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Berlin - Wednesday, 16.07.2003 „Transboundary Watermanagement“ 14 - 24 July Workshop on.

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Presentation on theme: "Berlin - Wednesday, 16.07.2003 „Transboundary Watermanagement“ 14 - 24 July Workshop on."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Berlin - Wednesday, „Transboundary Watermanagement“ July Workshop on

3 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH ”Conflicts Between Modern and Traditional Irrigation Methods as a Result of Population Growth and misspended investments in Arid Areas". Todays Topic of Conversation and Discussion: 1

4 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 2 As we all know: “Irrigation is essential for food production... especially in semi-arid and arid zones with above average population growth.” FAO

5 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH At present one-sixth of the agricultural land in the world is irrigated and provides more than one-third of global food production. 3 source: FAO

6 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH The food requirements of an ever-increasing world population higher necessitate agricultural production, a large share of which comes from irrigated lands, especially true in arid zones. 4

7 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 5 At approximately 80 to 87% of all the available freshwater supply is used for agriculture and food production.” Therefore, only 13 to 20% is available for domestic and industrial requirements. source: FAO

8 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 6 The efficiency of water in agricultural production is, however, low. Only 40 to 60% of the water is effectively used by crop, the remainder of the water is lost in the system, in the farm or on the field, either through evaporation, through runoff to the drainage system, or by percolation into the groundwater. source: FAO, UN-WWDR 2003

9 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 7 What does it mean: efficiency? In general, the term is used to quantify the relative output obtainable from a given input (e.g. investment or water). The Term „on-farm application efficiency“ or „field application efficiency“ generally refers to the fraction of the water volume applied to a farm or a field that is „consumed“ by a crop, relative to the amount applied. „In actual practice, however, the water reported to be „consumed“ in the field consists of actual EVAPOTRANSPIRATION [incl. Interception - but without percolation!].“ The Term „Crop Water Use Efficiency“ (WUE) is a physiological index and should be used. The relevant measure is the response of crop to irrigation as total biomass produced (above-ground dry matter!) per unit mass of water taken.

10 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 8 source: FAO, UN-WWDR 2003 There is much evidence that, in a given climate, the growth of many crops is directly related to the amount of water they transpire, AND to the ratio of biomass below and above surface. Therefore, deep rooting crops will have a lower WUE. What does it mean: efficiency?

11 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 9 Poor management of irrigation water is one of the principal reasons for this low water use efficiency in irrigation. A range of environmental problems are linked to ineffective water use, such as waterlogging, leaching of agro-chemicals and consequent ground water pollution, as well as soil and ground water salinization resulting from inappropriate applications.

12 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 10 Studies on the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have generally neglected the link between economic growth and environmental quality.

13 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 11 The key to SSA future is to achieve long-term sustainable growth and not to implement and focus on showcase “white elephant” type expensive technologies (e.g. high-tech irrigation systems) developed under differing climatic, socio-economic conditions of HDCs (Highly Developed Countries). Frequently, that was a costly fallacy!

14 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 12 The quite recently launched Human Development Report (HDR-UNDP, July 8 th 2003) emphasized in particular the self-responsibility and self-determination of LDCs, especially their farmers with their knowledge of adapted irrigation systems as a key issue for successful developments in the future.

15 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 13 Complementary assistance comes from the FAO: „Key decision makers have tended to favour high-visibility projects with impressive works [ e.g. large Dam Projects, large-scale Center-Pivot sprinkler systems, large group well constructions for ground water utilization ],

16 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 14 while neglecting the more modest needs of indigenous farm units, as well as the issues of reconstruction of traditional irrigation systems, of modification, of training and maintenance that are of interest to lower-lever personel without decision-making power.“

17 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 15 Lessons learned from several Case Studies, UNDP-, UN-WWD- and FAO Reports and keys to success Essential Elements to move towards integrated water resources management relate to: Institutional change, Comprehensive, radical reform of irrigation managment, e.g. turnover to Water User Associations, Integrated, ecologically prooved basin-wide approach, The knowledge base and knowledge transfer, Education, communication and participation, Self-responsibility and self-determination of farmers.

18 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 15a Lessons learned from several Case Studies, UNDP-, UN-WWD- and FAO Reports and keys to success Essential Elements to move towards integrated water resources management relate to: Because of population growth in SSA the traditional rain-fed agriculture can not longer feed the people. Water Harvesting holds an intermittent status between rain-fed and irrigated agriculture ( in respect of Production Costs, Cash Crops / Cash Income, Crop Yields, Salinity Hazard, Reliability of Water Supply). The likewise traditional Water Harvesting System is three times more effective than rain-fed agriculture.

19 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 15b You wish to know something more about advanced techniques of Rain Water Harvesting for Crop Production? Please, visit the FAO Training Course in the Internet! The most complete and detailed „How-To Manual“ available. Strongly recommended ! URL:

20 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 16 Bambo drip-Irrigation system in West Sumatra Water harvesting system with catchment area Ground water for irrigation in the desert Modern vs. Traditional Water Harvesting and Irrigation Methods

21 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 17 Only a selection: source: Dabane Trust Water Workshop Group construction of a sub-surface water harvesting tank in Zimbabwe. : Rain water harvesting with micro/macro catchment areas and flood water harvesting (since thousands of years) Traditional Irrigation and Water Harvesting in Arid Areas

22 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 18 : Hand-dug wells (e.g. Qanats and horizontal wells, since thousands of years) Only a selection: Horizontal Tunnel Traditional Irrigation and Water Harvesting in Arid Areas

23 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 19 : Runoff Collection + Cisterns (Near East, North Africa, since thousands of years) Traditional Irrigation and Water Harvesting in Arid Areas This below surface building could be in Italy, Libya, Palestine, Turkey, etc. typical for flat country or in mountains Actually, thousands of Cisterns of different types are ruined and, therefore un-used. Greece & Roman Cisterns around the Mediterranean. Indian Cistern Only a selection:

24 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 20 : Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting (Near East, North Africa, India, etc. since thousands of years) Only a selection: source: cgwaindia Traditional Irrigation and Water Harvesting in Arid Areas

25 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 21 : Runoff agriculture (involves rain water harvesting, since thousands of years) Only a selection: source: www - WDDA / Israel Traditional Irrigation and Water Harvesting in Semi-Arid Areas

26 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 22 Only a selection: source (mod.): www - Wag. Univ. Env. Sci. Runoff water harvesting during the rainy season to bypass the dry season. The deeper the soil the better it is suited as cropping area. runoff collection infiltration Traditional Irrigation and Water Harvesting in Arid Areas : Runoff Collection (e.g. also good to built up artificial ground water bodies, S- Medit. area).

27 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 23 : Canal irrigation (e.g. Iraq, since thousands of years) Only a selection: Traditional Irrigation and Water Harvesting in Arid Areas

28 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 23a : Canal irrigation with Archimedes‘ Screw (e.g. Iraq, Egypt, since thousands of years) Only a selection: Traditional Irrigation and Water Harvesting in Semi-Arid Areas ( BD) It was first used to pump water out of ships and was later used in irrigation.

29 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 24 Traditional Irrigation and Water Harvesting in Arid Areas : Pits and open wells (e.g. India, Central Africa, since thousands of years) Only a selection: Artificial pits / India source: ROPE/UK Open well in Tanzania with unclean and unsanitary water. Open well in Zambia proving water for cattle in the dry season. source: iirr.org

30 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 24 Traditional Irrigation and Water Harvesting in Arid Areas : „ZAY“ pitting holes (since thousands of years) Only a selection: source: FAO copied witout permision!

31 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 25 : Porous clay jars (Near East, North Africa, India, etc. since thousands of years) Only a selection: Traditional Irrigation and Water Harvesting in Arid Areas

32 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 26 : Furrow irrigation (SE-Asia, Central Africa, India, etc. since thousands of years) Only a selection: Irian Jaya (Indonesia) and Papua New Guinea) Photos: Kehl 1989 Traditional Irrigation and Water Harvesting in Wed Areas The entire root zone is wetted to near-saturation (source: FAO)

33 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 27 : Flood and basin irrigation (SE-Asia, Central Africa, India, etc. since thousands of years) Only a selection: Flood and basin irrigation wets the entire root zone to saturation (source: FAO) Central Madagacar (near Antanarivo) photo: Kehl 2002 Traditional Irrigation and Water Harvesting in Semi-Arid Areas

34 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 28 : Flood water harvesting (SE-Asia, Egypt in ancient time, India, etc. since thousands of years) Only a selection: Flood irrigation wets the entire root zone to saturation (source: FAO) Pakistan (Ganges Delta) source: Global Change GEO Traditional Irrigation and Water Harvesting - Flood Water

35 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 29 Only a selection: Drip irrigation wets precisely the root zone to saturation (source: CSE-India) : Drip irrigation with bamboo pipes (SE-Asia, India, etc. since thousands of years) Traditional Irrigation and Water Harvesting in Wet Areas

36 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 30 Modern Irrigation Methods in Semi-Arid and Semi-Arid Zones Only a selection: : Fog catcher (for harvesting dew - Chile, Ecuador - at present experiments) Ecuador - high mountains The dark sheets suspended in the path of the moving cloud condense it.

37 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 31 Only a selection: : Sprinkler irrigation (e.g. portable, solid, travelling sprinklers, center pivot systems - high pressure / low pressure, etc. utilizing clean (!) ground or surface water). Center Pivot System Technical very ambitious! Water Use Efficiency (WUE) of high pressure systems about 65 to 75%, depending on air humidity and wind. Modern Irrigation Methods in Semi-Arid and Arid Zones

38 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 32 Only a selection: : Surface Irrigation, Auto Flood and Flood (e.g. wild flooding, contour flooding, borders, channel, basin, etc.). Small diameter pipes used to convey water over the channel embankment (source: FAO) E.g. Channel Bank Irrigation WUE is about 45% Modern Irrigation Methods in Semi-Arid to Wet Zones

39 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 33 : Localized Irrigation (e.g. drip resp. trickle, subsurface drip, bubblers, micro- sprinklers etc.). fig.source: FAO Modern Irrigation Methods in Semi-Arid and Semi-Arid Zones A) Surface Drip Irrigation Water Use Efficiency (WUE) is about 97% e.g. four emitter or dripper for trees Only a selection: e.g. one emitter for outdoor vegetable

40 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 34 Only a selection: : Localized Irrigation (e.g. drip resp. trickle, subsurface drip, bubblers, micro- sprinklers etc.). B) Water Use Efficiency (WUE) is about 97% Modern Irrigation Methods in Semi-Arid and Arid Zones

41 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 35 Only a selection: : Localized Irrigation (e.g. drip resp. trickle, subsurface drip, bubblers, micro- sprinklers etc.). C) Water Use Efficiency (WUE) is about 97% Modern Irrigation Methods in Semi-Arid and Arid Zones

42 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH Soil Water Availability for Plants - some Basics: Plant available water coarse texture fine texture (e.g. loam) fixed water not available lost water runoff percolation 35a

43 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 36 Effects of Traditional & Modern Irrigation Methods: : Soils developed under arid and semi-arid conditions can be changed irreversible by irrigation, solely the soil structure is more fragile than anywhere. Only a selection: : Soil structure and soil texture also have an impact on and thus on water management efficiency: water losses from evaporation or runoff are either reduced or increased when soil structure is modified. : The problem of Salinization occurs with nearly any type of irrigation in arid zones. Especially with sprinkler irrigation and loamy soils. : Generally, on a long-term basis, large-scale sprinkler irrigation is a delicate tool that can endanger the farming system's sustainability (long-term profitability) instead of increasing it: : Potentially, it can shrink the biodiversity, cause irreversible soil property changes, can dry out underground and surface water resources, and last but not least, it can be too expensive for forthcoming generations.

44 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 37 The General Pre-Condition for Arid Areas Salinization are most commonly associated with excessive water application, rather than with too little! SALINIZATION = Land Degradation = Productivity is Diminished: The Salinization refers to a build up of salts in soil, eventually to toxic levels for plants. 3, ,000 ppm salt results in trouble for most cultivated plants. Salt in soils decreases the osmotic potential of the soil so that plants can't take up water from it. When soils are salty, the soil has greater concentrations of solute than does the root, so plants can't get water from soil. The salts can also be directly toxic, but plant troubles usually result primarily from inability to take up water from salty soils.

45 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 38 The General Pre-Condition for Arid Areas : Salinization may occur with nearly any type of irrigation! The High Assuan Dam made year-round irrigation possible (and necessary!!) and prevented the annual floods, which led to increased salinization in the land irrigated by the canal system. Therefore, leaching and drainage takes additional water (Dregne, 1983; El Baz, 1988; Goossens et al., 1994; Mainguet, 1994). Source (partly, and modified): ICS-France 2003 Large areas around the Egyptian Oasis Kharga and Dahkla became unproductive through irrigation mismangement with fossil water. Additionally, although best available irrigation technologies have been implemented in the Wadi Natrun area (N-Egypt) repeated cycles of groundwater led to toxic brackish water tables. EGYPT: SALINIZATION = Land Degradation = Productivity is Diminished:

46 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 39 The General Pre-Condition for Arid Areas : Salinization may occur with nearly any type of irrigation! In Iraq, there is a historical record of salinization caused by canal irrigation between and B.D., and this problem has recurred at intervals through the present (Dregne, 1983). Source (partly, and modified): UNESCO 2003 Iraq: About million hectares (ha) of land is cultivable. However, FAO estimates for 1998 reveal that only 5.5 million ha is put under cultivation due to soil salinity, fallow practices and the unstable political situation. 64% of the cultivated land was irrigated. Agricultural water withdrawals accounted for 52% of total renewable water resources. SALINIZATION = Land Degradation = Productivity is Diminished:

47 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 40 General Pre-Conditions and Limitations for Arid Areas  As it has been mentioned yesterday, between 1980 and 1995, Saudi Arabia consumed 75% of the proven reserves of fossil ground water in its major aquifers to irrigate wheat crops. FTGW, 1997  Libya (Great Man-Made River) and Egypt (New Valley resp. Toshka Agribusiness Mega-Project) both, are on the way to use up their huge - but limited (!) - non-renewable fossil ground water reserves. ! RISK: The overutilization of limited (fossil) ground water resources... Limited Ground Water Resources:

48 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 41 General Pre-Conditions and Limitations for Arid Areas ! RISK: Evaporation losses of limited surface water through dams... E.g.: The water loss from Lake Nasser in the South of Egypt is one of the national problems... the evaporated water range between 10 to 16 billion m³/y which represent 20 to 30% of the Egyptian income from Nile water. Mosalam Shaltout & El Housry, 1996 Limited Surface Water Resources:

49 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 42 Just enough is best! "It is the universal fallacy of humans to assume that if a little of something is good, then more must be better. In irrigation (as indeed in many other activities), just enough is best." (Prof. Daniel Hillel in FAO Publ. 1997). As we have seen, agriculture is the highest fresh water consumer, especially in arid zones with LDCs. Therefore future agricultural extension policy must focus predominantly and early enough on Impact Assessment AND long-term Economic Evaluation of water harvesting techniques in arid zones.

50 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 43 AND: New is not always better. Water from "improved wells" is often only marginally better in quality than water from traditional sources — and it generally demands a costly or risky change in management techniques.

51 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 44 AND: Monitoring is important: to determine the nature and extent of change; to see if technical results match expectations; and to tell whether new management methods are actually adopted.

52 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 45 IDRC (International Development Research Center) - supported research has explored the use of non-governmental “social auditors“. These community leaders identify interests and arguments that might not otherwise be heard. They also stimulate debate and discussion within and between communities.

53 WATER THE KEY RESOURCE Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 46 Re-Adaptation to the Environment Environmental Services Goods and Services Impacts Labor and Institutions Natural Resources Environ- ment Land Climate Hydrology Ecosystems Biota Agriculture Households Industry Transport Services Society Population, Lifestyle, Culture, Governance, Policies The Tripartite Inter-Relationship adapted from Gallopin & Raskin 2002 IMPACTS & SERVICES Economy

54 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 45 Consequences for arid areas with low annual precipitation amounts and potentially high evaporation : Any given environment can spend only a limited service for a limited population. It is embodied by the carrying capacity of its ecosystems, manifested and indicated by long-term adapted plants and animals through a long- lasting evolution. It is therefore, and once more, essential to understand and monitor these ecosystems. : The given natural vegetation of arid and semi-arid zones indicate its possible durability and simultaneously its utilization (and possible impact!) by human beeings and their economy.

55 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 45 Consequences for arid areas with low annual precipitation amounts and potentially high evaporation : If the only renewable and most essential water source is RAIN, it is also essential to prevent it from - every - non- productive evaporation. : Therefore rain water has to be carefully harvested and protected below the soil surface. The same is true for flood water which should be guided to sites with favourable (infiltratable) soil conditions for crops. : Generally, a set of different and advanced techniques suitable for small-scale water management should be applied.

56 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 45 Consequences for arid areas with low annual precipitation amounts and potentially high evaporation : If ground water discharge is necessary during the dry season a recharge during the wet season is a precondition for a long-term sustainability of the given ecosystem. : And last but not least, affortable and sustainable agriculture in arid areas needs a high intensity of labour, as it has been since ancient times. It is adequate for self- sufficiency and can provide additional food for local markets.

57 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 47 What criteria and options for appropriate irrigation methods have been choosen and implemented in your - different - countries to ensure a sustainable ecosystem management? What are the ecological effects on native vegetation of large-scale and small- scale irrigation projects? Questions and Discussion of Today What kind of co-operation between dicision-makers and affected low-level people (especially village-level institutions) is possible and what has been realized? What are the main problems?


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