Presentation on theme: "Creating Stigma-Free Health Facilities: Lack of HIV Care Policies, Protocols, Materials Exacerbate Health Worker Fear of HIV Transmission and Stigmatizing."— Presentation transcript:
Creating Stigma-Free Health Facilities: Lack of HIV Care Policies, Protocols, Materials Exacerbate Health Worker Fear of HIV Transmission and Stigmatizing Avoidance Behaviors: Evidence from Six Countries Laura Nyblade, Aparna Jain, Manal Benkirane, Li Li, Anna- Leena Lohiniva, Roger McLean, Janet M. Turan, Nelson Varas-Díaz July 21 st, 2014
Collaborative implementation and funding effort Overall Coordination Health Policy Project USAID; AID-OAA-A-10- 00067 (includes PEPFAR) ChinaUCLANIMH; R01MH081778-04S1 Dominica University of the West Indies & HPP USAID; AID-OAA-A-10-00067 (includes PEPFAR) Egypt U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit Ford Foundation Kenya University of Alabama at Birmingham, KEMRI & HPP USAID; AID-OAA-A-10-00067 (includes PEPFAR) Puerto RicoUniversity of Puerto RicoNIMH; 1R01MH080694 St. Christopher & Nevis University of the West Indies & HPP USAID; AID-OAA-A-10-00067 (includes PEPFAR)
Stigma is directly related to three of the WHO health system building blocks Service delivery: quality; demand for care; access; uptake and retention; equity Health workforce: norms; standards; retention Leadership and governance: policies; procedures; oversight and regulation Health system factors can cause stigma Perceived lack of confidentiality and poor attitude of health personnel was a barrier to HIV testing ( Musheke et al, 2013) Health system factors can moderate stigma & its negative influence on key health outcomes Compassionate providers, supportive clinical environment for patients, clinical programs designed to address care for the entire family mitigated the effect of stigma on ART adherence (Katz et al., 2013) Why Stigma & Health Systems?
Forms of stigma Avoidance behaviors (e.g. double gloves, selective use of gloves) Enacted stigma (denial of services, lower quality of care, breaches of confidentiality, verbal abuse & gossip) Secondary stigma experienced by health facility staff Key drivers of stigma within facilities Lack of awareness of what stigma is and what it does Attitudes Worry about HIV transmission Health facility environment Stigma within health facilities
HPP-led consortium of international stakeholders developed, field-tested, and refined a brief measurement tool Field-tested in six sites China, Dominica, Egypt, Kenya, Puerto Rico, St. Christopher & Nevis Self and interviewer administered Range of facilities, varied by site Both clinical and non-clinical staff N ranged from 300 – 350 per site Total sample size: 1,893 (72% female) Background
Q.1: What is the relationship between facility environment and worry about HIV infection on the job Dependent variable: Worry about acquiring HIV in job functions Predictor: Health facility environment Q.2: What is the relationship between worry about HIV infection on the job and self-reporting stigmatizing avoidance behaviors Dependent variable: Stigmatizing avoidance behaviors Predictor: Worry about acquiring HIV in job functions Multivariate logistic regressions adjusted for background characteristics Models adjusted for staff type, age, education, sex and country Key questions
Worry about acquiring HIV in job functions: Items with potential risk of HIV transmission
Multivariate logistic regression: Health facility environment on worry Predictor Model 1 (n=814) 1 OR (CI) Support on none or one item1.00 Support on two items0. 73 (0.43, 1.25) Support on all items 0.53 (0.31,0.90)* *p-value < 0.05 1 Worry items with potential risk of HIV transmission 2 Worry items with no risk of HIV transmission Models adjusted for staff type, age, education, sex and country
Multivariate logistic regression: Worry on avoidance behaviors Model 1 (n=659) 1 Predictor OR (CI) Not worried 1.00 Worried 1.88 (1.30, 2.73)** *p-value < 0.05 ** p-value < 0.001 1 Worry items with potential risk of HIV transmission 2 Worry items with no risk of HIV transmission Models adjusted for staff type, age, education, sex and country
Health system factors can drive or moderate stigma Health facility environment can influence staff worry about HIV transmission Worry in turn is related to stigmatizing avoidance behaviors that can lead to HIV status disclosure Stigma can undermine health systems & health outcomes Quality of care, access, equity Uptake of HIV testing, linkage to ART care, adherence Stigma matters to health systems
Make stigma an explicit component of quality by: Including stigma indicators in quality assessments Integrating stigma-reduction into quality-improvement processes Incorporate stigma-reduction into: Training—pre and in-service (for all staff) Licensing and accreditation for individuals & facilities Performance assessment & supervision Ensure guidelines, standards, policies support provision of stigma-free services & non-discriminatory care Stigma-reduction tools and measures for health facilities exist Participatory stigma-reduction training materials Administrators guide Standardized measures & approved indicators Action is possible
www.healthpolicyproject.com Tools are available in English, Arabic, Chinese, Kiswahili, and Spanish Questionnaires are available from the Health Policy Project website: http://www.healthpolicyproject.com?zp=49 The Health Policy Project is a five-year cooperative agreement funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development under Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-10-00067, beginning September 30, 2010. The project’s HIV activities are supported by the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It is implemented by Futures Group, in collaboration with Plan International USA, Futures Institute, Partners in Population and Development, Africa Regional Office (PPD ARO), Population Reference Bureau (PRB), RTI International, and the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood (WRA).