Presentation on theme: "1Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan ( S.S.A.) is an effort to universalize elementary education in the country through community ownership of the school system. In."— Presentation transcript:
1Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan ( S.S.A.) is an effort to universalize elementary education in the country through community ownership of the school system. In order to achieve the goal of universalization of elementary education, it is essential to provide access to every eligible child in the age group of 6 - 14 years in accordance with RTE requirement. QUALITY: - ASSURANCE (WITH SOME IMPORTANT SPECIFICATIONS)
2Civil Works Constitute up to 33% of the SSA allocation. There has been massive investment of Rs. 44500 crores and going to further investment of more than Rs.20000 Crores to full fill RTE requirement. The expenditure so far is 34000 crores 3For such massive investment still in civil works in the country, it is important to utilize every penny effectively with great care. It is the infrastructure which is going to be visible for all time to come.
WHAT ARE BASIC REQUIREMENT FOR QUALITY WORK Adequate Supervision Structure Trained Community Quality Building material Trained Work force Inbuilt Quality control measures
Management/Supervision Structure :- Deployment of adequate and competent professionals. Suggestive structure is J. E. at each block Executive engineer/ Assistant engineer at District Team of senior engineers, Architects and other experts at States, The Strength can be increased or decreased depending upon Quantum of work
Community Participation :- community participation in all civil work activities is mandatory. The contractors have been replaced by the community, Training of community to execute civil works successfully is essential requirement. SMC shall be trained and shall participate in civil works. As a campaign SMC are imparted training by resource persons and technical personals at Block or cluster level.
Account keeping:- Account keeping for procurement of material, deployment of labour and cement consumption register etc. are essential requisite for social audit and transparency in the community participation. Daily Cement register:- To keep watch on one of the most important item of cement, maintaining daily cement register is must. This register must be signed any one visiting the site and to be transparent for social audit
Site Selection :- Selection of suitable site for the new school building / building less schools / BRC is very important not for the Engineers but for the community also. The selection of site has to be in accordance with norms as given in the “A Guide to Design for better learning environments published by Ed.CIL, New Delhi”.
Design :- Design for whole school concept A team for designing consisting of professional like design engineer, Architects, experts on energy efficient, green building, Structural engineer, Pedagogic, gender, CWN expert, child friendly element component expert, External and internal element expert Disaster management components. All factors where ever required.
Natural Building Material :- The material like sand, aggregate, bricks, stone, timber, water etc. need to be controlled at procurement level. Community shall be trained in the process of procurement of quality material. Another way is to collect quality samples of these material and keep it at convenient places for the community. The aim is to procure best possible quality material at competitive rates. BUILDING MATERIAL
Factory Manufactured Material :- The material like cement, steel, joinery for doors-windows, doors- windows fitting, steel sections, sanitary and water supply fittings, ply and ply boards, paints etc. All such material shall be ISI or ISO marked as far as possible. Cement shall be 43 grade manufactured by major manufacturer like Gujrat Ambuja, Shree Cement, ACC, L & T/ultratech, Lakshmi Cement etc.
WORK FORCE WORK FORCE : - The work force consists of skilled & unskilled workers as under:- (a) SKILLED:-Masons,carpenter, plumber, electrician, blacksmith, bar benders, etc. If these are very well trained, this can make lot of dent in quality construction. (b) UNSKILLED: - Labour force, which assist the skilled workers, should also be trained in order to achieve quality. (examples)
QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES Visual inspection. Quantitative Quality measures. Testing of building material like;- Sand Bricks Concrete Mix Cement water ratio Cement mortar
Building material play great roll in enhancing the life of the structure. By testing material, the engineers are not only assured of the quality product but gain lot of confidence during execution. Hence testing of material are very important not for the structure but for the Engineers confidence as well. і) Cement :- ISI marked 43 Grade manufactured by major manufacturers like Gujrat Ambuja, Shree Cement, Lakshmi Cement, L & T/ultratech. ACC etc. ii) Steel : ISI or ISO marked TESTING OF MATERIALS
SAND (fine) : - Fineness modulus (F.M) test for fine sand (for masonry work, plastering etc) I / C grading of sand which can be done in the field and in the Laboratory by I.S. Sieve IS:2720 (Part IV Designation). For fine sand, the fineness Modulus (FM) is to be 1.5 and above. Grading of sand is given below. COARSE SAND (For RCC works and flooring) Fineness Modulus (F.M) of this sand shall be 2.5 to 3.5. The coarse sand shall have grading tested in accordance with IS Sieve as under.
REQUIREMENT OF GRADING FOR SANDS (FOR MASONARY WORK AND PLASTERING)
FINE AGGREGATES OR COARSE SAND (FOR RCC AND FLOORING)
Important : - The fine sand in no case shall be used for Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) for slabs, beams and flooring The deleterious material % should not exceed 5% for natural river sand and 2% in crushed sand.
Bricks : - Besides testing for dimension of bricks, efflorescence, homogeneous in texture, uniform in shape and size, the important test for bricks are:- iv) Building Stone :- The building stone shall be obtained from approved quarries. It shall be of uniform in colour and texture, sound and durable, free from decay, flaws, cracks, cavities, veins and other defects etc. Porous stones, such as coarse grained sand stone with close planes of cleavage such as shale's and slates, shall not be used for stone masonry
WATER ABSORPTION OF BRICKS Field Test : The Test specimen shall consist of five whole dry bricks and shall be selected at random from the stack. The apparatus shall consist of a balance sensitive of within 0.2 to 0.3 per cent of the weight of the specimen. The test specimen shall be weighed and shall then be completely immersed in clean water at room temperature and allowed to remain in this State for a period of 24 hours. The specimen shall then be taken out wiped with a damp cloth and then weighed immediately.
Percentage of Water absorption : Weight of bricks after 24 hours immersion x 100 Weight of dry bricks
WATER ABSORPTION OF BRICKS Laboratory Test : The Test specimen shall consist of five whole selected at random from the lot of bricks obtained. The apparatus shall consist of a balance sensitive to within 0.1 percent of the weight of the specimen. The test specimen shall be dried to constant weight in ventilated oven at 110 0 to 115 0. The specimen, shall then be cooled approximately to room temperature and weighed.
The dry specimens shall be completely immersed without preliminary partial immersion, in clean water at 15.5 0 to 30 0 C for 24 hours. Each specimen shall then be removed, the surface water wiped off with a damp cloth and the specimen weighed. Weighing any one specimen shall be completed within three minutes after removing the specimen from the water.
Percentage of Water absorption : Weight of bricks after soaking for 24 hours x 100 Weight of dry bricks
DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF BRICKS Five bricks shall be immersed in water at 25 0 to 29 0 C for 24 hours. They shall then be removed and allowed to drains at room temperature for about five minutes and wiped free from surplus moisture. Their frogs shall be filled with mortar composed of one part Portland cement and one and a half parts clean coarse sand graded to 3 mm and down. The bricks shall then be stored under damp sack for 24 hours. After the expiry of this period, they shall be immersed in water for seven days.
At the end of seven days, the samples of bricks shall be taken out, wiped dry and placed with the flat surfaces horizontal and the mortar filled face up wards between 2 three-plywood sheets each approximately 3mm thick and care fully centered between the plates of the compression to testing machine. The load shall be applied axially at the uniform rate until failure occurs. Arithmetic mean of the Maximum load at failure Compressive Strength = Area of bricks
iii) COMPRESSION TEST FOR CEMENT CONCRETE : 6 cubes of 15 cm X 15 cm X 15 cm with CC shall be filled in layers of 5 cm deep. Each layer shall be compacted either by hand or by vibration. The testing specimen shall be stored for 24 hours. After this period, the specimen shall be removed and submerged in clean fresh water. The compacted cubes are tested after 7 days or 28 days. The total load indicated by testing machine at failure shall be recorded. The compressive strength will be : The total load indicated by the testing machine at failure Area of the block TEST DURING EXECUTION
Compression Testing Machines with Load Gauges Cube Moulds
Determining consistency of concrete by slump tests. This is an important field test for determining of Cement water ratio (consistency) of concrete samples from the concrete being used in construction. The test specimen shall be formed in a mould made of brass or aluminum with bottom and top diameters of 20 cm and 10 cm respectively and height of 30 cm as shown in the figure. The samples of concrete for test specimen shall be taken at a mixer or otherwise. The mould shall be filled in four layers and each layer tamped 25 strokes of tamping rod. The above operation shall be carried out at a place free from vibration or shock with in a period of two minutes after sampling. The slump is measured after lifting the mould vertically. The recommended values of slumps are given below :
The following maximum and minimum values of slump are recommended for various types of construction.
i) CEMENT MORTAR TEST: - To assess cement sand ratio of the mortar used or in use. The representative sample of the cement mortar shall be taken from 4 to 5 places from the brick or stone masonry already constructed. Otherwise the sample can also be taken from the cement mortar being used. The testing of the mortar will be carried out in the laboratory by chemical analysis and ratio of cement and sand can be found.
(I) BED PLATES:- Bed plates of cement concrete or of stone shall be provided under all beams & joists. Bed plate must be of such width & depth in order to smoothly distribute the loads coming over beams or joists. The base of the bed plates must be correctly leveled with cement sand mortar of 1:3. The ratio of cement concrete shall be nominal concrete of 1:2:4. The thickness of the bed plate shall be as equal to the full number of brick courses. (IS code now provide for concrete 1:1½ :3)
(II) BEARING PLASTER: - A smooth bearing for RCC slabs and beams on the wall with 6mm cement plaster 1:3 (1 Cement, 3 fine sand), finished with a floating coat of neat cement shall be provided and then finished with a thick coat of lime-wash or Kraft paper. The sides and top of slabs and beams in contact with walls shall be painted with thick coat of hot bitumen.
Grooves :- Provide grooves where ever two different material join to - gather to avoid cracks such as (a) brick work & concrete work (b) steel work and masonry work (c) Joinery & masonry or concrete work Drip Course :- Provide drip Course in all projections / sun shade (Sketch on back page)
CONCRETE MIXER: - Mechanical mixing of cement concrete, helps in maintaining proper cement water ratio and producing homogenous mix for attaining appropriate strength. VIBRATOR: - it helps in compaction of concrete to obtain dense and homogenous mass. Vibration will avoid honey combing of concrete surface and will help in obtaining quality concrete surface MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT FOR QUALITY CONSTRUCTION
FLOORING : Flooring as per state specific may be provided in the school building. However generally conglomerate flooring or IPS flooring of 50 mm thickness will be provided for school buildings. The under layers of - Conglomerate flooring generally shall consist of 10 cm of sand layers or stone filling and 10 cm of lime concrete or cement concrete 1:8:16
Flooring shall be laid in panels of not more than 2 sq. meter. The strips for panels shall be of glass / plain asbestos / aluminum / PVC. The strips can be avoided by laying flooring in alternate panels. As little water as possible shall be used in mixing the concrete & slump test shall be between 25 - 40 mm.
IMPORTANT POINTS TO BE FOCUSSED DURING CONSTRUCTION Foundation 1. Foundation of any building is not to be laid on filled up soil or low lying areas. 2. Occasional testing of bearing capacity of soil - may be undertaken Brick Masonry 3. Only well burnt bricks with ringing sound having crushing strength of around 100kg./cm 2 shall be used. 4. Bricks to be drenched in water for 6 hours before use in brick masonry. 5. No brick bats to be used in brick masonry. 6. The thickness of the brick joints in brick masonry shall be between 6.25 to 9.4 mm only. 7. Ensure clearing of cement mortars over brick masonry when the mortar is still green.
8. Joints of masonry are raked up to 12mm when mortar is still green Stone 9.As far as possible stone to be of uniform in colour, texture, sound and durable, free from flaws, cracks, cavities veins, etc. Porous stones or sand stone with slates shall not be used. 10.Random Rubble masonry:- Random Rubble masonry brought to courses, Square Rubble masonry in courses shall be used. 11.Ensure using bond stones. 12.Random Rubble masonry not be used in Seismic Zone III, IV and V
Sand 12.Only clean, well graded sand having 1.5 F.M. and above shall be used for brick masonry and plastering. 13.Similarly for cement concrete and flooring, well graded sand of 2.5 to 3.5 F.M. shall be used. 14.Fine sand in no case shall be used for RCC work and flooring
RCC Work 15.No katcha shuttering shall be used for laying RCC work. Steel shuttering or shuttering with good wooden planks shall be used 16.Use only ISI or ISO marked steel for reinforcement. 17.Use 43 grade cement of major manufacturers. 18.Always use bed plates below beams and bearing plaster, below slab to avoid cracks. 19.Use of concrete mixer and vibrator is essential for laying slabs and beams.
20.For ensuring proper cement water ratio for RCC work, slump test is essential. 21.For ensuring proper concrete strength of slab, concrete cubes may be tested after 7 days or 28 days. General 22.Cement mortar or cement concrete to be used within 30 minutes after mixing water. Cement mortar of not more than one cement bag may be prepared at a time. 23.15 days curing is essential for any construction done with cement in order to enable the structure to gain proper strength. For ensuring curing write dates on day to day work.
Plastering and flooring 24.Use only wooden float for plastering. Use of metal float for plastering is prohibited. 25.Conglomerate or IPS flooring of 50mm thickness may be laid in panels with glass or PVC or aluminium strips. The panels to be not more than 2 sqmts. 26.Lay 100 mm sand and 100 mm lean concrete or equivalent material as a base course before laying conglomerate flooring. 27.Provide either groove or drip course on all projections and sunshades to check flow of rain water toward walls. 28.Provide grooves wherever two different material join together to avoid cracks. 29.For obtaining satisfactory bond for the plaster, joints in Cement, Lime masonry be raked to a depth of 12mm when the mortar is still green.
Roofing 30.Provide earth insulation of average thickness of 100 mm over flat roofs with proper slopes or equivalent insulation and covered with brick tiles or other material for draining rain water. (For hot climates). 31.Provide spouts or rain water pipes of not less than 100 mm dia. One such pipe can drain up to 35 sq meter roof area. Doors and windows 32.Do not use plywood-paneled doors and windows exposed to rain. 33.Do not use angle iron door, window frames. These can be injurious. Use pressed steel sheet of 2 mm thickness conforming to IS:226-1962. 34.Only ISI marked or good quality paints may be used for doors and windows and other painting work.
35.Apron or plinth protection is essential for safety of the building 36.Timber : I). Where ever timber is used, it is to be commercial hard wood, well seasoned and properly treated with wood preservative conforming to IS 401-1982 II). Timber for use in structures constantly in contact with water or damp earth shall be treated with suitable preservative laid down in IS – 401-1982 so as to resist Fungi, termites and marine borer. III). Moisture contents of seasoned timber for thicker sections for beams, rafters should not be more than 14% whereas for thinner sections for doors and windows to be within 12%
37.Bamboo : Life of raw untreated/ treated bamboo is very low. However life of Prefab Bamboo components Being manufactured by manufacturer on National Mission on Bamboo Application technology are very good and have a life of more than 30 years. Two prefab structures are installed in TSG New Delhi premises.
The quality assurances can only be implemented with adequate management structure at all level. The other necessary input required is the constant training of School Management Committee and In House Engineering Cell.
ACR gaps have been worked out on DISE 2009-10. The Gaps have been worked out school wise DISE. The school which have more classrooms than required, the plus figure was taken zero. The school which have deficiency in classrooms were taken as positive figure. The ACR gaps so worked out was ACR gap as on 30.09.09.
As the ACR gaps was on 30.09.09, the school infrastructure available in pipeline on 30.09.09 is required to be computed along with components approved in AWP&B 2010-11. All primary school, upper primary school in progress and not started will be computed by multiplying by 2 and 3 respectively. The targets as approved by PAB in AWP&B 2010-11 are also computed
While working out gaps for AWP&B 2011- 12, the school infrastructure approved in supplementary budget will also be computed. The net result of ACR gaps district wise/State wise will be brought in the AWP&B 2011-12. The detail worked out for ACR gaps for supplementary budget will be placed in minutes of the 21 st review meeting for guidance. Any suggestion will be solicited.