Water covers two-thirds of the surface of the Earth, but Fresh water is 0.002% on Earth To produce one cup of coffee, we need 140 liters of water. The water footprint of China is about 700 cubic meter per year per capita. Only about 7% of its water footprint falls outside China. The USA's water footprint is 2500 cubic meter per year per capita. The Indian water footprint is 980 cubic meter per year per capita, with just 2% of its total water footprint outside the borders of the country. The International Water Management Institute predicts that by 2025 in India alone, one in three people will live under “scarce water” conditions.
People use lots of water for drinking, cooking and washing but even more for producing things such as food, paper and cotton cloth. A water footprint is an indicator that looks at both the direct and indirect water use of a consumer or producer. The water footprint of an individual, community or business is defined as the total volume of freshwater that is used to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual or community or produced by the business.
Faucet aerators, which reduce splashing while washing hands and dishes. Wastewater reuse or recycling systems, allowing: Reuse of gray water for watering gardens Recycling of wastewater through purification at a water treatment plant. Rainwater harvesting High-efficiency clothes washers, weather-based irrigation controllers Garden hose nozzles that shut off water when it is not being used, instead of letting a hose run. Using low flow taps in wash basins Use waste water for growth of plants and trees
DRIP IRRIGATION IS THE MOST EFFECTIVE WHICH OFFERS THE ABILITY TO DELIVER WATER TO PLANT ROOTS WITH MINIMAL LOSSES. HOWEVER, IT IS INCREASINGLY AFFORDABLE, ESPECIALLY FOR THE HOME GARDENER AND IN LIGHT OF RISING WATER RATES. THERE ARE ALSO CHEAP EFFECTIVE METHODS SIMILAR TO DRIP IRRIGATION SUCH AS THE SPRINKLER SYSTEM IN WHICH WATER IS SPRINKLED OVER THE PLANTS WHICH REDUCES THE WASTAGE OF WATER & HELPS WHEN THERE IS WATER SHORTAGE.
The goals of water conservation efforts include as follows: Sustainability :- To ensure availability for future generations, the withdrawal of water from the ecosystem shouldn’t exceed its natural replacement rate. Energy conservation:- Water pumping, delivery and waste water treatment facilities consume a significant amount of energy, in some regions of the world 15% of total electricity is consumed for water management. Habitat conservation:- Minimizing human water use helps to preserve fresh water habitats for local wildlife and migrating waterfowl.