Presentation on theme: "Furrows in the Desert An agricultural development program"— Presentation transcript:
1Furrows in the Desert An agricultural development program in Turkana, Kenya
2It is the largest yet least developed district in the country. Turkana is a semi arid region in northwestern Kenya, on the border with Ethiopia, South Sudan and Uganda.It is the largest yet leastdeveloped districtin the country.Area of Turkana: 77,000 km2Population: Estimation of 850,000Temperature: cPrecipitation: mm/yearEvaporation: 7-12 mm/day
3Population in Turkana The inhabitants of Turkana are largely pastoralists practicing a nomadiclifestyle.Traditionally the Turkana way of lifeEvolves around their livestock fornutritional and cultural needs.Occasionally they would gather wild fruits, hunt wild animals and gather honey.Often they would trade with neighboring tribes for maize, beans and very limited verity of vegetables and grains.
4The main problems facing agricultural development in Turkana: Harsh environmental conditions.• The lack of know-how in developing agriculture in arid land.• Difficulty to bring expert agronomists and skilled manpower to the area ona long term basis.• The deep cultural gap between the herders way of life and farming way oflife• The lack of transportation infrastructure and markets
5Model Innovation: A comprehensive, long term sustainable approach Program Goals:To introduce agriculture in Turkana North, as a means for:Food production towards food security in the area.Income generating activities for the local population through the marketing of agricultural productionModel Innovation: A comprehensive, long term sustainable approach
6Sustainability measures Long term commitment of partner org. permanent presence of MCSPADeveloping agricultural methods appropriate for the area.lessons in mother & child centresModel Innovation:ComprehensiveSustainability measuresOn a long term basisEstablishing a central farm fortraining research & demonstrationfamily scale & community scale6 months hand on trainingTraining the trainersSupport for marketing agricultural produceProvision of agriculturalInputs for graduatesOngoing guidance in newfarmers’ family plots
7Program Water Infrastructure MCSPA water infrastructure In Turkana North:rock water dams (107 units)earth pans (89 units)boreholes (over 165 units)wind pumps (28 units).Planning Strategy:Following UN recommendations, we first harvest rain water by rockdams in the mountain side, or earth dams and pans. This is especially geared towards meetingthe needs of the pastoralists’ herds. The dams are designed according to the geo-physical conditions.Further downstream we drill Wells fitted with handpumps, windumps or solar systems to meet the domestic needs of the population and to start agricultural developments.
8Water infrastructure: Hand pumps, wind pumps, tanks
10Community participation and management The builders of rock dams are local people who have been trained in the art.In each location with a water facility, water committees are trained and enabledto run the facilities.
11Agricultural Models for arid conditions: 4 types based on available water sourcesBoreholes based family plotsLiman (runoff water diverted to canals)Earth Pan plots Lake Plantations
12Family Plots A typical FDS family plot: Family Drip System (FDS): low cost, Gravity based, Water and labor efficientA typical FDS family plot:(500 m2 FDS, Additional 500 m2 traditionally irrigated)Supports the family nutrition.produces 10 times more produce than needed for familyconsumption (calculated for 6 people).The surplus is used for marketing to generate income.provides all year round produce (4 crop cycles).Typically each cycle will include 2 crop types.Average produce per FDS plot:Production (Kg)Crop type1800Tomato1500Melon1700Onion900Okra2500Watermelon120Sorghum (grains)3000Sorghum (fodder)200Maize(grains)1000Maize(fodder)
13Crop selection Criteria: Nutritional value Resistance to arid conditionsGood market priceResilience to transportation hazardsExamples:Tomatoes, okra, onion, garlic, Melon, watermelonSorghum, Maize (for human consumption andas fodder)Dates, Pomegranates (community plantations)
14Appropriate practices in all stages of crop cycle Training CurriculumCompost preparationLand preparationCrop planningNurseryIrrigationPlant protection monitoring systemWeed controlCrop managementPost harvestRecord keeping
15FID Central training Farm in Lobur Design:Vegetable plots (500 m2 each , Family Drip Irrigation system)3 net houses1 Liman plot1 Earth Pan System (1 Family Drip Irrigation system)3 date plantations
16Central training Farm: Location Close to Lobur MCSPA mission for infrastructure and logistical support.Land is secured under a letter of allotment from Turkana County Council and from theelders of the local communities.Water availability from 2 windmill-operated bore holes.Security measurements are in place.Local community in the vicinity.Accessible to visits by locals, government officials and representatives of commercial enterprises
17Central farm: infrastructure Nethouse and Vegetable plots2nd course trainees and staff sharing knowledge in the shadeVegetable plots with elevatedtanks and windpumpPreparation for a date plantationThe newly made LimanVegetable plots and wind breakers
20Outreach Points: graduates family plots NarikotomeLokitaung: near the damKaikorNarikotome
21KokuroKokoseleiUsing treadle pump in LokitaungLiman plot in Lobur
22Project Beneficiaries 2014-2016 360 local families of project graduates (direct and indirect) owning family plots who will enjoy improved nutrition, additional fodder and income.Graduates' circles of relatives and neighbors who will enjoy improved nutrition.300 families of local workers to be employed in 3 community plantations on the banks of Lake Turkana.Other members of the local communities who will generate income for their families through secondary jobs based on agriculture and marketing, e.g. food processing, food preservation, transportation of produce to markets, etc.
23Planning Process and Key Participants Field survey by Brit Olam and ACSD expert delegation, December 2011MCSPA missionaries and Turkana EldersJoint planning and ongoing revision bythe 3 project partner organizations eachcontributing its own expertiseSelection process of local trainees in collaboration with the local communityExpert visits and record keeping by Israeli professional field team & trainees
24FID is run in coordination with the local government and with the full approval of the Kenyan Ministry of Agriculture.Delegates of Kenyan government and World Bank visiting FID new training farm, summer 2012The Diocese of Lodwar (DOL) functions as a central development agency in Turkana.FID is supported by DOL through MCSPA as a pilot agricultural program.Once its success will be proved, the program model may be applied in other parts of the county as well as other semi arid regions.
25DOL Master Plan of Food Security Main Survey Findings (2012):Crop production is the 2nd ranked livelihoodsource in Turkana after livestock production.Crop production is mainly at subsistence level.There is high latent potential of water andarable landThere is much motivation of locals to beself-sufficient.Main Recommendations:Capacity building of local people in agriculturePromoting irrigated agriculture using rain andunderground water harvestingUsing dry land high value crops, especiallyvegetables and fruitsExpanding fruit and vegetable market in Lodwar and neighboring townsLinkage of local farmers to the available markets in the growing towns.
26For further reference: Missionary Community of Saint Paul the Apostle (MCSPA)Brit Olam – International Volunteering and DevelopmentArava Center for Sustainable Development (ACSD)Contact persons:Albert Salvans (MCSPA, Turkana):Maque Falgas (MCSPA, Turkana):Milett Biberman (Brit Olam, Israel):Cel