2BITUMINOUS MATERIALS BITUMEN IS - The oldest known engineering material- Produced by flashdistillation of crude oil- Versatile due to itsplasticity, insolubility &inertnessBitumen is widely used for road construction, roofing, air fields, water-proofing, etc.This paper essentially deals with road Bitumen (bulk and packed).
32.1 TYPES OF BITUMENThere are two types of road bitumens used widely : Pure Bitumen and Bitumen Emulsions.Pure Bitumen : Comes in 4 grades, for various courses of road laying application.Bitumen Emulsions : A bitumen-water mixture stabilised by an emulsifierCationic emulsions are more suited for road building than anionic
4TYPES OF BITUMEN (contd) Advantages of Emulsions over pure BitumenLower temperature application : Less hazards of burns/fires/fumesLess dependence on atmospheric conditionsAllows use of damp aggregates even at low temperatureHave built-in adhesive & wetting agents
53.O SAFETY IN BITUMEN HANDLING At room temperature, bitumen is a safe product with no environment or health hazardsOccupational hazards arise due to handling at high temperatureMain hazards are thermal burns and potential fire/explosionSupports combustion if over heated in the presence of air
63.O SAFETY IN BITUMEN HANDLING (contd) 3.1 Bulk Storage:Operational Safety Requirements:Reliable gauging and alarm systemsHigh level alarmsDivert overflow and vent pipes to safe areasAnti-siphon slots on fill pipes going to the bottom of the tank
73.O SAFETY IN BITUMEN HANDLING (contd) 3.1 Bulk Storage: (contd)Guard rails for roof ladders/walkwaysEnsure tank is water-free while commissioning after repairsHot pipes to be vertical to avoid bowingNever unclog bitumen pipes with propane torch
83.O SAFETY IN BITUMEN HANDLING (contd) 3.2 Packed Bitumen:When Bitumen is packed in drums:The operator should be wearing all PPEAdjust drum and filling head height properly to avoid splashing of hot BitumenMaintain right temperature of Bitumen to minimise fumesThere should be no open source of ignition nearbyDry chemical fire extinguisher and first aid kit should be on handThere should be no manual handling of drums when the Bitumen is hot.
93.O SAFETY IN BITUMEN HANDLING (contd) 3.3 TransportationTanker safety precautions:Tanker should be water-free and on level groundAllow enough room for expansion during heatingNo open flames while filling tankerStand clear of the man-hole while filling and close it securely after filling
103.O SAFETY IN BITUMEN HANDLING (contd) 3.3 Transportation (contd)When heating up a tanker:At least 6 inches of Bitumen should cover the tubesHeat the tanker slowly, especially when bitumen is coldNever allow the vent pipes to get pluggedHave adequate fire extinguishers on handAll drivers delivering Bitumen must wear PPE
113.O SAFETY IN BITUMEN HANDLING (contd) 3.3 Transportation (contd)While delivering Bitumen at site:Clearly identify safe route to delivery pointsVehicle reversing to be kept minimumFlat, even surface to be provided for the vehicleThere should be unrestricted space for movement around the vehicleProvide a safe exit route in the event of emergencyProvide emergency shower near discharge point
123.O SAFETY IN BITUMEN HANDLING (contd) 3.3 Transportation (contd)While delivering Bitumen at site:Display advice on safe operations as well as treatment procedure for Bitumen burns in delivery area.Provide method for collecting and disposal of hose drainingsSite personnel must report any defects noticed at receipt/delivery site
133.O SAFETY IN BITUMEN HANDLING (contd) 3.4 Site Storage and HandlingWhile heating Bitumen at the site:Heater should be on level groundA warning line should be set up around the heater to keep people awayMake sure the heater is water freeBefore firing make sure all vents are open.Increase the temperature and add Bitumen slowly.
143.O SAFETY IN BITUMEN HANDLING (contd) 3.4 Site Storage and Handling (contd)While heating Bitumen at the site:If there is fire inside the heater, close the lid and turn off the burnersDo not allow spigots and valves to drip as hot Bitumen can be blown around by windPlace the heaters down-wind of workers and occupied buildingsNever over-heat the Bitumen to prevent excessive fumes.Use insulators for hot pipes and luggers.
153.O SAFETY IN BITUMEN HANDLING (contd) While carrying molten Bitumen to work-siteIf the surface is sloped, carry the bucket on the downhill slide.Never fill bucket more than 3 quartersHave a dry chemical extinguisher at siteLuggers should be water-freeChock the wheel of a mobile lugger while fillingThe path of the travel for the lugger should be level and clear of debrisOperators must wear appropriate PPE.
163.O SAFETY IN BITUMEN HANDLING (contd) 3.5 Safety Awareness & Procedures:Over 50% of Bitumen related accidents occur during applicationAccidents can be reduced by raising awarenessHot Bitumen should not be exposed to source of fireDo not use water for fighting Bitumen fireIn a sustained Bitumen fire use self-contained breathing apparatusHot Bitumen can ignite flammable material on contact
173.O SAFETY IN BITUMEN HANDLING (contd) Personal Protective Wear:While handling heated Bitumen use chemical goggles with face shieldWear loose clothing of cotton with closed collars and cuffs; use gloves covering the arm and wear ankle boots.To prevent contact of Bitumen with skin use barrier creamsAfter work, personnel should use skin cleaner and wash with soap and waterSafety showers and eye wash stations should be available at the site.
183.O SAFETY IN BITUMEN HANDLING (contd) Health Hazards:If overcome by fumes, move to fresh air and administer oxygen if necessary.Remove/clean Bitumen from skin with waterless hand cleaner (like mineral oil)Flush out eye contamination with waterFor hot Bitumen skin burns, apply cold water or ice pack to remove the heat rapidlyDo not bandage Bitumen burns and do not attempt to remove adhering Bitumen.
193.O SAFETY IN BITUMEN HANDLING (contd) Training:Staff at all levels should receive formal training and instructions on handling of BitumenAll drivers of Bitumen tankers should receive regular refresher training on the safety aspects of Bitumen.Customers’ representative should be trained on the safe receipt, storage and application of Bitumen.A periodic risk assessment of the storage and handling facilities/procedures for Bitumen must be carried out.