Presentation on theme: "Water diplomacy & future challenges in the Middle East Saul Arlosoroff (Director & Consultant) ( Ph. 972-3-6483279)"— Presentation transcript:
Water diplomacy & future challenges in the Middle East Saul Arlosoroff (Director & Consultant) ( Ph ) Uiniversity of Tweente Oct. 18 – 21/2011 Water energy & Climate conference Enschede The Netherlands
Summary of Middle East Conflict Two nations fighting over a small piece of land. One carrying history of ancient land, Kingdom of the Bible, exile by Rome - longing for its home. Second – 6 th century conquest by the Arab Empire, growing into a nation along time. 100 years of disputes between the two, zionist’s movement promoting return of Jews, before and after the Holocaust, facing the Palestinians who occupied the land for Centuries.
Diplomacy :Track 1- Formal Track 2 – NGOs Background : WWI & WWII – decisive ends of wars, non- negotiated agreements – resentment, strong leaderships.1945 agreements leading to democracies in Germany and Japan – end of conflict. (new conflict – cold war). Middle East: 1948, 1967, 1973 wars – formal negotiations non decisive results, internal politics constrain real progress. Active participation of NGO – “Oslo agreement “
Israeli - Palestinian Dispute (Track II) Promoting process Active NGO’s participation: (joint groups) “Oslo accord” “Peace and security group” “Peace now” “Friends of the Earth – Middle East” “IPCRI” and others " Geneva Accord – latest peace proposal” Formal negotiations and agreements are indispensible
Proposed map of Borders Geneva Accord
Map of proposed territory exchanges
J erusalem – Details of Roads
“GENEVA ACCORD ” Summary of Joint Peace Proposal * Borders, based on 1967 lines with 3-5% of area,swapped between the sides, * Jerusalem, capital of the 2 countries, all East Jerusalem to be returned, Holy City-divided Jewish quarter and Wailing Wall to Israel, *Refugees, to be returned to the Palestinian state, financial support by international donors, *Security, Palestine demilitarized, police forces, interim period special agreed security arrangements like foreign forces, *Settlements, based on borders, agreed residents under local jurisdiction, Geneva accord, Obama’s plan, Bill Clinton’s plan, Arab League plan are all almost identical.
Resilient Societies Water and energy: Strong links between water and energy Irrigation is under pumping pressure (even Drip) Scarcity leads to Desalination (energy intensive) National Water Networks – (Elevated pumping) Intensive farming methods (fertilizers, pesticides etc) The “Car and the Tractor “- (are energy intensive)-EVs-Electric Vehicles are starting to be sold-govt, subsidy. Solar power plants being installed- govt. subsidies to household and industrial units, Solar heating nation wide, new national programs to replace old inefficient appliances,etc. Drip irrigation and automation conserve water+energy
Reducing Impacts of Water Scarcities 1) Water Demand Management- - A Solution to Scarcity ? 2) Feasible regional Supply Alternatives
Israel- Main Water Supply System Jerusalem Haifa Tel Aviv Sea of Galilee Eilat Egypt H.K. Jordan Syria Lebanon Palestine ( Gaza)
Water Demand Management- “10 – Commandments” Strategy 1.National Assessment of water resources, master planning. Transfers of water/integrating resources. Nation wide ground water development, and control. 2.Legal basis, water code and regulations, institutional responsibility, options to promote efficient water use. 3.Comprehensive water metering of all water producers & consumers. cont.
Cont 4. Research& Development of optimal water use Norms, allocations, technology development. 5. Water pricing structures – progressive block rates. Sanction rates. 6. Wide scale introduction of pressure irrigation systems, drip irrigation and automation of Horticulture, cotton, parks, gardens. 7. Completion of total sewerage systems, secondary & tertiary treatment of wastes. 8. Water exchanges/trading policy. Farmers are receiving treated effluents in exchange for fresh water allocations. Govt. executed effluents transfer network. ”Virtual water policy” – import of grains”
cont. 9. Establishment of special funds. Retrofitting of most irrigation systems and industrial processes, selected urban consumers. 10. Following comprehensive development and efficient use of most water resources – present program calls for large scale integration of Brackish and Sea Water Reverse Osmosis Desalination plants. ( SWROD)
Typical Desert land Under drip Irrigation
Possible and Feasible Regional water Policies
Proposed Policy Frame Work and Best Practices for the Middle East Overcoming Critical Water Scarcity, enabling socio-economic growth. Legal/Institutional/Economic – Basis and R&D. Master Planning,Forecasting, Pre-Allocation Strategic program, for a comprehensive WDM “ Virtual Water Strategy” - Import and Export based on optimization of product value per C.M (Versus per land unit)
THE FUTURE WATER MARKET/TRADINGWATER MARKET/TRADING SEA/BRACKISH WATER DESALINATIONSEA/BRACKISH WATER DESALINATION LARGE SCALE RE-USE OF EFFLUENTSLARGE SCALE RE-USE OF EFFLUENTS INTER-BOUNDARY – TRANSFER OPTIONS (LITANI, DESALTED WATER, TURKEY). INTER-BOUNDARY – TRANSFER OPTIONS (LITANI, DESALTED WATER, TURKEY). COMPREHENSIVE WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION.COMPREHENSIVE WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION. ACTIVE PSP,BANKS, DONORS.ACTIVE PSP,BANKS, DONORS.