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Global Nutrition 2 Roadmap to a world without hunger Where are we headed? The ugly What works? It wasn’t an accident How did we get here? Where are we.

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Presentation on theme: "Global Nutrition 2 Roadmap to a world without hunger Where are we headed? The ugly What works? It wasn’t an accident How did we get here? Where are we."— Presentation transcript:

1 Global Nutrition 2 Roadmap to a world without hunger Where are we headed? The ugly What works? It wasn’t an accident How did we get here? Where are we now? Can anything help? Stuffed & starved The bad What doesn’t? The good Most of you will see hunger in museums!

2 Slides & practice questions (see web) 1. The 50% (actually 49.2%) is US children that will require food-aid some time during childhood 2. Pct % of people hungry is declining over years 3. Plan to spend 2-3 hours reviewing web info What works & what doesn’t? toward evidence-based solutions “This is a problem we can solve at a fraction the cost of ignoring it” (Senator Geo McGovern: US Ambassador to UN Food & Ag Org)

3 A vicious cycle for malnutrition poverty, health, economic deprivation Page 3 Economics: Marginalization  inability to provide for self or family Access to the ladder of development Poverty  Diminished access to agricultural & food resources  malnutrition high birth rate Health: Physical & cognitive impairment, susceptibility to disease, early death  inability to earn an income nutrition

4 Routes to famine Discovering resources Externally initiated armed conflict … Uncertain rainfall & drought... Being landlocked... Bad governance... Israel, Afghanistan So.Africa Nigeria, Iraq Lesotho Being on a trade or pipeline route... Zimbabwe [USA] Sudan, Afghanistan Sahel, Palestine Blaming the bonsai tree... Yunus:

5 Population growth & nutrition World population growth World under 5 mortality Google Public Data (from World Bank) A new tool to learn what’s happening

6 We now know what works! Widespread agreement at conferences! Tool-kits for elimination of extreme poverty & hunger exist MDGs, change agents, Grameen, Millennium Village, Agencies & foundations for development. CIGHR, GHEC, Supercourse, Universities, Spokespersons for the developing nations We know what we can do to help right now. We know we can do it better! New knowledge production, dissemination, data mining, knowledge brokering & application Resources, personnel, sharing what works, time needed to get on development ladder Need govt action! Need info & research

7 Money? No way to get it & useless! No one to employ anyone, no one to sell things to No shops to spend money in What they eat this month is what they can take out of the ground from last month's planting Hungry & stunted kids tiny unmarked graves Hospital, dispensary, emergency > 1 day walk More immediate than money – (1) to SURVIVE We don’t need studies to learn what’s needed Page 7 The poorest - don’t give them money Jeffrey Sachs

8 What do they need? Short term – “Give a man a fish...” Emergency rations, safe water, first aid, antibiotics, public health – vaccinations, drugs, etc In conflict zones, shelter, safety to live, plant, harvest Page 8 oral rehydration solution ready to use foods Millions saved

9 To become self-sufficient - obviously: good seeds, fertilizer, drinkable water, sanitation, low technology agricultural info & resources, drip-irrigation, ARVs mosquito nets, dispensaries, hospitals Emergency aid – beyond Survival at the same time (2) Sustainablity Long term – (3) To thrive Scaling up production - factories “... teach a man to fish” development ladder

10 Nutrition & Millennium Development Goals Page 10 Primary goal is to eradicate extreme poverty & hunger Nutrition – direct prerequisite to goals 1, 3, 4, 5 & 6; indirectly to 7 & 8 see next 2 slides 1  maternal health  Child mortality  Gender equity Empower ♀ Achieve universal primary education  HIV, malaria, other diseases  Environmental sustainability Global partnership for development

11 Progress eliminating poverty & hunger Millennium Development Goals Report Panel of experts July 2009 Many factors complicate interpretation BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China) break the curve upward Sub-Saharan Africa has not done as well Experts agree that the situation has worsened since 2008 – food prices remedy is urgent

12 Social enterprises for those who are surviving – Grameen family

13 Grameen family of Social Businesses 1 Grameen Community Development Bank for the poor (p) 2 Grameen Trust (np) 37 countries 3 Grameen Fund (np) Risk capital for small-med business 4 Grameen Telecom (np)  poor to profit from a cell phone 5 Grameen Phone (p) 50% of all telephones in Bangladesh 6 Grameen Solutions (p) fast-growing software company 7 Grameen Communicns (np) soft & hardware networking 8 Grameen Fish & Livestock (np) village aquaculture & dairy 9 Grameen Shakti (np) renewable energy in remote regions 10 Grameen Shikkha (np) educational loans literacy & tech 11 Grameen Byabosa Bikash(np) supp for microcredit 12 Grameen Danone Foods (p&np) nutritious food near cost 13 Grameen America (p) alleviate poverty in working poor Bangladesh rocks

14 Microfinancing successes Donkey carts ($200) repay in 2.5 mos 4 Factories for treadle pumps. 2y later there are 75 Drip irrigation allows winter 3x price. 1A farm profit $100  $550 / yr Business Week

15 Grameen Impact 9.4 million poor have been helped 1,000,000 microloans have been generated Grameen village phone 10M subscribers 300k cell-phone ladies

16 Innovations that make a difference Barefoot agriculturistsSoil conservation, don’t burn contour farming, irrigation, crop rotation Drip irrigation Pump installation Burkina Faso: planting-pits & stone furrows  land  food for 500,000 Phillipines: Tilapia in protein  for 30,000,000 China: Hybrid rice in – enough for 60,000,000 Bangladesh: Market liberalization in  rice yield 3x Millions fed

17 Appropriate technology Innovations that make a difference $25 pump irrigates ½ acre  $100/y net Watering can irrigation rainwater collection pits valve sub-surface drip irrigation

18 Zero-tillage wheat-seeder drill - $100? Labour goes further. Earlier planting  yield  Doubled yield  govt subsidy Farmer buys & rents to pay off 2 factories  100 in Haryana & Punjab

19 Millennium Village Project Farm production Gender equity Nutritional services Energy & environment Health services Water Prevent malaria & TB Environment $3m x 5yrs funded in advance

20 Initiatives making a difference Grameen Family of social enterprises The Kings of Philanthropy & 100s of foundations The Millennium Village project Influential voices for change Scientists & students are making a difference The Millennium Development Goals – for the poorest You!... amplify with SFU &? Vote Speak, write, telephone International internship Donate Live against 99.7% of tax on ourselves Oxfam, IDRF (Can Revenue charities) to leave enough for everyone consider study abroad

21 What kinds of aid don’t work? Aid designed to benefit the donor, not the recipient Not billions given to buy favours Vandana Shiva Read /google J Perkins “Confessions of an economic hit-man”... donor countries insist that recipient open their markets... farmers in all rich countries lobby for barriers... food must be bought, processed, shipped by donor WTO? IMF? World bank?... food aid 1950s surplus dumping

22 ... who speak from a dogmatic ideology with a strong self-interest... with history of lying, bribing, or cheating How to tell who’s lying to you... follow the money... who’s generosity extends only to their borders who allow no voice for the dispossessed small ears... who can’t admit a mistake... who can’t accept that there are multiple paths... professors Canada Be suspicious of those...

23 They’re not all lying - maybe it’s 5 blind men & an elephant Don’t expect to agree with any one person Keep an open mind: free enterprise, free trade, GM seeds, globalization birth control / condoms?... Yunus... look for common good... look for unbiased data next slide

24 Pitfalls problems & roadblocks Financial melt-down National scale land purchases Food  fuel... War on terror... Nations in crippling debt to IMF & World Bank Unfair trade practices Climate change Globalization of food economics Clean water & air have become commodities Vandana Shiva on globalization Vandana Shiva on Food Laws Diverts development & aid $ Increases the price of foods Also  displaced persons & Destroys the local economy

25 Take home message Catastrophic inequities in distribution of foods Kinds of nutritional status & health impact We’ve faced causes, know there are cures As we face the future we are... water, protein, iron, vitamin A, iodine Not by accident? Who’s responsible? What’s needed perinatal - women and children not just across nations – increasingly within Impatient Optimistic

26 Long term village needs tools for sustainable development Health & perinatal services Dispensary & emergency nurse within 7 miles Hospital within 50 miles Transport system Bicycle or motor-cycle ambulance Every village has a cell phone, & very truck-driver

27 Steady-ish progress toward MDGs Page 27 Only goal #2 is fully within reach! At half-way, most MDGs are partly met.

28 Who gives 0.7% of GNP? Myths, truth, & omissions $57.5: given by the EU’s 20 most developed countries $22.74: given by USA with about the same population US aid goes mostly to nations it can use militarily Kuwait gives 8.2% of GNO, Saudi Arabia 4% in 2002 Cuba may give the highest % of GNP. China & India?? Myth: “In absolute terms the USA gives more than anyone else” Truth: Omissions: Canada is in bottom 1 / 4 of rich nations

29 Web links to a world without hunger Clinton Global Initiative Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Grameen Family of Social Businesses Millennium Village Project (WHO, UN, Jeffrey Sachs) Official Development Aid The Cuba, China model for bootstrap development University Global Health initiatives Sweden, Luxenbourg, Norway, Netherlands, Denmark spreading in Africa, Latin America, Middle East Spreading in Latin America, Africa, USA, Australia, Canada, Switzerland – through student power, and top administration, not...

30 Page 30 The consequences are unsurprising Thanks to nations & individuals who put worthwhile goals ahead of personal greed, we see a better nourished world emerging The majority of nations are now solidly on the development ladder Millions will die unnecessarily in Sahel & sub-Saharan Africa, and the major cause rests with a few nations

31 Summary: What you’ve learned (& applications) Nutritional health is not equitably distributed worldwide Correcting nutritional inequities is crucial to a viable future We've reviewed nutritional principles in global context Nutritional health, public health, & economics are inseparable Worst nutritional risks: water, protein, iron, vitamin A, & iodine. Putting this information to work in context helps us know what to look for, what to ask for, and what to do

32 Summary: What you’ve learned & its applications Across the life cycle, kids & mothers are at greatest risk. So we know priorities & best practices for risk mitigation We have seen setbacks, slow progress toward the MDGs We have substantial agreement about what needs to be done We see powerful signs of hope: fortunes given away, crazy ideas, lending money to the poorest & getting it back, & fresh voices with new workable strategies for a better future We join those working for a better world with renewed clarity & energy

33 Useful links for additional information Page 33 Note ff: Tool kit for finding information An amazing collation of resources is available The New Zealand Digital Library Project is maintained by Lethbridge University in Canada, and is machine searchable at Each of the following selection of topics has many dozens of useful (evidence- based) modules on topics relevant to the tool kit of an "agent of change" Agricultural Information Modules Medical and Health Library Virtual Disaster Library FAO on the Internet (1998) FAO document repository Collection on Critical Global Issues Food and Nutrition Library 2.2 WHO Health Library for Disasters Indigenous Peoples Poverty Alleviation Greenstone wiki collection

34 Sources Books, publications, and talks from any of the writers mentioned in the Acknowledgements section are a reliable source of information regarding what works and what doesn’t in relation to aid. Germs, guns & steel Confessions of an economic hitman Salud! Sources of government information Supercourse WHO Nutrition Nutrition databases Nutrition & Global Health: Micheline Beaudry is professor of Community Nutrition and International Nutrition at Universite Laval in Quebec city, Canada (since 1989). From January 1995 to December 1996, she was on leave from the University and Chief of the Nutrition Section in UNICEF Headquarters (New York). Previous positions include professor at Universite de Moncton ( ) and


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