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Electromagnetic Force QED Strong Force QCD Gravitational Force General Relativity galaxy 10 21 m matter 10 -1 m crystal 10 -9 m atom 10 -10 m atomic nucleus.

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Presentation on theme: "Electromagnetic Force QED Strong Force QCD Gravitational Force General Relativity galaxy 10 21 m matter 10 -1 m crystal 10 -9 m atom 10 -10 m atomic nucleus."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Electromagnetic Force QED Strong Force QCD Gravitational Force General Relativity galaxy m matter m crystal m atom m atomic nucleus m electron nucleon m < m quark DNA m quark-gluon plasma Physics of Nuclei The Physics of Nuclei involves many diverse phenomena at vastly different scales, from elementary entities to stellar objects Atomic nucleus: Atomic nucleus: Z protons, N neutrons Complex many-body system where three interactions (strong, weak and Coulomb forces) come into play Very dense matter: 99.9% of atomic mass (a tablespoon of nuclear matter would weigh as much as 3000 aircraft carriers) THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS: core of matter, fuel of stars Weak Force Standard Model The hierarchy of decreasing dimensions: from galaxies to quarks, through the Earth, molecules, atoms and nuclei

3 THE ORIGIN OF NUCLEI: we are all made of stardust time 15 billion years 1 billion years years 3 minutes 1 thousandth of a second After the Big Bang:  quarks & gluons  then hadrons  then H & He [Li,Be] Heavier elements: created in nuclear reactions in stars and in stellar explosions, going on... On Earth today: only stable nuclei  very small fraction of all possible (Z,N) !! We have a successful description of the nuclei we know but … limited our understanding of the effective interaction in nuclei is limited and possibly flawed little known e.g. little known about the dependence with asymmetry (N−Z) ∕ (N+Z)

4 THE ADVENT OF RADIOACTIVE ION BEAMS (RIB): ‘gene pool’ of nuclei on Earth brings a new era production of exotic nuclei with very different N, Z numbers from the known isotopes achieved with RIB facilities  experiments start unveiling the properties of short lived, weakly bound nuclei far from stability  extend our knowledge of nuclear structure Major next generation facilities planned or underway in Europe (GSI, EURISOL), the USA (RIA), Japan (RIKEN),... Progress in accelerator and detector technology makes a bold leap forward possible: New phenomena observed  physics of weakly bound quantum systems Theorists served with an unprecedented wealth of data that challenges the best of nuclear models!

5 THE ADVENT OF RADIOACTIVE ION BEAMS (RIB): ‘gene pool’ of nuclei on Earth brings a new era New phenomena observed  physics of weakly bound quantum systems Theorists served with an unprecedented wealth of data that challenges the best of nuclear models! ● Goals for Nuclear Structure Theory: Identify/investigate many-body methods that will extend to exotic nuclei Generate improved effective interactions Make reliable predictions Guide experimental efforts Pursue interdisciplinary overlaps (e.g., with astrophysics)

6 THE SCIENCE CASE OF EXOTIC NUCLEI: at the shores of the nuclear landscape known nuclei less than 300 stable terra incognita

7 THE SCIENCE CASE OF EXOTIC NUCLEI: at the shores of the nuclear landscape neutron stars

8 Stable nuclei: Unstable nuclei: protons neutrons Physics at the neutron drip line: unconventional is normal

9 NUCLEAR EQUATION OF STATE: from terrestrial matter to compact stars

10 SCENES FROM THE SKIES: Watch an artist’s vision of a city-sized neutron star as it ploughs through the skies centered in a disk of hot plasma drawn from its enfeebled red companion star: … ravenously accreting material from the disk, the neutron star spins faster and faster emitting powerful particle beams and X-ray pulses as it rotates 400 times a second...  Neutron star movie Neutron star movie

11 FROM QCD TO HEAVY NUCLEI: theory advances building bridges Effective Field Theories

12 REMARKS: Studies in the past mostly restricted to stable nuclei with N ∕ Z= One of the main thrusts in nuclear physics today: synthesize and study the most exotic nuclear species at the very boundaries of stability Field is vital and intensely active, in rapid advance worldwide Interdisciplinary science.Interdisciplinary science. Important for astrophysics and the events that shape the fate of the Cosmos in the core of stars Physics in ActionThis is Physics in Action: newest experiments reveal need for an improved many-body theory of the nucleus, which in turn can guide the experimental efforts

13 REMARKS: Studies in the past mostly restricted to stable nuclei with N ∕ Z= One of the main thrusts in nuclear physics today: synthesize and study the most exotic nuclear species at the very boundaries of stability Field is vital and intensely active, in rapid advance worldwide Interdisciplinary science.Interdisciplinary science. Important for astrophysics and the events that shape the fate of the Cosmos in the core of stars Physics in ActionThis is Physics in Action: newest experiments reveal need for an improved many-body theory of the nucleus, which in turn can guide the experimental efforts …ultimately ‘Bringing Heavens Down to Earth’ !

14 Credits: this presentation uses pictures and figures taken from the GSI and RIA links as well as from other websites which provide information related to the fields of exotic nuclei and astrophysics. Further information: The GSI upgrade projecthttp://www.gsi.de/GSI-Future/cdr The RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) projecthttp://www.orau.org/ria/


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