake Mixing and Baking
High Fat Cakes Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 One-Stage Method—developed for use with high ratio plastic shortenings. Scale ingredients accurately. Combine all liquid ingredients, including high- ratio liquid shortening. Sift the dry ingredients together on top of the liquid ingredients. Mix at low speed for 30 seconds. Mix at high speed for 4 minutes, scraping down the bowl and beater. Mix at medium speed for 3 minutes. Cake Mixing and Baking
Low Fat or Egg Foam Cakes Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 Egg-foam cakes contain little or no shortening and depend on the air trapped in beaten eggs for their leavening. Plain Sponge or Genoise Method Scale ingredients accurately. Combine eggs, sugar, and salt in a stainless steel bowl. Set over a hot water bath and stir or beat until the mixture warms to 110°F (43°C). Beat the eggs at high speed until they are very light and thick. Add any liquid that may be included in the formula. Fold in the sifted flour in 3 or 4 stages. Immediately pan and bake the batter. Cake Mixing and Baking
Angel Food CakeChiffon Cake Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 Contains no fat A dry flour-sugar mixture is folded into the egg whites. Is leavened by egg white foam entirely. Contains no egg yolks. Contains fat. A batter containing flour, egg yolks, vegetable oil, and water is folded into the whites. Contains baking powder as well as egg foam for leavening. Cake Mixing and Baking
Low Fat or Egg Foam Cakes Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 Angel Food Method Scale ingredients accurately. Sift the flour with half of the sugar. Beat egg whites until they form soft peaks. Add cream of tartar and salt. Gradually beat in the remaining sugar. Fold in flour-sugar mixture just until thoroughly absorbed. Place the mixture in ungreased pans and bake immediately. Cake Mixing and Baking
Low Fat or Egg Foam Cakes Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 Chiffon Method Scale ingredients accurately. Sift the dry ingredients with part of the sugar. Mix with the paddle attachment at second speed. Gradually add oil, egg yolks, water and flavorings. Whip the egg whites until they form soft peaks. Add cream of tartar and sugar in a stream. Whip to firm, moist peaks. Fold the whipped egg whites into the flour-liquid mixture. Immediately pan in an ungreased tube pan or layer pans that have had the bottoms greased and dusted, and bake. Cake Mixing and Baking
Combination Creaming/Sponge Cakes Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 Combination Creaming/Sponge Method Scale ingredients accurately. Cream the butter and sugar. Add egg yolks a little at a time. Mix well. Whip the egg whites and sugar until they form soft peaks. Fold the meringue into the butter mixture. Sift the dry ingredients. Fold in the sifted dry ingredients. Pan the batter into prepared pans. Level the batter with a plastic scraper. Cake Mixing and Baking
Cake Formula Balance Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 Ingredient functions in cake formulas: Tougheners provide structure: flour, eggs. Tenderizers provide softness and shortening of protein fibers: sugar, fats, chemical leaveners. Moisteners provide moisture or water: water, liquid milk, syrups and liquid sugars, eggs. Dryers absorb moisture: flours and starches, cocoa, milk solids. Cake Mixing and Baking
Scaling, Panning, and Baking Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 Baking: Preheat ovens. Make sure ovens and shelves are level. Do not let pans touch each other. Bake at correct temperature. Too hot oven causes a humped center and dark crust. Too slow oven causes poor volume and texture. If steam is available in the oven, use it for creamed and two- stage batters. Do not open the oven until they have finished rising and are partially browned. Cake Mixing and Baking
Scaling, Panning, and Baking Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 Tests for Doneness Shortened cakes shrink away slightly from sides of pan. Cake is springy. The center of the top of the cake springs back when pressed lightly. A cake tester or wooden pick inserted in center of cake comes out clean. Cake Mixing and Baking
Scaling, Panning, and Baking Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 Cooling and Removing from Pans Cool layer and sheet cakes 15 minutes in pans and turn out while slightly warm. Turn out layer cakes onto racks to finish cooling. Cool angel food cakes and chiffon cakes upside down in pans so they do not fall back into the pans and lose volume. Cake Mixing and Baking
Altitude Adjustments Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved 16 At high altitudes, atmospheric pressure is much lower that at sea level. This factor must be considered in cake baking. General adjustments are: Leavening: baking powder and baking soda must be decreased. Creaming and foaming reduced. Tougheners: flour and eggs must be increased. Tenderizers: shortening and sugar must be decreased. Liquids: liquids must be increased. Baking temperatures: must be increased by about 25⁰F (14⁰C) above 3500 feet. Pan greasing: grease pans more heavily. Storing: wrap or ice cakes as soon as they are cool. Cake Mixing and Baking
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