Presentation on theme: "Brazil Non-West 2014. Colonialism Brazil was officially ‘discovered’ by the Portuguese – Pedro Alvares Cabral in 1500 Amerigo Vespuci arrived At first."— Presentation transcript:
Colonialism Brazil was officially ‘discovered’ by the Portuguese – Pedro Alvares Cabral in 1500 Amerigo Vespuci arrived At first the Portuguese showed little interest; although they set up coastal trading stations and exported Brazil wood (valued for making dye) 1549 - Alarmed by French interest the Portuguese founded a colony and made Salvador its capital. Pedro Alvares Cabral Amerigo Vespuci
Colonialism Sugar is introduced in the late 16 th century and by the early 17 th century the Brazilian sugar industry boomed. Brazil became Europe’s main supplier of sugar. Vast numbers of indigenous people who had no resistance to European diseases died in epidemics. The Portuguese founded Rio de Janeiro and fought attempts by the Dutch and French to claim parts of Brazil Rio de Janeiro
Colonialism Late 17 th century gold discoveries led many people to settle in the interior of Brazil and the capital is moved to Rio de Janeiro in 1763 When the gold boom faded the Margues de Pombal governed Brazil from 1750- 1777 and introduced new crops such as cotton, cacao and rice. Sugar also regained some of its former prosperity Margues de Pombal
Colonialism 1807 – Napoleon invaded Portugal and the in 1808 the King fled to Brazil and Rio de Janeiro became the capital of the Portuguese empire. 1820 – The King returns to Portugal and leaves his son Dom Pedro as regent in Brazil 1821 – Dom Pedro is recalled to Portugal but the Brazilians persuaded him to stay. 1822 – Dom Pedro broke with Portugal and declared Brazil independent. 1825 – Portugal finally recognized Brazilian independence Dom Pedro
19 th Century 1826 - Dom Pedro alienated plantation owners by signing a treaty with the British; British would recognize Brazil as an independent country but demanded that the slave trade be ended within 3 years. Slavery officially abolished in 1888 1831 – Dom Pedro abdicated and left his 5 year old son Dom Pedro II to rule; this left a power vacuum and period of instability. Dom Pedro II
19 th Century 1831-1840 a series of regents ruled until 1840, when the Pedro II was 14 and Parliament decreed him “of age.” He restored order 1864 – 1870 Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay fought a war with Paraguay. It was called the War of the Triple Alliance and began when Paraguay invaded Uruguay. The war ended in victory for Brazil and its allies. Brazil Argentina Uruguay Paraguay
19 th Century Late 18 th century Brazil experienced a coffee boom which was first grown in Amazonia in 1727. 1830-1964 Coffee was Brazil’s main export. 1870- 1880s a network of railways was built across Brazil, which made it easier to transport coffee to the ports for export. Rubber and Cacao were also important industries.
19th Century Pedro II’s daughter, Princess Isabel, officially ended slavery in 1888. 1889 - Soon after, disgruntled landowners united with the military to finish with monarchy altogether, forcing the royal family back to Portugal and founding Brazil’s first republican government. Princess Isabel
20 th Century 1890s – 1920s there was a huge surge of immigrants from Italy, Germany, Portugal and Japan. 1929 – The world is gripped by depression and demand for Brazilian coffee collapsed. The government tried to help the plantation owners by buying the coffee they could not sell. 1937 - Popular discontent led to a revolution and after months of violence the army intervened and installed Getulio Vargas as Dictator. Getulio Vargas
20 th Century Vargas called his regime the Estada Novo (new state). He nationalized industries like oil, steel and electricity. He also created a welfare state. 1942 – Brazil joins the war against Germany 1945 – The army forced Vargas to resign. Eurico Dutra wins election for the Presidency. 1950 – Vargas wins election Getulio Vargas Eurico Dutra
20 th Century Vargas rule was troubled by inflation and growing national debt. He was linked to the attempted assassination of a political rival. 1954 – The army demanded that Vargas resign. Instead he shot himself. Juscelion Kubitschek wins the next election and in 1960 created a new capital at Brasilia. He was followed by Janio Quadros who resigned after 7 months. He was succeeded by Joao Goulart. 1964 – With worsening economic problems the army staged a coup. Juscelion Kubitschek Janio Quadros Joao Goulart
Military Rule 1964 – 1985 Five generals would lead Brazil in 20 years of military rule that still haunt the nation. All political parties except two were banned, trade unions were suppressed, the media was strictly controlled. The repression coincided with a wave of urban guerrilla warfare. However rapid economic growth known as the ‘Brazilian economic miracle’ occurred – the economy grew at more than 10% a year. Still not everyone benefited. Many people were very poor. 1970s inflation climbed steeply and unemployment rose.
Military Rule 1970s Military rule becomes less repressive. After workers went on strike in Sao Paulo in 1977 trade unions were allowed once again. 1980s the army ended censorship and allowed political parties to form. 1985 - The army decided that the next president would not be directly elected by the people; instead he would be elected by an ‘electoral college’ made up of congressmen and senators. Tancredo Neves at 75 was chosen and just before his investiture was hospitalized for routine surgery; he died of a general infection days later. Tancredo Neves Sao Paulo
Modern Brazil Vice-president Jose Sarney, a former ally of the military regime, took office. By the end of his five-year term, inflation was completely out of hand. Fernando Collor de Melo took office in 1990. Collor was accused of corruption and resigned in 1992. Itamar Franco the finance minister replaced him and he was elected President in 1994 and re-elected in 1998. Jose Sarney Fernando Collor de Melo Itamar Franco
Modern Brazil New taxes and budget cuts were announced, recession settled in, and unemployment soared. 1999 Cardoso’s popularity was at a record low, causing nationwide calls for his resignation. 2002 - Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, known as Lula was elected President. 2011 – Dilma Rousseff became the first woman president of Brazil. Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva Dilma Rousseff
Modern Brazil 2011 – Brazil overtook the UK as the world’s 6 th largest economy. The population grew rapidly in the late 20 th century and today the population is 198 million. Brazil is a powerhouse of South America and is developing rapidly. Brazil still produces a great deal of coffee and sugar. Brazil also produces vast amounts of been. It is also very rich in minerals such as gold and gemstones. Car making is also an important industry as well as iron, chemicals, aircraft, textiles and cement. Brazil Immigration Crisis
Modern Brazil 2013 – There was growing discontent among many Brazilians with the government’s expenditures on infrastructure for the World Cup and for Rio de Janeiro’s hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games as education and health needs were seen as going unmet. 2013 Brazilians protested that as well as government corruption and, the administration’s handling of the struggling economy, and heavy-handed police response to demonstrations. Brazil Economy
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