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1 Experiences of PIM in Gujarat State and Future Strategy Mohan Sharma, DSC Ahmedabad.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Experiences of PIM in Gujarat State and Future Strategy Mohan Sharma, DSC Ahmedabad."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Experiences of PIM in Gujarat State and Future Strategy Mohan Sharma, DSC Ahmedabad

2 2

3 3 Irrigation scenario in Gujarat Has 18 Major, 90 Medium and more than 5000 MI projects creating about 17 lakh Ha irrigation potential. In addition, Sardar Sarovar Project has a command area of 18.45 lakh Ha and others with about 4 lakh Ha. Thus about 40 lakh hectares in the State will get assured irrigation @ 36% of the agricultural area Various studies revealed deficiencies in the planning & irri. Mgm. in varying degree

4 4 Evolution of PIM in Gujarat The WRD has been promoting and facilitating PIM in step by step manner; 1995 Landmark policy Resolution welcoming participation of farmers’ organizations and NGOs in management of Government irrigation systems. 1995 – 2000 WRD issued series of Orders for facilitating PIM in the State. 2007 -Enactment of the “Gujarat Water Users Participatory Irrigation Management Act” 2010-12- Govt. notified Rules and regulations for implementing the PIM Act

5 Evolution of PIM, continue… -WALMI developed self performance monitoring system for WUAs -WALMI-NGO collaboration for accelerating PIM capacity building 5

6 6 6 Salient features of PIM Act; effective from 17/9/2007. Statutory support to the combined efforts of Water Resources Dept, farmers and NGOs. Declaration of Minor Canal Service Area by notification in the official gazette. Formation of WUA for each Minor Canal Service Area if the association represents 51% of the holders with 51% of Service Area. Recognition of WUA by the SE

7 7 7 Agreement to turnover Irrigation management Repairs as per joint inspection shall be done by WUA with 10% contribution from Association. Supply of water from Minor Canal on Volumetric bases (per watering crop area basis). Association is allowed to collect water charges over and above rates fixed by Govt. as may be necessary. Association receives 50% rebate in water rate towards water rate collection and cost of O & M of canals and administration

8 Progress of WUAs About 9000 WUAs will be formed in the State to manage about 40 lakh hectares command area Till December 2013 about 4000 WUAs has been formed in Major-Medium projects covering 6.2 lakh Ha. area including 4.7 lakh in major-medium projects and 1.5 lakh Ha in SSNNL project The State has developed many modal and self sufficient WUAs that serve as demonstration platform. 8

9 Functions of WUAs Irrigation management Provide available water to individual farmer in time System management Operation and maintenance of canal Finance management Prepare budget, fixing and recover water charges from the Users and paying dues to the Govt. Social management Resolving conflict between farmers Productivity enhancement 9

10 10 Special features of WUAs in North Gujarat Projects Prepare annual budget ( Income and Expenditure), deciding water charges Regular O&M of canals 100 % water charge recoveries including additional water charges Farmers have paid up to 10% cash contribution in canal rehabilitation Rules and regulations of WUAs Penalty to offenders (double to office bearers in some cases)

11 11 Special features of WUAs contd. Promotion of Farmers’ Spearhead Teams. (FSHT) Pilots on volumetric supply of water and water use efficiency Federating at the Branch/Project level

12 12

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14 14 Impact of PIM Direct Benefits - Increase in area through canals – 30% - 55% - Decrease in irrigation through ground water – 20% - 40% - Decrease in water expenses – Rs 800/hect – Rs 2000/hec - Increase in net income – Rs 7500/hect – Rs 8500/hect - Increase in milch animal population – 100 – 200/village - Increase in milk production – 2- 5 litres/animal/day

15 15 Benefits contd. - Increase in employment generation – 4.75 mandays/hect/year which amounts to Rs 250/hect Indirect benefits - More no. of days available for landless farmers – about 10 - 25 labour days/year/village - Decrease in time spent on irrigation – 15 labour days/hect/year - Conflict resolution

16 16 Benefit cost ratio Thus BCR was found to be in the range of 1.3 to 4.5 respectively.

17 Problems being faced by WUAs The WUAs face difficulties in running old canal system without rehabilitation. Technical sanctions, release of grant for canal rehabilitation get delayed by Dept. There is no proper mechanism for financial audit of the WUAs and therefore the WUA office bearers and canal officers face administrative problems The WUAs face difficulties in controlling illegal lifting of canal water and tube well irrigation The office bearers and paid staff of WUAs don’t get timely training/ refresher training 17

18 Problems being faced by WUAs Proper water measuring structures are not available with willing WUAs for monitoring the water use and farmers training. The WUAs don’t have office facilities particularly at the level of their federation 18

19 Problems being faced by NGO and GO The WALMI and ID have staff crunch for supporting PIM activities such as training, technical support and performance monitoring of WUAs The existing package of incentive to NGOs for supporting WUA has not been revised for a long time therefore the reputed NGOs hesitate for large scale WUA promotion. The progress of PIM coverage is slow but steady due to adoption of voluntary approach The farmers from water surplus areas don’t cooperate in formation and running WUAs 19

20 Problems being faced by NGO and GO The canal officers are overloaded with construction and office administration work due to under staffing therefore they are not in position to support the WUAs for meeting, construction work and irrigation management. The farmers of water surplus areas don’t come forward for PIM while the WUAs of water deficit areas are not able to irrigate designed command areas. 20

21 21 Lessons Learnt

22 22 Gujarat has been a role model for the White Revolution in the country through Amul Cooperative. Now it can lead the country for PIM revolution through Dharoi model of PIM – Professor Kirit Parikh, Ex. Member Planning Commission GoI

23 23 Policies that give autonomy, incentives and powers to the WUAs Stakeholders give importance to the process of Institution Development Capacity building and hand-holding for Min. 3-5 working years of preparation, formation, growth and autonomy:  Formation  Rehabilitation  Water Distribution  Management – financial, programmes and human resources Learning based monitoring and timely resolution of issues by ID Leadership development

24 Resource Allocation This would require Rs 2000/ha for promoting PIM and Rs 5000/ha for canal rehabilitation for a period of 10-12 years in the state. 24

25 25 Scaling up

26 Recommended Future Strategy The time has now come to translate the intention into practice and that too at a scale from 6 lakh to 30 lakh hectares with about 9000 WUAs Quite challenging task 26

27 27 Surface Irrigation System (Public) CharacteristicSurplusDeficit Ground Water table & source (Private) High Water logging, need drainage, land development, agriculture development high tailend deprivation, low water demand, introduce drip Low groundwater recharge, increase command area high tailend deprivation, water harvesting, ground water recharge, drips Different Typology and PIM

28 28 Physical System CharacteristicGood conditionDeteriorated Community & leadership homogenous/dyna mic PIM likely to succeed canal rehab, PIM difficult but possible fragmented/weakintensive efforts for community mobilsation,encourage new leadership PIM very difficult,+++ inputs in physical system & com. mob

29 Institutional arrangements and resource allocation Collaboration of WRD, competent NGOs and Academic – Research Institutions. It would also mean setting up of a PIM Cell within the WRD as done by the Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency for promoting IWMP. A dedicated cell for social engineering and institution development could be thought off within the department looking to increasing demand of water/ social managers. 29

30 Way Forward Key Recommendations from the World Bank Study on Sustainable Development of WUAs in India (2010) and experiences of DSC in capacity building in watershed management and PIM: A. For WUA development and support 1. Form a National PIM Committee with representatives of 10 States with the largest area served by WUAs. 2. Establish a national concept, approach and acceptance of PIM openly supported by state governments. 3. Require different strategies for different physical and social conditions 4. Formulate, fund and implement a National PIM programme based on tried and tested PIM principles and practices. This would include conjunctive use of ground water, lift irrigation and agriculture development. 5. All future irrigation projects funded through AIBP funding would include the National PIM program as a key element. 30

31 National PIM Programme A legal framework that provides autonomy for the organizations; A step-by-step process of formation of the organizations; Facilitating capacity building, training and support mechanisms of ID staff members and WUAs, DCs and PCs including developing appropriate IEC materials and training modules. Establishing State-wide PIM Support Units with Field Training Centres with funding for atleast 10 years. Strengthening WALMIs and include them as a key resource for training in PIM and water management (including maintenance). Selecting few competent and committed NGOs (as done in Gujarat) in each state and provide funding on the lines similar to that of the watershed programme. (Rs 7500/ha – Rs 5000/ha for canal rehab by WUAs, Rs 1000 for Awareness and Cap. Bldg & Rs 1000 for HR & Adm.) Allowing WUAs to set, collect and manage service fees. Separating WUA governance and management Allocating water rights/entitlements to WUAs/water users 31

32 Thanks... 32

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