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Making useful things happen On-Site Irrigation Evaluation Dan Bloomer Page Bloomer Associates.

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Presentation on theme: "Making useful things happen On-Site Irrigation Evaluation Dan Bloomer Page Bloomer Associates."— Presentation transcript:

1 making useful things happen On-Site Irrigation Evaluation Dan Bloomer Page Bloomer Associates

2 Page Bloomer Associates – On-Site Irrigation Evaluation SFF Project –Code of Practice –IRRIG8 support software –National Certificate in Irrigation Evaluation –Training programmes –Certified practitioners

3 Page Bloomer Associates – Keys to improving performance Measure what is actually happening Determine causes of low performance Propose solutions At an affordable cost

4 Page Bloomer Associates – Code of Practice for Irrigation Evaluation Schedules and protocols –Distribution Uniformity and Application Efficiency –Seasonal Irrigation Efficiency –Other KPI assessments IRRIG8 Support software –Standardises data processing –Completes repetitive calculations –Avoids errors and reduces costs –Generates standardised reports

5 Page Bloomer Associates – What are we trying to achieve? Improved irrigation efficiency –Crop per litre –Crop per dollar Better system performance –Water use efficiency –Energy efficiency Better irrigation management –Correct scheduling –Minimum environmental impact

6 Page Bloomer Associates – Key Performance Indicators KPI’s Shared with CoP Irrigation Design Water use Efficiency –Distribution Uniformity –Application Efficiency Effectiveness –Potential Soil Moisture Deficit Compliance Environment Application Efficiency Deep percolation Energy kWhr/ha/mm Labour Capital

7 Page Bloomer Associates – Application Efficiency How much water applied was stored in the soil and available to plants? Potential AE for a single event –Estimate from DU, applied depth and soil AWC

8 Page Bloomer Associates – Application Efficiency Water Stored in Root Zone (mm) Total Water Applied (mm) Compares water used for growth with total water used Requires knowledge of: –soil moisture holding –crop water use –water inputs – rain and irrigation

9 Page Bloomer Associates – Potential Application Efficiencies percent efficiency Solid Set Rotating Boom Fixed Boom Travelling Gun Centre Pivot Linear Move *Multiple sprayline Side Roll Drip Microspray Bubbler Low Head Basin Paddy Basin Border Strip Furrow Modern Furrow Adapted from A.J. Clemmens Assuming enough irrigation is applied to adequately water 7/8ths of the field

10 Page Bloomer Associates – Distribution Uniformity Sets capacity for Efficient and Effective Irrigation How evenly is the water applied to the plants? –A single event measurement –Consider smallest area that needs adequate watering; each vine, tree, wheat/grass plant Measures –Christiansen Uniformity CU –Distribution Uniformity DU –Emission Uniformity EU

11 Page Bloomer Associates – Irrigation is Not Uniform Ineffective Inefficient

12 Page Bloomer Associates – Distribution Uniformity Irrigation is not uniform Irrigate to adequately water most of the crop –Some will be too wet, some too dry –Try to minimise the difference Low quarter uniformity, DU lq –Compare mean of low quarter to overall mean –Schedule irrigation depth based on DU lq –Implies 7/8 ths will get enough or more Raise DU lq from 0.70 to 0.90 –Water half as much again for same volume of water –Or save one third of water and power

13 Page Bloomer Associates – Low quarter Distribution Uniformity

14 Page Bloomer Associates – DUlq = 0.90 Total flow = 9600ml Low quarter mean = 540 ml Overall mean = 600ml DUlq = 540/600 = 0.90 To water 7/8 with > 3,000ml Apply 3,000ml/0.9 = 3,335ml Total needed = 53,360ml Wastage = 5,360ml (enough for 1.8 more plants)

15 Page Bloomer Associates – DUlq = 0.50 Total flow = 9600ml Low quarter mean = 300ml Overall mean = 600ml DUlq = 300/600 = 0.50 To water 7/8 with > 3,000ml Apply 3,000ml/0.50 = 6,000ml Total for16 plant s = 96,000ml Wastage = 48,000ml (enough for 16 more plants)

16 Page Bloomer Associates –

17 Linear move Application Uniformity (DUlq) = 0.88 To adequately water 7/8ths apply 13% extra Project no

18 Page Bloomer Associates –

19 Centre Pivot Application Uniformity (DUlq) = 0.72 To adequately water 7/8ths apply 39% extra

20 Page Bloomer Associates –

21 Centre Pivot Distribution Pattern DUlq = 0.72 DUlq = 0.96

22 Page Bloomer Associates – Surface ponding often apparent toward end of machines. Instantaneous application rate exceeds soil infiltration rate, - redistribution will lower actual uniformity further

23 Page Bloomer Associates – From Nelson Irrigation: Pivot Pocket Guide Water Application Rate mm/hr

24 Page Bloomer Associates – Traveller with Fixed Boom Project no Application Uniformity (DUlq)0.82 No overlapWith overlap

25 Page Bloomer Associates – Traveller with Fixed Boom

26 Page Bloomer Associates – Traveller with Rotating Boom Project no Application Uniformity (DUlq)0.84 No overlapWith overlap

27 Page Bloomer Associates – Traveller with Rotating Boom

28 Page Bloomer Associates –

29 Excessive application led to ponding, runoff and the excess was drained away.

30 Page Bloomer Associates – Multiple lateral sprayline Project no

31 Page Bloomer Associates – K-Line Optimising Irrigation System Performance and Management

32 Page Bloomer Associates – Multiple lateral sprayline Application Uniformity (DUlq)0.4 Project no Depths after 1 hour test, normal run time 24 hours To adequately water 7/8ths apply 250 % extra Not overlappedOverlapped

33 Page Bloomer Associates – K-Line Wind Effects Project no Depths after 1 hour test, normal run time 24 hoursDepths after 2 hour test, normal run time 11 hours No Wind Not overlapped Wind from left Not overlapped

34 Page Bloomer Associates – K-Line Wind Effects Project no Depths after 1 hour test, normal run time 24 hoursDepths after 2 hour test, normal run time 11 hours No Wind Overlapped Wind from left Overlapped

35 Page Bloomer Associates – K-Line Spacing Effects Optimising Irrigation System Performance and Management Lane Spacing is Very Important Lane Spacing Grid DUField DU 12m m m m All use same pressure variation factor

36 Page Bloomer Associates – Drip/Micro Irrigation Issues System does not water entire soil volume –Typically no overlapping –Nozzle plugging –Low pressures –Elevation changes –Pressure reg differences –Poorly controlled pressures –Unequal drainage

37 Page Bloomer Associates – Drip-Micro Uniformity Assessment Key measurements –Flows from selected emitters –Pressures across system –System layout/emitter spacings –Uneven drainage

38 Page Bloomer Associates – Drip-Micro Irrigation Typical system layout

39 Page Bloomer Associates – Measuring sprinkler flows

40 Page Bloomer Associates – Drip-Micro Irrigation Pressure measurement

41 Page Bloomer Associates –

42 Inspect the inside of some sprinklers

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46 What are the main inefficiencies? Loss componentRangeTypical Leaking pipes0-10%0-1% Evaporation in the air0-10%<3% Wind blowing water off target (drift)0-20%<5% Interception (canopy losses)0-10%<5% Surface runoff (spray irrigation)0-10%<2% Uneven application or excessive application depths and rates 5-80%5-30% Lincoln Environmental Data

47 Page Bloomer Associates – Seasonal Irrigation Efficiency Assess scheduling decisions –Account for: Distribution Uniformity Climate Crop type and stage Soil type –Key Performance Indicators Seasonal application efficiency Potential soil moisture deficit Deep percolation resulting from irrigation Estimate value of wasted energy and lost yields

48 Page Bloomer Associates – Seasonal Irrigation Efficiency What is your management like? –Few have the farm data needed No water use data No power use data No irrigation application data No rain or ET data

49 Page Bloomer Associates –

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51 Irrigation Evaluation Assessment of system performance –Real measurements –At critical points –On a given day –That represents normal operation Evaluation of management –Reported system operation –Climatic variables –A given crop –A given soil type Recommendations

52 Page Bloomer Associates – On Site Irrigation Evaluation Dan Bloomer Page Bloomer Associates 20 Selwyn Rd NAPIER Phone Mobile More on our website


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