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Sustainability of the Small Farm Production of Ethanol from Sugarcane Megan Coffelt University of West Florida.

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Presentation on theme: "Sustainability of the Small Farm Production of Ethanol from Sugarcane Megan Coffelt University of West Florida."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sustainability of the Small Farm Production of Ethanol from Sugarcane Megan Coffelt University of West Florida

2 Summary Discuss: Discuss: The scenario of ethanol production on small farms and their importance The scenario of ethanol production on small farms and their importance Basic review of cachaça production and potential for ethanol production from the head and tail Basic review of cachaça production and potential for ethanol production from the head and tail Vinasse-Problem or solution? Vinasse-Problem or solution? Positive and negative aspects of vinasse Positive and negative aspects of vinasse Case study Case study

3 The Small Farm System For the system to be sustainable, integration of food production and energy is needed For the system to be sustainable, integration of food production and energy is needed Systems and areas required: Systems and areas required: Land for planting sugarcane Land for planting sugarcane Diversified crops Diversified crops Production area for cachaça and ethanol Production area for cachaça and ethanol Animals (cattle, dairy cows, chickens, swine) Animals (cattle, dairy cows, chickens, swine) Think where the fuel will be used Think where the fuel will be used -Farmer:  Personal use  Equipment

4 Ethanol Production Milling Milling Fermentation Fermentation Distillation Distillation -Main differences between cachaça and ethanol are present at this stage  Different sized columns are used Important byproducts Important byproducts 1.vinasse 2.bagasse

5 Example of milling Fermentation tank

6 Differences in Ethanol and Cachaça Production Alembic Distillation column for ethanol

7 Bagasse Crushed sugarcane stalks that results from milling Crushed sugarcane stalks that results from milling Use of bagasse include: Use of bagasse include: -Used as a fuel for distilation -Animal feed -Can used used with manure as fertilizer Primary use is as a fuel Primary use is as a fuel

8 Vinasse Wastewater that results from cachaça and ethanol production Wastewater that results from cachaça and ethanol production Problematic characteristics : Problematic characteristics : 1.1 L of ethanol produces L 2.Characterized as nutrient rich, having a low pH and a high concentration of organic matter may lead to a reduction in the quality of soil and water. may lead to a reduction in the quality of soil and water.

9 Methods of Treatment Application as a fertilizer Application as a fertilizer The use as an additive to animal feed The use as an additive to animal feed Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion

10 Treatment Methods: Animal Feed Additive As an ideal additive due to the availability of organic acids, calcium, and phosphorus As an ideal additive due to the availability of organic acids, calcium, and phosphorus Beneficial when used as an additive in poultry, ruminant, and pig feeds Beneficial when used as an additive in poultry, ruminant, and pig feeds

11 Methods of Treatment: Fertilizer Beneficial due to the concentration of vinasse Beneficial due to the concentration of vinasse Rich in potassium, sulfur, nitrogen and organic matter, which improves the soil quality Rich in potassium, sulfur, nitrogen and organic matter, which improves the soil quality Profitable, since it reduces the demand for traditional fertilizers Profitable, since it reduces the demand for traditional fertilizers Information about the environment is necessary Information about the environment is necessary -Complete evaluation of soil -Location and distance of water bodies -Climatic characteristics

12 Methods of Treatment: Anaerobic Digestion Process used to treat vinasse Process used to treat vinasse Microbes oxygen to convert organic matter and nutrients to carbon dioxide and methane Microbes oxygen to convert organic matter and nutrients to carbon dioxide and methane -Acid-forming bacteria alter the organic material to low molecular weight compounds -Methane forming bacteria then convert to the low molecular weight compound, methane -In addition to methane and carbon dioxide, a liquid that is produced can be used as fertilizer

13 Production of Biogas Requires anaerobic digestion Requires anaerobic digestion Vinasse can produce 14,23 m 3 CH 4 m -3 of biogas per 1 m 3, which is higher than traditional materials used on farms for biogas production. Vinasse can produce 14,23 m 3 CH 4 m -3 of biogas per 1 m 3, which is higher than traditional materials used on farms for biogas production. Can be used as a secondary fuel source on the farm after ethanol Can be used as a secondary fuel source on the farm after ethanol

14 Amount of Biogas Generated from Vinasse Compared to Traditional Feedstock Sources

15 Calculations: Case Study Were performed to calculate the quantities of products produced on a small farm Were performed to calculate the quantities of products produced on a small farm The calculations were based on the following values: The calculations were based on the following values: -Capacity of still: L -Number of distillations per day: 2 -Percentage of alcohol in fermented juice: 8% -Sugarcane yield per hectare: 80 t/ha -Amount of juice per ton of cane: 600 L/t -Number of production days: 200 por ano

16 Calculations Additional information was required for the head, heart and tail sections of juice: Additional information was required for the head, heart and tail sections of juice: -The head is 15% of the alcohol volume with 65ºGL -The heart is 60% of the alcohol volume with 43ºGL -The tail is 25% of the alchohol volume with 35ºGL

17 Results: Alcohol Produced MaterialAmount produced per year Head7,200 L· year -1 Heart44,800 L· year -1 Tail22,800 L· year -1 Head (at 93ºGL )5,032 L· year -1 Heart (93ºGL )20,714 L· year -1 Tail (93ºGL )8,580 L· year -1 Alcohol produced from head and tail 13,612 L· year -1 Alcohol from all sections 34,323 L· year -1 Cachaça produced44,800 L per year

18 Results: Byproducts produced MaterialsQuantity produced Vinasse325,200 L· year -1 Biogas4, m 3 CH 4 m -3 · year -1 Bagasse198 t· year -1 Bagasse to be used as fuel (90% of bagasse) t· year -1 Bagasse to be used as animal feed19.8 t· year -1

19 Discussion: Case Study The results show that: The results show that: -Sustainability or at least reduced reliance on external sources can be achieved:  Fuel from ethanol, biogas and bagasse  Fertilizers from vinasse, composted bagasse, and liquids from anaerobic digestion  Feed from bagasse  Feed additive from vinasse

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21 Conclusion The process used for ethanol and cachaça production yield byproducts that can be used in small farm (vinasse and bagasse) The process used for ethanol and cachaça production yield byproducts that can be used in small farm (vinasse and bagasse) -All derivatives can be used, reducing waste and improving the sustainability -System that has a reduced environmental impact compared to industries The methods of treatment used to change vinasse are a main concern that will determine the overall effectiveness of the system. The methods of treatment used to change vinasse are a main concern that will determine the overall effectiveness of the system.

22 References Azimi, A., Zamanzadeh, M Determination of Design Criteria for USAB Reactors as a Wastewater Pretreatment System in Tropical Small Communities. International Journal of Environmental and Technology 1: Azimi, A., Zamanzadeh, M Determination of Design Criteria for USAB Reactors as a Wastewater Pretreatment System in Tropical Small Communities. International Journal of Environmental and Technology 1: Baez-Smith, C. Anaerobic Digestion of Vinasse for the Production of Methane in the Sugar Cane Distillery, in SPRI Conference on Sugar Processing, Baez-Smith, C. Anaerobic Digestion of Vinasse for the Production of Methane in the Sugar Cane Distillery, in SPRI Conference on Sugar Processing, Barbosa, E., Arruda, F., Pires, A., Silva,T., Sakai, E. n.d. Sugarcane Fertirrigated with Mineral Fertilizer and Vinasse Under Subsurface Drip Irrigation During Four Cycles. Barbosa, E., Arruda, F., Pires, A., Silva,T., Sakai, E. n.d. Sugarcane Fertirrigated with Mineral Fertilizer and Vinasse Under Subsurface Drip Irrigation During Four Cycles. Buckman, H. and Brady, N The Nature and Properties of Soils. United States: Macmillian Company. Buckman, H. and Brady, N The Nature and Properties of Soils. United States: Macmillian Company. Brasmetano. Comunição Pessoal In: Salomon, K., Lora, E Estimate of the Electric Energy Potential for Different Sources of Biogas in Brazil. Biomass and Bioenergy 33: Brasmetano. Comunição Pessoal In: Salomon, K., Lora, E Estimate of the Electric Energy Potential for Different Sources of Biogas in Brazil. Biomass and Bioenergy 33: Centro de Gestão e Estudos Estratégicos (CGEE) Sustainability of Sugarcane Bioenergy. Brazília, DF: Center for Strategic Studies and Management. Centro de Gestão e Estudos Estratégicos (CGEE) Sustainability of Sugarcane Bioenergy. Brazília, DF: Center for Strategic Studies and Management. Hidalgo, K. “Vinasse in Feed: Good for Animal and Environment,” All About Feed, 29 November 2009, (28 February 2013). Hidalgo, K. “Vinasse in Feed: Good for Animal and Environment,” All About Feed, 29 November 2009, (28 February 2013).

23 References Ingersoll Rand Microturbine. Ingersoll Rand Online. n.d. In: Salomon, K., Lora, E Estimate of the Electric Energy Potential for Different Sources of Biogas in Brazil. Biomass and Bioenergy 33: Ingersoll Rand Microturbine. Ingersoll Rand Online. n.d. In: Salomon, K., Lora, E Estimate of the Electric Energy Potential for Different Sources of Biogas in Brazil. Biomass and Bioenergy 33: Jiang, J., Sui, J., Wu, S., Yang, Y., Wang, L. Prospects of anaerobics Digestion Technology in China In: Salomon, K., Lora, E Estimate of the Electric Energy Potential for Different Sources of Biogas in Brazil. Biomass and Bioenergy 33: Jiang, J., Sui, J., Wu, S., Yang, Y., Wang, L. Prospects of anaerobics Digestion Technology in China In: Salomon, K., Lora, E Estimate of the Electric Energy Potential for Different Sources of Biogas in Brazil. Biomass and Bioenergy 33: Johansson, T., Kelly, H., Reddy, A., Williams, R. Renewable Energy Sources for Fuels and Electricity, 1993, In: Salomon, K., Lora, E Estimate of the Electric Energy Potential for Different Sources of Biogas in Brazil. Biomass and Bioenergy 33: Johansson, T., Kelly, H., Reddy, A., Williams, R. Renewable Energy Sources for Fuels and Electricity, 1993, In: Salomon, K., Lora, E Estimate of the Electric Energy Potential for Different Sources of Biogas in Brazil. Biomass and Bioenergy 33: Klein, L., Erichsen Jones, J., Hawkes, H., Downing, A. River Pollution II: Causes and Effects, In: Baez-Smith, C. Anaerobic Digestion of Vinasse for the Production of Methane in the Sugar Cane Distillery, in SPRI Conference on Sugar Processing, Klein, L., Erichsen Jones, J., Hawkes, H., Downing, A. River Pollution II: Causes and Effects, In: Baez-Smith, C. Anaerobic Digestion of Vinasse for the Production of Methane in the Sugar Cane Distillery, in SPRI Conference on Sugar Processing, Lal, R., Stewart, B Soil Properties and Water Quality. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 3. Lal, R., Stewart, B Soil Properties and Water Quality. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 3. Lamm, F., Camp, C. Subsurface Drip Irrigation, In: Barbosa, E., Arruda, F., Pires, A., Silva,T., Sakai, E. n.d. Sugarcane Fertirrigated with Mineral Fertilizer and Vinasse Under Subsurface Drip Irrigation During Four Cycles. Lamm, F., Camp, C. Subsurface Drip Irrigation, In: Barbosa, E., Arruda, F., Pires, A., Silva,T., Sakai, E. n.d. Sugarcane Fertirrigated with Mineral Fertilizer and Vinasse Under Subsurface Drip Irrigation During Four Cycles.

24 References Lamm, F.,Trooien, T. Subsurface Drip Irrigation for Corn Production: A Review of 10 Years of Research in Kansas, In: Barbosa, E., Arruda, F., Pires, A., Silva,T., Sakai, E. n.d. Sugarcane Fertirrigated with Mineral Fertilizer and Vinasse Under Subsurface Drip Irrigation During Four Cycles. Lamm, F.,Trooien, T. Subsurface Drip Irrigation for Corn Production: A Review of 10 Years of Research in Kansas, In: Barbosa, E., Arruda, F., Pires, A., Silva,T., Sakai, E. n.d. Sugarcane Fertirrigated with Mineral Fertilizer and Vinasse Under Subsurface Drip Irrigation During Four Cycles. Long, H. “Lesson 4: Aerobic and Anaerobic Digestion and Types of Decomposition,” n.d., (15 March 2013). Long, H. “Lesson 4: Aerobic and Anaerobic Digestion and Types of Decomposition,” n.d., (15 March 2013). Martinelli, L., Filoso, S Expansion of Sugarcane Ethanol Production in Brazil: Environmental and Social Changes. The Ecological Society of America 18: Martinelli, L., Filoso, S Expansion of Sugarcane Ethanol Production in Brazil: Environmental and Social Changes. The Ecological Society of America 18: Nation Non-Food Crops Centre (NNFCC) and The Andersons Centre (AC), Anaerobic Digestion, n.d., (4 March 2013). Nation Non-Food Crops Centre (NNFCC) and The Andersons Centre (AC), Anaerobic Digestion, n.d., (4 March 2013). Penn State University (PSU), Penn State Extension, 2013, (25 February 2013). Penn State University (PSU), Penn State Extension, 2013, (25 February 2013). Pires, R. and Ferreira, O Utilização da Vinhaça na Bio-Fertirrigação da Cultura da Cana-de-Açúcar: Estudo de Caso em Goiás. Pires, R. and Ferreira, O Utilização da Vinhaça na Bio-Fertirrigação da Cultura da Cana-de-Açúcar: Estudo de Caso em Goiás.

25 References Rangnekar, D. “Integration of Sugarcane and Milk Production in Western India,” FAO Corporate Document Repository, n.d., (20 March 2013). Rangnekar, D. “Integration of Sugarcane and Milk Production in Western India,” FAO Corporate Document Repository, n.d., (20 March 2013). Salomon, K., Lora, E Estimate of the Electric Energy Potential for Different Sources of Biogas in Brazil. Biomass and Bioenergy 33: Salomon, K., Lora, E Estimate of the Electric Energy Potential for Different Sources of Biogas in Brazil. Biomass and Bioenergy 33: Scholtes, F Status Quo and Prospects of Smallholders in the Brazilian Sugarcane and Ethanol Sector: Lessons for Development and Poverty Reduction. ZEF Working Paper Series, vol. 43. Bonn, Germany: University of Bonn: Center for Development Research Department of Political and Cultural Change. Scholtes, F Status Quo and Prospects of Smallholders in the Brazilian Sugarcane and Ethanol Sector: Lessons for Development and Poverty Reduction. ZEF Working Paper Series, vol. 43. Bonn, Germany: University of Bonn: Center for Development Research Department of Political and Cultural Change. Siemens, Siemens, 2011, (20 February 2013). Siemens, Siemens, 2011, (20 February 2013). Silva, M., Griebeler, N., Borges, L Uso de Vinhaça e Impactos nas Propriedades do Solo e Lençol Freático. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental 11: Silva, M., Griebeler, N., Borges, L Uso de Vinhaça e Impactos nas Propriedades do Solo e Lençol Freático. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental 11: Smeets, E., Junginger, M., Faaj, A., Walter, A., Dolzan, P Sustainability of Brazilian Bioethanol. TC Utrecht: Copernicus Institute: Department of Science, Technology, and Society. Smeets, E., Junginger, M., Faaj, A., Walter, A., Dolzan, P Sustainability of Brazilian Bioethanol. TC Utrecht: Copernicus Institute: Department of Science, Technology, and Society.

26 References Stepan, D. “The Breakdown of Anaerobic Digestion,” Biomass Magazine, n.d., (18 February 2013). Stepan, D. “The Breakdown of Anaerobic Digestion,” Biomass Magazine, n.d., (18 February 2013). Stout, B Energy of World Agriculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Stout, B Energy of World Agriculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Unica Production and Use of Fuel Ethanol in Brazil: Answers to the Most Frequently Asked Questions. São Paulo: Unica Unica Production and Use of Fuel Ethanol in Brazil: Answers to the Most Frequently Asked Questions. São Paulo: Unica United States Department of Energy (USDE) and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Fuel from Farms. Golden, CO: Technical Information Office: Solar Energy Research Institute. United States Department of Energy (USDE) and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Fuel from Farms. Golden, CO: Technical Information Office: Solar Energy Research Institute. Vitti, G., Luz, P., Altran, W Nutrition and Fertilization. In: Santos, F. (Ed.), Borém, A. (ED.), Caldas,C. (Ed. ), Sugarcane Bioenergy, Sugar and Ethanol: Technology and Prospects (67-111). Viçosa: Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Vitti, G., Luz, P., Altran, W Nutrition and Fertilization. In: Santos, F. (Ed.), Borém, A. (ED.), Caldas,C. (Ed. ), Sugarcane Bioenergy, Sugar and Ethanol: Technology and Prospects (67-111). Viçosa: Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Vasconcelos, J Ethanol Fermentation. In: Santos, F. (Ed.), Borém, A. (ED.), Caldas,C. (Ed. ), Sugarcane Bioenergy, Sugar and Ethanol: Technology and Prospects ( ). Viçosa: Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Vasconcelos, J Ethanol Fermentation. In: Santos, F. (Ed.), Borém, A. (ED.), Caldas,C. (Ed. ), Sugarcane Bioenergy, Sugar and Ethanol: Technology and Prospects ( ). Viçosa: Universidade Federal de Viçosa.

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