Presentation on theme: "VRTI’s Efforts on Water Resource and Salinity Management in Agriculture CS Pawar, Amit Ghosh, Kumar Satyamurti and KC Shroff Shree Vivekanand Research."— Presentation transcript:
VRTI’s Efforts on Water Resource and Salinity Management in Agriculture CS Pawar, Amit Ghosh, Kumar Satyamurti and KC Shroff Shree Vivekanand Research and Training Institute, Mandvi, Kutch 370 465, Gujarat, India
Water Conservation and Management Structures constructed by VRTI in last 28 Years Total area benefited directly and indirectly = 1.0 Lakh ha
Salinity Prevention and Mitigation, Mundra Taluca Kutch, SRTT Project (2003-2005) Project Brief Project outlay = Rs. 8.6 Crores (20% farmers’ contribution) Area to be benefited = 25,000 ha Villages to be covered = 20 villages Activity Targets Checks dams to be constructed = 16 across natural flows Farm ponds = to provide benefit to 800 ha Drip/micro irrigation = 200 ha, demonstration and support Revival of dying Date-palm and other plantations Training/education on water use with focus on in-situ moisture conservation, proper land preparation and agricultural practices Teams Technical team Social team Project monitoring team
VRTI – Bio-organic Manure Production Technology Pioneering work on aerobic decomposition of organic waste. Technology transferred to M/s Excel Industries to process municipal organic solid wastes. Transferring technology to NGOs, Social groups and farmers
Impact of a Bio-organic manure on regenerating fertility in soil lost due to salinity (Soil from Sangli, Maharshtra) 1992-94
Few Glimpses of Working on Salinity Problem in Sangli, Maharashtra – Some Problems
Few Glimpses of Working on Salinity Problem in Sangli, Maharashtra – Some Solutions
Changes in soil properties observed in 2 years of a pilot project on soil reclamation from salinity in 5 villages of Sangli district, Maharashtra (21.2 ha), 1999-2001 Improving drainage No sugarcane for 3 years Green manure crop every year Use of Bioorganic manure Reduction in use of fertilizers Villages: Bhilwadi in taluk Pulus, Karandawadi, Ashta and Uran in taluk Walva, and Kautepiran in taluk Miraj
A typical Scene of Inundation with Rainwater and Salinity in Bhal area (Dhanduca taluca), Gujarat Lakhs of hectares get inundated with water during the rainy season. Flat land with no/little drainage and percolation. High coastal salinity (NaCl 8%) No crop in the rainy season. Post-rainy crops: mainly wheat only in upland areas on residual moisture & where salinity is low – very poor yields
Government’s major initiative so far for coastal saline area Funding farmers for digging farm field ponds to store water for the post-rainy season as in watersheds. Outcome No benefit, soils highly saline and stored water also becomes saline. Crops often do not survive in areas closer to sea
Challenges for Agricultural Development of the Area Opportunities Rainfall is sufficient, about 500-650 mm Soils are rich in carbon, and not dead Fields are large Salts are leachable Low subsoil percolation of water Challenges How to drain of water along with salts How to use rain water for growing a rainy season crop and also a post-rainy crop
VRTI Experimental Initiative to Address Coastal Salinity in Bhal (Dholera), 2004 In February, highly saline land was raised 1 m above the ground to get 25 x 5 m bed. The bed was washed by imponding 1 ft water 3 times. Land was tilled and a crop of Sesbania was sown. Sesbania sp. grew well with watering thru Feb-April.
Rainy Season Crops (Dholera Expt. 2004) Just before the start of the rain we dry seeded the crops on beds, Cotton, Sorghum, Bajara and Sesbania. All germinated and grew well while the rain water stagnated all around the bed. The water remained there for almost 2 months
How to go for Agricultural Development in Coastal Area of Bhal, Gujarat In highly saline area where water stagnates for about 1 m make big beds and channels, each 10 m wide, alternatively. Rain water will wash off the beds from salts and will remain in channels. Dry seed the crops on beds, and culture fish in channel water. One crop of fish can be obtained within 2 months. We need to try this, and we are sure it should work. Initial investment will be more so also the benefit
For areas where water stagnation is less, about ½-1ft Go for the broad-bed furrow method of land preparation with furrows made deeper about 1 ft. Beds shall be made well before the rainy season and crops be dry seeded just before the onset of rain.
Drip/Micro irrigation: Larger Saving on Water Drip/Micro irrigation saves 60-75% on water as per our study on cotton, castor and others. Larger saving when Bio- manure, FYM, green manuring etc.is used regularly in the field. Saving and benefit in all aspects is more, including the prevention of salinity.
Recommendations – for Sujlam Sufalam for overall Agricultural Development of Gujarat Water- the Boon can become a Bane if not used properly. Economic use of water by all means to cover the larger area is essential. Long-term thinking, review of experiences, reworking and adoption of new ideas on water resource management are necessary. Salinity prevention and mitigation is a must. Drip/micro irrigation, use of bio-organic manures and concepts of Integrated Crop Management (ICM) and Organic farming are essential. Remember “Haste could be Waste”