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Plant Diseases and Insect Pests Disease - any kind of injurious abnormalityDisease - any kind of injurious abnormality –Physiological (environment) –Other.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Diseases and Insect Pests Disease - any kind of injurious abnormalityDisease - any kind of injurious abnormality –Physiological (environment) –Other."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Diseases and Insect Pests Disease - any kind of injurious abnormalityDisease - any kind of injurious abnormality –Physiological (environment) –Other living organisms (pathogens) Pathogen - biological agent that causes the injuryPathogen - biological agent that causes the injury –Insects –Bacteria –Fungi –Viruses –Nematodes –Miscellaneous

2 Plant Diseases and Insect Pests Parasite - an organism that derives nourishment from another living organismParasite - an organism that derives nourishment from another living organism Host - an organism that provides nourishment to anotherHost - an organism that provides nourishment to another Obligate parasite - organism that can only survive on the living hostObligate parasite - organism that can only survive on the living host Host range - list of several different plants that some parasites can feed off ofHost range - list of several different plants that some parasites can feed off of

3 Plant Diseases and Insect Pests Bacteria - one-celled organisms that enter through wounds and cause rotBacteria - one-celled organisms that enter through wounds and cause rot Fungi - multi-celled organisms that either are saprophytes or parasites. Ex: molds, mildew. Cause decay of plantsFungi - multi-celled organisms that either are saprophytes or parasites. Ex: molds, mildew. Cause decay of plants

4 Bacterial rot/wilt

5 Fireblight on an apple

6 Bacterial disease control? Start with clean pots & potting media & toolsStart with clean pots & potting media & tools Start with clean seed or healthy transplantsStart with clean seed or healthy transplants Use drip irrigation or water in the morning so the extra water on the surface of the leaves evaporates by eveningUse drip irrigation or water in the morning so the extra water on the surface of the leaves evaporates by evening Antibiotics now exist for injecting into trees but treatment is costly and the effects temporary. There are no antibiotic spray treatments.Antibiotics now exist for injecting into trees but treatment is costly and the effects temporary. There are no antibiotic spray treatments.

7 Fungal rots

8 Fungus on foliage

9 Fungal disease control? Start with clean pots & potting media & toolsStart with clean pots & potting media & tools Start with clean seed or healthy transplantsStart with clean seed or healthy transplants Use drip irrigation or water in the morning so the extra water on the surface of the leaves evaporates by eveningUse drip irrigation or water in the morning so the extra water on the surface of the leaves evaporates by evening Fungicides do exist. They can be used as a liquid drench, spray or powder.Fungicides do exist. They can be used as a liquid drench, spray or powder.

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13 Captan & Thiram = synthetic fungicides

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15 Plant Diseases and Insect Pests Viruses - infectious particles made-up of nucleic acids (typically RNA in plants) with a protein coat. In the plant cell, the protein coat comes off and the RNA uses the plant cell to reproduce itself. These are obligate parasites.Viruses - infectious particles made-up of nucleic acids (typically RNA in plants) with a protein coat. In the plant cell, the protein coat comes off and the RNA uses the plant cell to reproduce itself. These are obligate parasites.

16 Virus Tobacco Mosaic Virus

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24 No control methods!

25 Nematodes - unsegmented worms that feed on roots and create wounds for bacteria and fungi to enterNematodes - unsegmented worms that feed on roots and create wounds for bacteria and fungi to enter Plant Diseases and Insect Pests

26 Nematode damage on tomato

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29 Nematode damage on carrot

30 Foliar nematodes Hosta Zinnia

31 How Plants are Damaged Damage by:Damage by: –Direct feeding –Secretion of toxic substances –Secondary organism enters the wound Symptom - plant’s response to attack (wilt)Symptom - plant’s response to attack (wilt) Sign - structures produced by the attacking organism (webs, tunnels, etc.)Sign - structures produced by the attacking organism (webs, tunnels, etc.)

32 Symptom = wilt

33 Webbing = sign

34 Spread of Insects and Disease Diseases and insects are spread to plants by:Diseases and insects are spread to plants by: –Water –Wind –Insects –Animals (including people) Ex: TMV –Machinery Plants are more susceptible to disease and insect attack when they are stressed (water or temperature)Plants are more susceptible to disease and insect attack when they are stressed (water or temperature)


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