Presentation on theme: "IRRIGATION SYSTEMS AND IRRIGATED LANDS IN TURKEY IRRIGATION SYSTEMS AND IRRIGATED LANDS IN TURKEY PART-1."— Presentation transcript:
IRRIGATION SYSTEMS AND IRRIGATED LANDS IN TURKEY IRRIGATION SYSTEMS AND IRRIGATED LANDS IN TURKEY PART-1
Irrigated Agriculture Water management Irrigation Role in Turkey
WATER SCARCITY Iincreasing of population. Pollution of reseorces. Water saving opportunities should be considered within this domain. Water saving opportunities should be considered within this domain.
WATER RESOURCES Average Rainfall: 643 mm Total Rainfall: km 3 Total Flow: 186 km 3 Usable Water Flow: 95 km 3 Ground Water Potential: km 3 Total Available Water: km 3 Almost 40% of total water resources are used for irrigation and other purposes. Today, Turkey can not use soil and water resources effectively, due to personnel, coordination, political and economics problems. Today, Turkey can not use soil and water resources effectively, due to personnel, coordination, political and economics problems.
Total Water from dams is Mm 3 Urban consumption: 15%, Industrial: 10% irrigation: 75%;
Irrigated lands in The Regions developed by DSI Irrigated lands in The Regions developed by DSI Marmara: 199,195 (8.5%) Aegean : 401,501 (17.2%) Mediterranean: 540,912 (23.1%) Southeastern:189,368(8.1%) East Anatolia:308,346(13.1%) Black Sea:153,471(6.6%) Middle Anatolia:547,404(23.4%) Source: DSI (2001).
PROBLEMS (During operating stage of systems) Water losses problems (low system performances) Environmental problems (Salinity, ground water )
Cotton is the most important crop for developing industry in Turkey. It can be videly growen in Mediterranean, Eagean, and South-Easts Regions.
Cotton is irrigated by surface methods mainly furrow. Irrigation efficiencies are to low and water losses are high by deep percolation and run-off.
Evapotranspiration of Cotton Evapotranspiration of Cotton Çukurova: Çukurova: Arıklı: 736 mm (MAD=60%) Arıklı: 736 mm (MAD=60%) İncirlik: 823 mm (MAD=40%) İncirlik: 823 mm (MAD=40%) Arpacı: 788 mm (MAD=40%) Arpacı: 788 mm (MAD=40%) Mutlu Soil Series: 500 mm (BREB) Mutlu Soil Series: 500 mm (BREB) 630 mm (WB) 630 mm (WB) Yield (Average): kg/ha Yield (Average): kg/ha
In arid and semi-arid regions, because of increasing allocations of water for municipal and industrial use, major changes came about in water use under irrigated agriculture. In arid and semi-arid regions, because of increasing allocations of water for municipal and industrial use, major changes came about in water use under irrigated agriculture. New innovations had to be tested and adapted to increase effective use of decreasing water allocations for agricultural use. New innovations had to be tested and adapted to increase effective use of decreasing water allocations for agricultural use. Yield Functions
Some Results of Cotton Yield Functions Experiments on the deficit irrigation of cotton are being considered with different ways: To spread of water Deficiencies through the growing season: o Wetting the diffrent soil depths o Decreasing irrigation water as control treatment
o To use different plant-pan coefficients o To use different irrigation intervals o To use different lateral spacing in drip irrigation o To use line source sprinkler irrigation technique
Water stress exposed at the different growth stages: o To apply omitted irrigation approach o To use deficit irrigation method in the sub- growth stage in an individual growth stage
Pistachio Pistachio Problems: Problems: (1) Low Yield (1) Low Yield (2) Irregularity of pistachio production (periodicity) (2) Irregularity of pistachio production (periodicity) Genetically Controlled Genetically Controlled Poor Cultural Practices Poor Cultural Practices
Pistachio Growing Area
WaterConsumption of Pistachio Şanlıurfa District: ET:850 mm (20 days int.) ET:850 mm (20 days int.) ET: 700 mm (30 days int.) ET: 700 mm (30 days int.) Gaziantep District: ET: 550 mm (I f1 N 3 K pc2 ) ET: 400 mm (I f2 N 3 K pc2 )
Yield Şanlıurfa: kg/ha (20 days int.) kg/ha (30 days) int. Gaziantep: 1170 kg/ha (I f2 N 3 ) 700 kg/ha (Tradit.)
WP2 and WP3 WORK PACKAGES (P7) of DIMAS on COTTON AND PISTCHIO RESPONSE UNDER DIFFERENT FERTIGATION AND IRRIGATION PRACTICES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AND SOUTHEAST ANATOLIA REGIONS IN TURKEY PART-2
Subjects or objectives of project: (1) Development of simulation model for deficit irrigation (DI) design and yield and biomass prediction in limited water and nitrogen conditions for cotton and pistachio; (2) Generation of recommendations for deficit irrigation to farmers and water managers that have limited water and nitrogen resources and will reduce water and nitrogen amount for irrigation; (3) Examine the most appropriate irrigation/fertigation practices of pistachio orchards and cotton fields. (4) Introduce the new irrigation technology consisting of trickle irrigation system and fertigation techniques in Southeast Region of Turkey.
COTTON: Treatments and Experimental Design Irrigation: Line source sprinkler Water Level: I 3 (FI, Full irrigation) Water level: I 2 (DI-1, mild stress) Water level: I 1 (DI-2, moderate stress) Irrigation : 40% level of AW in 120 cm depth (or days interval) Nitrogen : At the owing time and at the first irrigation Nitrogen Level: N 0 : 0 kg/ha, N 1 : 100 kg/ha, N 2 : 150 kg/ha, N 3 : 200 kg/ha. Basal fertilizers: 80 kg/ha phosphorous and 40 kg/ha potash during the sowing time.
IV. Block I. Block II. Block III. Block EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN OF COTTON
PISTACHIO: Treatments Irrigation intervals: I f1 =3-4 days; I f2 =7 days Pan Coefficients: Kpc 1 =0.60; Kpc 2 =0.90 Kpc 1 =0.60; Kpc 2 =0.90 Nitrogen Concentrations: N t =traditional; N 1 =20 mg/L; N 2 =40 mg/L N t =traditional; N 1 =20 mg/L; N 2 =40 mg/L Phosphorus, 15 mg/L and potassium, 10 mg/L Nt: 500 g nitrogen, 400g potash and 500 g phosphorus per tree
Experimental Design: Split-Split; three Replication, 8 to 10 trees in every plots.
Experimental Design: Split-Split; three Replication Main Plot: Nitrogen concentration Sub-plot: Irrigation Interval Sub-sub (mini) Plot: Pan Coefficient 3-4 Days 7 Days N2
Measurements and Observations Climatic Data (daily measurements): For ET 0 calculation, Rainfall Soil Profile Charesteristics: Depth, Texture, Water holding capacity, Change of soil water content during crop growing period for each crop, Crop: Yield and yield components, heigth, LAI, cower, biomass, LWP, nitrogen content of tissue, etc.
Turkish Team Rıza Kanber (Coordinator) Rıza Kanber (Coordinator) Mustafa Ünlü Mustafa Ünlü Yusuf Aydin Yusuf Aydin Ayzin Küden Ayzin Küden Özgül Görmüş Özgül Görmüş Servet Tekin Servet Tekin D. Levent Koç D. Levent Koç Abdullah Yaman Abdullah Yaman