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Central Arizona Brush Fire Preparedness Part 3 Tactics, strategy and common resources found on wildland fires. April 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Central Arizona Brush Fire Preparedness Part 3 Tactics, strategy and common resources found on wildland fires. April 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Central Arizona Brush Fire Preparedness Part 3 Tactics, strategy and common resources found on wildland fires. April 2010

2 Disclaimer and Intent Like all fire fighting operations, wildland fire control and suppression is inherently dangerous. This presentation is designed to increase fire fighter safety and awareness at local brush fire incidents in the Phoenix metropolitan area. It is not designed to teach in-depth and/or complex wildland fire suppression techniques, skills or tactics, nor replace National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) standardized training. The overall intent of this presentation is to promote the safe operations of structural fire crews responding to initial attack wildland fires which have the potential to increase into complex fire incidents requiring multiple fire agency resources. This training can be used on an individual, company or department-wide basis.

3 Strategy and ICS Peoria, AZ wildfire

4 Note: An ACRE is the size of a football field WITHOUT the end zones, or 208’ X 208’. Size-up Conditions Fire behavior: smoldering, active, running. Fire behavior: smoldering, active, running. Approximate size: i.e. 20’ by 30’, half acre; 5 acres, etc. Approximate size: i.e. 20’ by 30’, half acre; 5 acres, etc. Spread potential: low, moderate, high, extreme. Spread potential: low, moderate, high, extreme. Fuels: Grass, brush, river bottom fuels. Fuels: Grass, brush, river bottom fuels. Hazards: i.e. power lines. Hazards: i.e. power lines. Exposures: Exposures: # immediately threatened # immediately threatened # potentially threatened # potentially threatened Consider MCT “snap shot” feature to view area structures/features. Consider MCT “snap shot” feature to view area structures/features. Actions Actions Resource needs/Balance assignment. Call for state assistance early if support will be needed. Resource needs/Balance assignment. Call for state assistance early if support will be needed.

5 Strategy Fire Fighter Safety is paramount! Do NOT put fire fighters where they can be trapped by fire. Fire Fighter Safety is paramount! Do NOT put fire fighters where they can be trapped by fire. Generally, fire fighters should NOT be placed in the un-burned area ahead of the fire. Generally, fire fighters should NOT be placed in the un-burned area ahead of the fire. Consider containment options, including roads, canals, river bottoms, farm lands. Consider containment options, including roads, canals, river bottoms, farm lands. Consider letting the fire burn itself out. Consider letting the fire burn itself out. If actions must be taken, consider multiple tactics depending on features of the area. If actions must be taken, consider multiple tactics depending on features of the area. Contain and stop forward progress. Do not forget the less active sides. Contain and stop forward progress. Do not forget the less active sides.

6 Phoenix Regional SOP Vol Revised 10/99 1. Aggressively stop the forward progress. 2. Primary goal is to protect exposures when immediate fire control is not possible. Rice Fire, Fallbrook, CA. 2007

7 ICS Considerations A sector is the same as a DIVISION; that being a GEOGRAPHIC reference. Example: “Division A (“Alpha”) or “West Division”. A sector is the same as a DIVISION; that being a GEOGRAPHIC reference. Example: “Division A (“Alpha”) or “West Division”. A GROUP is a FUNCTIONAL sector of ICS. Example: “Structure Protection Group” whose sole responsibility is protecting structures in a certain area. A GROUP is a FUNCTIONAL sector of ICS. Example: “Structure Protection Group” whose sole responsibility is protecting structures in a certain area. OPERATIONS runs the fire attack operation for the IC. OPERATIONS runs the fire attack operation for the IC. AIR OPERTIONS runs the aircraft fire attack duties for the IC. AIR OPERTIONS runs the aircraft fire attack duties for the IC.

8 Small ICS structure IC (“Baseline Command”) West Sector/Division Battalion 181 Engine 57 BR57 Engine 182 BR182 Tender 57 East Sector/Division Battalion 5 E23 BR23 BR241 Tender 45 Air Operations Battalion 7 Firebird 3

9 Building Organization (NIMS Compliant) IC Operations West Division BC181 E57 BR57 E182 BR182 T57 East Division BC5 E23 BR23 BR241 T45 Structure Protection Group BC161 E22 E161 E918 E171 South Division BLM 2101 BR436 BLM E2330 Lewis DOC Handcrew Air Operations Firebird 3 Ranger 41 Staging Logistics RehabCanteen Planning Safety PIO

10 Engine Attack Methods Cave Creek Fire, Maricopa County, 2005

11 Tactics Start all actions with an ANCHOR POINT. Start all actions with an ANCHOR POINT. “ANCHOR and FLANK” the fire. “ANCHOR and FLANK” the fire. Direct Attack or “Offensive” (click) : the safest tactic; i.e. “One foot in the black”. Working directly on fires edge from an anchor point towards head of the fire. Direct Attack or “Offensive” (click) : the safest tactic; i.e. “One foot in the black”. Working directly on fires edge from an anchor point towards head of the fire. Direct Attack or “Offensive” (click) : Direct Attack or “Offensive” (click) : Indirect Attack (“Defensive”): pulling back and using established (roads, canals, etc) or constructed fire containment lines. Indirect Attack (“Defensive”): pulling back and using established (roads, canals, etc) or constructed fire containment lines.

12 Standard Engine Tactics 1. Mobile Attackor 2. Stationary Attack Attack fire from the BURNED SIDE!

13 1. Mobile “Inside-Out” Attack In relatively flat terrain and in light fuels, the fire area cools quickly. Fire fighters and apparatus work from within fire area in an inside-out attack. This leaves no chance for an entrapment or burn- over situation. Crews work from within their safety zone (“the black”).

14 Engines anchor and flank fire working around fires edge. Flanks are managed as Divisions. If possible, apparatus should work from within the burned area, which serves as the primary SAFETY ZONE. Safety Zone West Division or West Sector East Division or East Sector North

15 Stationary Attack The same tactic as with a mobile attack, but hose lines are extended from a stationary Type 1, 2 or Type 6 engine. Crew anchors and flanks fire, using “the black” as their “safety zone”. Apparatus should be parked in location that cannot be entrapped or burned-over. Safety Zone

16 Complex Tactics Techniques or tactics which might be used by wildland fire-trained personnel Burnout/Backfire Operations – Uses drip torches or fusee to remove fuels from the fire by burning out fuels near a control line. Standard tactic by wildland engine and hand crews. Burnout/Backfire Operations – Uses drip torches or fusee to remove fuels from the fire by burning out fuels near a control line. Standard tactic by wildland engine and hand crews. Dozers – Heavy equipment used primarily in timber fuels and possibly heavy fuels such as the Gila and Salt Rivers. Not normally used in Sonoran Desert due to the extensive damages caused. Dozers – Heavy equipment used primarily in timber fuels and possibly heavy fuels such as the Gila and Salt Rivers. Not normally used in Sonoran Desert due to the extensive damages caused. Hotshot burning out. Peoria, AZ.

17 Safety and Communications Ensure BOTH are in place at every incident Crew Safety Implement and ensure standard safety practices of L C E S at every fire: LOOKOUT(s) – A crew member(s) who watches crew, fire behavior and fire movement for impending danger. COMMUNICATIONS – Maintain communications with crew, other resources, and command for optimum safety. ESCAPE ROUTES – Have a route to escape to an area of safety. SAFETY ZONES – A location where fire fighters can go to be safe. Radio considerations: Automatic aid agencies will have standard radio communications. State, federal, and tribal agencies, or out of area fire departments not on the Automatic Aid system might not have these frequencies. Consider Statewide Mutual Aid or Arizona Interagency Radio System (AIRS) channels/frequencies to establish communications. Wildland agencies will have field programmable radios and can program VHF frequencies on scene.

18 Fire Department Assistance The Arizona State Forestry Division is prepared to support fire department operations at wildland fire incidents if needed. Most fire departments have Inter- Governmental Agreements to allow for this and to address costs. Statewide Dispatch Center (24/7)

19 Additional Information Contact your department members of the Central Arizona Wildland Response Team, which includes most valley fire departments, for additional information or training. Contact your department members of the Central Arizona Wildland Response Team, which includes most valley fire departments, for additional information or training. Website Links (click): CAWRT East CAWRT West


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