4If you Pick up a SC journal on water issues of India Browse an Indian site on environment on the webRead a news item about water indiaEtc.
5You will find “more-or-less” the following noted: Groundwater is depleting in India and this can arrest the pace of development. This is happening because:Less cooperative societiesNot Enough DataLack of use of “New Technology”Uncertain sciencePoor CoordinationNo Information SharingExpert inputs poorNo resources and moneyGovernment irresponsible not allocating resources
6Reality in Rajasthan in particular, which is the driest state in India Modern development have increased demands for groundwater resources.The welfare of society is tied to the sustainable exploitation of water resources.State is “trying to keep pace with the development in other states of India”
7Reality in RajasthanWater insecurity to many is based on inadequate water of sufficient quantity and quality to meet domestic needs: a precondition for effective primary health.Most districts still are lagging behind to achieve 2015 goals agreed at the turn of the century.45% of the total population still lacks access to safe and adequate quantity of drinking waterAgriculture continues to remain the mainstay of economyGrowth in secondary and service sector also is suffering due to poor availability of water
8Reality…Numerous water – related diseases plague the Rajasthani communitiesThe district sees out migration from because of lack of water.Agriculture economy of the region is declining (but still being pushed as the major sector of state’s economy)About 25% of entire Rajasthan live in poverty and depravityHunger and malnutrition are one of the highest in India
9Rajasthan Water Resources and potential users Source: Report on the Expert Committee on Integrated Development of Water Resources, June 2005
10Rajasthan’s Water Resources (billion cum), 2000 Source: Report on the Expert Committee on Integrated Development of Water Resources, June 2005
11Groundwater as THE solution The increasing popularity of groundwater stem from various attractive features of it:It can be tapped almost everywhereLocal fixIt is comparatively cleaner for consumption (the effect may not be visible immediately, viz. arsenic)Initial capital cost of extracting groundwater is still considered cheaper than the conventional treatment of surface water for consumption.
12Source: State and Central Ground Water Board reports for various years, Government of Rajasthan and Government of India
13Source: Report on the Expert Committee on Integrated Development of Water Resources, June 2005
14Groundwater Quality Comparison of Rajasthan with rest of India Source: Report on the Expert Committee on Integrated Development of Water Resources, June 2005
15consequences Poor health and hygiene Food insecurity Outbreak of DiseasesImpact on Economy
16Global Groundwater Overdraft: Change in Cereal Production from Baseline 2025 Source: Rosegrant et al World Water and Food to 2025: Dealing with Scarcity
17Number of Malnourished Children by Region 1997 and 2025 Baseline million childrenSource: Rosegrant et al Looking Ahead: Long-Term Prospects for Africa’s Food and Nutrition Security (in press)
19Sustainable Groundwater Management ‘Development and use of groundwater in a manner that can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic or social consequences.’ (W. Alley et al., 1999)In both quality and quantity termsMost easy statement to read but equally a difficult construct to implement!
20Unlike Surface water, groundwater management is very recent Unlike Surface water, groundwater management is very recent. The science of groundwater is young!
21Groundwater management is complicated Linked to a constellation of issuesState thus governanceCommunity thus managementAgriculture/industry/ water supply thus poverty and livelihoodPartnership thus stakeholdership, gender issues…Most importantly it is linked to the WATER CYCLE
22Precipitation = Infiltration + Surface Runoff + Evaporation/Evapotranspiration Precipitation is the ultimate source of the available water resource for a given area which generally cannot be change.
23Precipitation = Infiltration + Surface Runoff + Evaporation/Evapotranspiration The total amount of water available in an area cant be increased unless through inter basin transfer or interlinking of rivers or through cloud seeding.Reducing the surface runoff or reducing the rate of evaporation/evapotranspiration can be the only solution to augment the available resources.Surface Runoff can be reduced by inducing artificial recharge techniquesTranspiration/Evapotranspiration losses can be reduced by improving agriculture practices.
24Main Problems related to water availability in Rajasthan Scanty and Uncertain Precipitation confined usually to 2 months. ( mm annually)Nearly two-thirds of the state falls within the arid to semi-arid category.Lack of adequate surface water suppliesHeavy stress on groundwater resources which has resulted in water table decline.
25Water Use Statistics for Rajasthan Total available water from external and internal sources: 32 BCMPer Capita availability: 800 cum/yrCurrent Total water requirement: 40 BCMCurrent deficit of water: 8BCMDeficit likely to be 9BCM by 2015
26Groundwater situation for Rajasthan Annual Replenishable Groundwater Resource = BCM/YrNet annual Groundwater availability = BCM/YrAnnual groundwater draft = BCM/YrStage of Ground Water Development = 125 % (2007)In some areas the groundwater development is as high as 600%How many of you are aware about crop varieties that can thrive on precipitation as low as 300 mm/annum?
27What is the Solution?? Reducing Surface Runoff YES:Recharging groundwater sources through artificial recharge.:Roof Top harvestingReducing Evapotranspiration/Evaporation:Improving agriculture practices:Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources
28Agriculture Interventions Best strategy – discontinue agricultureBut it is the source of livelihood for millions of RajasthanisSelect drought resistant varietyVery poor successReduce or obliterate energy subsidyPolitical agenda – no can do!Find new methods of IrrigationSprinkler and drip irrigation (proven not successful)Sub-surface drip irrigation (with WUE as high as 90-95% under trial stage)
29Yields response to irrigation Yields and water requirements of irrigated and rain-fed agricultureIrrigation has the potential to provide higher yields than rain-fed agriculture but water requirements are also much higher.Source: FAO, 2005
30Rain Water Harvesting as a solution Surface run off potential in Rajasthan: 26BCMGovernment district wise master plan for rainwater harvesting structure proposes 47,698 structuresTill 2005, 16,803 structures have been completedPROBLEM: Construction of harvesting structures have major environmental and cost implications.
31Advantages of using aquifers as recharge structures Construction of check dams, Anicuts along small streams are an important step in this directionHelps in recharging groundwater in the adjacent areasWater availability for drinking and domestic purpose in the wells in the downstream area even in drought yearsMN Sadguru Foundation and Tarun Bhagat Sangh have effectively carried out rain water harvesting through this technique.
32Roof Top HarvestingRoof Top harvesting is the most effective technique for augmenting drinking water supplies.Water collected can be stored in tanks to be used at a later stage.This mechanism basically has two advantages over artificial recharges structures such as ponds, check dams or induced aquifer rechargeIn situMaintain environmental flowsContd……
33Contd…..Roof Top HarvestingThe volume of water that can be made available through roof top harvesting is equal to the amount of rainfall, the surface area of the roof and the run off co-efficient of the roofCo-efficient of run off for different type of roofsSource: Roof top harvesting Manual, Prepared by AFPRO for UNICEF
34Contd…..Roof Top HarvestingConsidering the average annual rainfall in Rajasthan of about 500 mm, a house with a roof area (concrete roof) of 50 m2 can collect about lts of waterConsidering 10 lts/day/person requirement for a 5 member family, this water will be sufficient for 350 daysWith the cost of water around Rs 1.5/lt, the above quantity will help in saving around Rs per year
35Contd…..Roof Top HarvestingHowever initial costs are involved during the construction of the roof top harvesting system and installation of storage tanks which may be between Rs to Rs (Approx US $ )This one time investment may be quite high for many of the rural household therefore government should come up with schemes of providing such systems at a subsidized cost.
36Some policy Suggestions Optimal combination of different policy measures:regulation governing groundwater abstraction,provision of economic incentives/disincentives to reduce groundwater abstraction (e.g. charges for groundwater usage and wastewater discharge),provision of alternative water resources to groundwater, and support for the major groundwater users in their water-saving activitiesManagement strategy needs to be regularly reviewed and updated to meet the changes over time.
37Some policy Suggestions Groundwater conservation should be made an integral part of landuse planning.Establishment or protection of replenishing zones;Introduction of decentralized recharge schemes in household or community ;Installation of water-saving technology stipulated in the building code (e.g. recycled water for flushing toilets).
38Some policy Suggestions Abstraction rights should be assigned to the government in statutory form for effective groundwater control.Panel of different stakeholders including experts and groundwater users can be established to regularly monitor the management policy.Participatory planning and management of groundwater.Available government resources should be allocated more to water reuse and recycling.Fertilizer inputs should be capped to reduce the nitrate contamination of groundwater.
39Some policy Suggestions Enforce usage charges, wastewater treatment charges and other economic disincentives for groundwater usage.Charging for groundwater usage can be an effective toolCharges especially wastewater discharge/ treatment charges can contribute to the reduction in groundwater abstraction,
40BUT WHO WILL BELL THESE CATS? Custodianship of water not yet determinedCenter or stateWater continues to remain as a “vote agenda”Energy tariff is free for farmers (8 hrs of farm pumping is free)Model bills have been prepared for adoption and enforcement – not utilized (again state can overrule center’s decisions)Groundwater authorities (CGWB, GWA remain ineffective)National water development priority still surface water centric
41DEPENDENCIES SOCIETAL RESPONSES STRESS PovertyGovernanceHYDROLOGICAL CYCLEGroundwaterSocialChallengesEcosystemsat riskRecent advancements in science demonstrates that many of the planetary systems are strongly interdependent. Water in the hydrological cycle acts as the essential ‘bloodstream’ for all terrestrial and coastal ecosystems, determining their dynamics and functionning. It is also interrelates with economic and social cycles.Global changes, such as population growth, land conversion, accumulation of pollutants and climate change, which continue to escalate nowadays provide a considerable stress the the hydrological cycle and the interrelated systems. Leading to degradation of the environment, diminishing it’s the ability to provide expected services and diminishing the quality of life.This situation require enhancement of societal responses , which are already decisive in many cases, and will require deeper participation, dialog as well as transparency in management.
42Under G-WADI Evaluation of low cost water harvesting structure Pilot projectsAssessment of environmental gains of recharge structuresHas been included as a One-UN agendaResearch and demonstration on effectiveness of sub-surface irrigationDemonstration and pilot projectOne basin is developing under G-WADI and another one is being proposed
43UNESCO Water Portal http://www.unesco.org/water (email@example.com)