Presentation on theme: "Karst Environments. What is Karst? Different Types of Karst Timpanogos Cave National Monument has many different types of Karst that are found with in."— Presentation transcript:
What is Karst?
Different Types of Karst Timpanogos Cave National Monument has many different types of Karst that are found with in the monument. They are: ◦Sink holes ◦Springs ◦Disappearing streams ◦Caves
Sink Holes Groundwater dissolves soluble rock, creating fractures and caves. Dissolving continues to form larger caves and fractures. Eventually the earth will give way and create a hole in the ground.
American Fork Canyon has many different springs, the most prominent of which are seen at Cascade Springs. Springs are underground streams that will eventually flow through holes in the stone or earth. Springs
Disappearing Streams A disappearing stream occurs when stream flow disappears into underlying limestone bedrock. Timpanogos Cave was formed by an under ground stream.
Caves Caves are one of the most prominent and infamous Karst Environments. Caves are formed by several different steps. First, a disappearing stream will bring Carbonic Acid (a weak acid found in soil) dissolving the limestone away. Next, the water will bring a mineral called Calcite into the cave. When water enters the cave it deposits the Calcite behind as it continues to drip and flow. Timpanogos Cave has many different formations throughout the cave system that are formed by water and Calcite.
Salt Block Caves Experiment Objective: You will see how a cave is carved into soluble rock by moving water. Materials Each group will need: 3 salt blocks Large cup of water A rag Large rubber bands Sink or a large plastic tub Handful of stones Steps Predict where the water is going to go. Set one salt block inside the tub on its long side. Prop up one end with the stones so only one corner is resting on the bottom of the tub. Place the other two salt blocks side by side at the long side. Put rubber bands around the salt blocks to hold them together. Set them on top of the other salt block inside the tub. Place a rag in a cup of water with one end sticking out over the side. Very slowly tilt the cup and rag to drip water onto the top of the two salt blocks. Only a few drips a minute works best. Set the cup so that the rag hangs above the salt blocks. Allow the water to drip for at least overnight. Remove the rubber bands and open up the blocks to see the cave. Conclusion Draw and label a diagram of the cave Write sequence cards describing what happened
Sink hole and cave experiment Objective Watch how water dissolves different minerals causing the earth to sink. Materials Styrofoam cup Larger cup that will hold the foam cup with some extra space Water Sugar Sand Small cardboard tube(smaller than a toilet paper roll) Scissors Circular piece of foam big enough to fit into the bottom of the Styrofoam cup Steps Put the piece of foam into the bottom of the Styrofoam cup. Place the cardboard tube into the center of the cup and fill it a quarter of the way with sugar. Holding the tube tight against the bottom of the cup, pour sand around the tube, filling the cup. Gently pull out the cardboard tube. Fill the larger cup a quarter of the way with warm water. Place the Styrofoam cup into the water. Watch for a sinkhole to occur. Conclusion What causes this to happen? How would it be different if you used cold water?