2Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Terms Spatter – Bloodstains created from the application of force to the area where the blood originated.Origin/Source – The place from where the blood spatter came from or originated.Angle of Impact – The angle at which a blood droplet strikes a surface.Parent Drop – The droplet from which a satellite spatter originates.Satellite Spatters – Small drops of blood that break of from the parent spatter when the blood droplet hits a surface.Spines – The pointed edges of a stain that radiate out from the spatter; can help determine the direction from which the blood traveled.Parent DropSpinesSatellite Spatters
3Types of Bloodstain Patterns Passive BloodstainsPatterns created from the force of gravityDrop, series of drops, flow patterns, blood pools, etc.Projected BloodstainsPatterns that occur when a force is applied to the source of the bloodIncludes low, medium, or high impact spatters, cast-off, arterial spurting, expiratory blood blown out of the nose, mouth, or wound.Transfer or Contact BloodstainsThese patterns are created when a wet, bloody object comes in contact with a target surface; may be used to identify an object or body part.A wipe pattern is created from an object moving through a bloodstain, while a swipe pattern is created from an object leaving a bloodstain.Images from
4Blood Droplet VolumeA droplet contains approximately 0.05 cc of fluid.Is not the same for all blood droplets, but is generally from 0.03 cc to 0.15 ccIs directly dependent upon the surface or orifice from which it originatesThe impact area is called the target.
5Bloodstain Terminology Angle of impact—angle at which blood strikes a target surfaceBloodstain transfer—when a bloody object comes into contact with a surface and leaves a patterned blood image on the surfaceBackspatter—blood that is directed back toward the source ofenergyCast-off—blood that is thrown from an object in motion
6Bloodstain Terminology, continued Contact stain—bloodstains caused by contact between a wet blood-bearing surface and a second surface that may or may not have blood on itTransfer—an image is recognizable and may be identifiablewith a particular objectSwipe—wet blood is transferred to a surface that did nothave blood on itWipe—a non-blood-bearing object moves through a wetbloodstain, altering the appearance of the original stain
7Bloodstain PatternsThe harder and less porous the surface, the less the blood drop will break apart.The softer and more porous the surface, the more the blood drop will break apart.The pointed end of the bloodstain faces the direction of travel.
8Types of Cast off Stains Drip: falls away from the object or blood source, very round in shape, found at Nicole Simpsons condoSwing: Falls off the weapon as it is in motion toward the target (unless backswing). Round linear pattern with the drops being close to the same sizeCessation – falls off the weapon after it strikes the target – away from the target ALWAYS!!
9Bloodstain Patterns The shape of a blood drop: Round—if it falls straight down at a 90-degree angleElliptical—blood droplets elongate as the angle decreases from 90 to 0 degrees; the angle can be determined by the following formula:
10Bloodstain Terminology, continued Directionality—relates to the direction a drop of blood travels in space from its point of originTerminal velocity—the greatest speed to which a free-falling drop of blood can accelerate in air. It is dependent upon the acceleration of gravity and the friction of the air against the blood—approximately 25.1 feet/second.High velocity—greater than 25 feet per second, usually feet per second; gives a fine mist appearanceMedium velocity—5 to 25 feet per secondLow velocity—5 feet per second or less
113 Types of Arterial Blood Spatters Gush – similar size drops/ the linear pattern is usually horizontal unless the victim is falling.Spurt – similar size drops with spacing between them. Linear pattern going up and down.Rain – blood mess (artery is completely severed)
12Non-Impact SpattersBlockage – absence of a stain where there should be oneSimple direct transfer – laying something down or stepping into somethingWipe – non-bloodied surface rubs across a bloodied one (The most blood is where you first touched it.)Swipe – bloodied surface rubs against (or across) a non-bloodied one. (The most blood is where you LAST touched it.)Smudge – when a moving object passes through a blood stain. (Hard to identify)
13ImpactThe more acute the angle of impact, the more elongated the stain.90-degree angles are perfectly round drops; 80-degree angles take on a more elliptical shape.At about 30 degrees the stain will begin to produce a tail.The more acute the angle, the easier it is to determine the direction of travel.
14Types of impact spatters Gunshot – mist, small drops, very elongated (Distinct area of convergence)Blunt object – no mist, small drops, more cylindricalExhalation – mist, can look like gunshot (Cough, breath)
15Area of Intersection and Convergence The location of the blood source can be determined by drawing lines from the various blood droplets to the point where they intersect.The area of convergence is the point of origin—the spot where the “blow” occurred. It may be established at the scene by measurement of angles with the use of strings.
16String Reconstruction Only with impact spattersCan assist with reconstructionCan reveal origin of force