Presentation on theme: "TEXAS GEOGRAPHY REVIEW!"— Presentation transcript:
1TEXAS GEOGRAPHY REVIEW! Texas is a big place so this is a big review! Can you handle it?
2Why do we study history? What is History? What is Geography? History and Geography are linked. Geography can affect history just as history can affect geography.What is History?The study of the pastWe study history to know what to expect in the futureWhat is Geography?The study of the Earth, its features, and its peopleUnderstanding geography helps us to understand events that shape out lives today. Although people modify their environment through technology, all societies are dependent upon their natural resources. The location of those resources influences where Texans live and how they make a living.The history of Texas is tied closely to it’s geography. For example geography has affected the development of Industries. Events in History have affected the location and growth of settlements.Can you give me a specific example?
3I. Five Themes of Geography A. Location 1. Absolute – exact position; such as a point of latitude and longitude 2. Relative – where things are in relation to othersWhen you study different places, there are 5 different questions you must ask.Where is the place?What is it like, and how is it similar or different from other places?How do the people who live there interact with their surroundings or environment?How are those people linked with other people and places?How does geography relate to the past, present and future of that place?
4Location absolute location relative location exact position ofa place using latitude and longituderelative locationlocation of a place in relation to another placeWhat is the absolute location of Houston?What is the relative location of Texas?Houston Skyline
5I. Five Themes of Geography A. Location1. Absolute – exact position; such as a point of latitude and longitude2. Relative – where things are in relation to othersB. Place and Regions1. Place – different features and characteristics that identify an area: landforms, climate, language, music2. Region – areas united by similar characteristicsPlaces can have physical characteristics such as landforms, climate, plants and animals; as well as human characteristics such as language, religion, architecture, music, politics, and way of life.
64 Natural Regions of Texas land area thatshares similar elevation,precipitation, climate, soil,and vegetation
7Elevation-height of the land What is your elevation? How tall are you?West Texas is a tall place with Guadalupe Peak reaching8, 749 feet.The Humble area is about 90 feet above sea level.
8Precipitation Drip, drip, drip… How much rain does our area receive eachyear?What part of Texasreceives the most rain?What part receives theleast amount of rain?
9I. Five Themes of Geography A. Location1. Absolute – exact position; such as a point of latitude and longitude2. Relative – where things are in relation to othersB. Place and Regions1. Place – an area defined by different features and characteristics: landforms, climate, plants, animals2. Region – Areas with similar characteristics are regionsC. Human Environment Interaction – the relationship between people and the environment, and how it affects our livesActions of people: (examples on next slide)
10How have people changed the land to live on it or by it? These relationships can be positive or negative.Throughout history, people have always modified their environment, such as damming rivers and cutting down forests to build cities and towns. Some of these activities have led to air and water pollution. The environment affects human activities as well. Can you name some ways the environment affects our lives? (drought, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods…)
11AGRIBUSINESSAgribusiness combines farming, ranching and related businesses.It is an important part of the Texas economy.Cotton is the number one cash crop for our state.In addition to physical and human characteristics, regions may be defined by their business needs. These are known as economic regions.
12I. Five Themes of Geography A. Location1. Absolute – exact position; such as a point of latitude and longitude2. Relative – where things are in relation to othersB. Place and Regions1. Place – an area defined by different features and characteristics: landforms, climate, plants, animals2. Region – Areas with similar characteristics are regionsC. Human Environment Interaction – What links people to the surrounding environmentD. Human Systems1. Movement of people2. Culture brought to an areaOther aspects of movement and human systems include trade and urbanization.
13TEJANO Texas has a very rich cultural history. Caliente!Texas has a very rich cultural history.Much of the Texas culture is tied to Mexico such as food, architecture, and language.A Tejano is a person of Mexican heritage who calls Texas home.Yummy!Hola!
15I. Five Themes of Geography A. Location1. Absolute – exact position; such as a point of latitude and longitude2. Relative – where things are in relation to othersB. Place and Regions1. Place – an area defined by different features and characteristics: landforms, climate, plants, animals2. Region – Areas with similar characteristics are regionsC. Human Environment Interaction – What links people to the surrounding environmentD. Human Systems1. Movement of people2. Culture brought to an areaE. Physical Systems – how naturally occurring events interact with and shape the Earth: volcanoes, hurricanes…Such as volcanoes, glaciers, and hurricanes.Geographers also look at ecosystems, or communities of plants and animals that depend on each other and their surroundings.
16II. Major Landforms Plains – Gently rolling land Plateaus – table-land Escarpments – steep cliff caused by fault lineMountainsThe difference between plains and plateaus is the elevation.
19Escarpment: steep cliff caused by a fault line Caprock: inthe Texas PanhandleBalcones: in central TexasThese were formed millions of years ago by a giant earthquake. The land south of the fault line sank, and the land north of the fault rose forming the escarpment.The Balcones was named by the Spanish who thought the escarpment looked like a balcony from the plains below.
20Texas mountains that take a prize! Mountains are only found in west Texas. The highest point in the state is Guadalupe Peak, rising 8,749 feet above sea level. However, El Capitan is considered Texas’ “signature peak”.El Capitan (above)8th highest peakGuadalupe Peak (right)Tallest peak in Texas!
21III. Texas Vegetation Forests Savannas – short grasses and small shrubsGrasslands – grass covered land
22Pop Quiz! Which one is which? Savanna Barrier island Plateau D B A A D
23IV. Texas Water Resources Gulf of MexicoRivers and reservoirs (man-made lakes)Aquifers – underground lakesBecause we live in such a hot, arid, and highly populated area, water is a precious commodity.The gulf is a major water source, for both commercial and recreational reasons.The Eastern part of the state is notable for its many rivers. (Sabine, Trinity, Brazos, Colorado…)To prevent water running into the Gulf and to control flooding, many rivers have been dammed, forming lakes.Texas has about 200 major lakes, but only 1 is a natural lake. Most lake water is used for irrigation (one of their original uses). But lakes also provide about 60% of the needs of cities and towns, primarily for manufacturing. Can anyone tell me which lake supplies the city of Houston?
25Reservoirs-man-made lakes Which one of these is not a reservoir?Lake HoustonLake LivingstonCaddo LakeAhhhhhhhh!
26Texas Aquifers Ogallala Aquifer Rain slowly fills these giant undergroundlakes. The aquiferthen supplies waterfor drinking andirrigation.Edwards AquiferWater from the Edwards Aquifer comes to the surface at Barton Springs in Austin. Water from the Ogallala (Oh-guh-LAA-luh) Aquifer is pumped to the surface for irrigation.Ogallala Aquifer
27V. Texas Mineral Resources A. Natural Gas: combustible mixture of hydrocarbon gases found trapped in rock B. Coal: black rock used as fuel C. Talc: used in ceramics, paint and powder D. Petroleum: crude oil found in rock used to make gasolineThe main minerals in Texas are petroleum, natural gas, coal, sand, and gravel. Texas also produces building stone such as limestone and granite.Petroleum and natural gas are the most important mineral resources. ¼ of all the energy produced in the entire history of the US has been produced in Texas.
28Most Important Mineral Resources NATURAL GASPETROLEUM-GASCoal
29Petrochemical Industry Refines oil and natural gas into something usefulThe area around Pasadena and Deer Park has many of these refineries.Ever heard of Stinkadena?TEXACOTEXACOTEXACO
30Landforms AssignmentChoose 10 of the terms that we took notes on today, create a visual or picture for that term and label each drawing. Use map pencils to color your illustrations.