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Chapter 1: Exploration and the Colonial Era

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1 Chapter 1: Exploration and the Colonial Era

2 Journal Write a brief dialogue that might have taken place among the Native Americans observing the European ship.

3 Ancient Cultures in the Americas
20,000 B.C. a land bridge exists between Asia and Alaska across Bering Straight 8,000 B.C. temperatures warm -> agriculture develops -> people plant crops in Mexico Ancient American societies Olmec in southern Mexico (1200 B.C.-400 B.C.) Maya in Guatemala (A.D. 250 – 900 A.D.) Aztecs in Mexico (1200 – 1500s) Inca dominate west coast of S. America (1200 – 1500s) Built cities and ceremonial centers, empires,


5 Native American Societies of the 1400s
Hohokam and the Anasazi introduce crops (corn, beans, squash) into American S. West northern Cali = Nootka hunt ocean for whales New Mexico + Arizona = Pueblo tribes grow corn + beans -> live in multi-story adobe houses NY = Iroquois hunt deer and bears

6 Common Characteristics
Land was not to be sold Extensive trade routes Cultures suited for their environment Natural world is filled with spirits Basic unit of organization = family Birth, marriage, death guided by tradition

7 West African Societies of the 1400s
600 – 1600 dominant empires = Ghana, Mali, Songhai Control of trans-Sahara trade Kingdoms of Benin and Kongo Strong govts., powerful rulers, collective ownership of land Importance of family, tradition and belief in one creator

8 West African Societies of the 1400s
Timbuktu, center of trading network that connects W. Africa to ports in N. Africa Islam brought by traders from N. African traders Portuguese set up trading posts in W. Africa

9 Assignment: Ch. 1 Sec. 1 People Achievements Ancient Americans Native Americans West Africans Define and explain the significance of the following: Beringia land bridge, Anasazi, Pueblo, Songhai

10 Journal You are the ruler of Portugal in the 1400s. Your gold mines are running low and you are concerned about the growing power of your European rivals. You need the resources available in India. What are you going to do?


12 European Societies of the 1400s
1. Monarchs and aristocrats (land owners) 2. Clergy (members of the church) 3. Agricultural laborers (peasants) Merchants and artisans could achieve some mobility

13 European Societies of the 1400s
Western Europe = Christianity Pope + bishops of Catholic church = political power 1096 – Crusades – Christian armies try to force Muslims out of Jerusalem Asian trade routes are opened Many nobles die or lose money -> monarchs become more powerful

14 European Societies of the 1400s
1500s – people want change Reformation – church practices + the pope are criticized Protestants support the Reformation -> seek religious freedom Catholics do not Competition between Spain, Portugal, France, and England for exploration

15 European Societies of the 1400s
The Renaissance = the great revival of art, literature, and learning in Europe Encouraged people to think for themselves Explorers are encouraged to seek adventure and conquest Gutenberg’s printing press helps spread ideas

16 European Societies of the 1400s
Map making improves Compass and astrolabe are improved Europeans need a water route to Asia Monarchs need money to finance large armies Portuguese explorers reach India -> sail around bottom of Africa

17 Assignment #2 Section 1 1. How did the following factors contribute to overseas expansion? Hierarchical society Catholic church Reformation Renaissance Sailing technology 2. Why do you think other European nations lagged behind Portugal in overseas expansion? 3. What effects did Portuguese trade have on West Africa?

18 Section 2: Spanish North America

19 Journal How would it feel to venture into the unknown, where there are no accounts from someone who has gone before, no maps, and no assurance of ever coming back?

20 Columbus Crosses the Atlantic
1492 – Columbus sails west to find a route to Asia He reaches Hispaniola and Cuba Thinks he lands on islands off Asia (Indies) Returns a year later + colonizes islands for Spain Natives, Taino, are forced onto plantations European diseases and weapons destroy native pop. West African slaves replace them (10 million)

21 Columbus Crosses the Atlantic
1,000s of Europeans want a new life in the Americas 1494 – Spain + Portugal sign Treaty of Tordesillas -> Western Hemisphere is divided

22 Columbus Crosses the Atlantic

23 The Spanish Claim a New Empire
Conquistadors, explorers from Spain, conquer most of Americas Hernando Cortes takes over Aztecs and their leader Montezuma with 508 men

24 Journal 1. What movements/events contributed to Europeans feeling more confident about exploring? 2. Why are West African slaves brought into the Americas? 3. Which two countries divided the Western Hemisphere? 4. Name two things that went through the Columbian exchange? 5. Who conquered the Aztecs?

25 The Spanish Pattern of Conquest
Mestizo – mixed Spanish and Native American pop. Encomienda – natives farm + mine for Spanish landlords Spanish priests complain Ends in 1542

26 The Spanish Pattern of Conquest
New Spain Pizarro conquers Inca Empire Mexico, Guatemala, parts of Central America + Caribbean, and the U.S.

27 Spain Explores the Southwest and West
Coronado leaves -> no gold Why would the Spanish return?

28 Spain Explores the Southwest and West
Gov. of New Mexico helps build 1,800-mile trail (El Camino Real) from Sante Fe to Mexico City Catholic missions are established in 1682 in El Paso, Texas 1542 – Cabrillo discovers San Diego harbor By 1823 – 21 missions in Cali. are built and protected by forts (presidios) Spread Catholicism and protect Spain’s holdings from other European nations

29 Resistance to the Spanish
Native Americans had to convert to Christianity, live in the missions, away from their families, work on the farms or in mines, wear European clothes, and pay a tribute Pueblo religious leader, Pope, organizes 17,000 Native Americans and drives the Spanish out of New Mexico for 12 years

30 “The best are good for nothing, and I will not go where there is chance of meeting one of them.”
-Hatuey, Native American who resisted the Spanish

31 Results European influence spread into present-day Cali., Texas, N. Mexico Some Native Americans convert to Catholicism Some resisted

32 Section 3 – Early British Colonies

33 The English Settle at Jamestown
John Smith establishes first permanent English colony in North America in Jamestown, Virginia (1607) Indentured servants – passage to America if they work for 4-7 years Enslaved Africans received land and freedom More space for tobacco fields leads to fights with the N. Americans Free indentured white servants rebel against local govt.

34 Puritans Create a “New England”
Pilgrims (Puritans who want to separate from Catholic Church) establish 2nd permanent English colony in Plymouth, Mass. (1620) Puritans establish Massachusetts Bay Colony and are led by John Winthrop Roger Williams establishes a colony in Providence, Rhode Island with religious freedom War between N. Americans and colonists (King Philip’s War)

35 Settlement of the Middle Colonies
New Amsterdam (1625) taken over by English in 1644 and renamed New York William Penn, Quaker, establishes Pennsylvania in 1682 with a representative govt. and freedom of religion

36 England and Its Colonies Prosper
13 colonies created from 1600s – 1700s Colonies exported lumber + furs to England and bought manufactured goods from England Mercantilism – a nation can become powerful if it sells more goods than it buys

37 Section 4 – The Colonies Come of Age

38 Journal Is it possible to be wealthy without relying on the work of poorer people?

39 Plantation Economy in the South
Rural Near rivers Self-sufficient Cash crops – rice, indigo, tobacco Immigrants – Germans, Scots, enslaved Africans Pop. = mostly farmers Plantation owners control society Enslaved Africans at the bottom

40 Triangular Trade

41 Middle Passage Slaves are brought from the W. Indies to the N. America
13% died from injuries and disease during 3-5 month journey across the Atlantic 1400 – 1800s Africa loses million people

42 African Slaves 80-90% work in the fields Domestic servants
Kept their storytelling, musical, and dance traditions Resistance Break tools Stono Rebellion (1739)

43 Trade Grows in the North
Industries = grinding wheat, harvesting fish, lumber, ship building Major ports = Boston, NY, Philadelphia Dutch, Scandinavians, Germans, Scots, Jewish immigrants More cities Growing wheat + corn -> less need for slave labor

44 The Enlightenment Philosophers value reason and scientific methods to understand the world instead of relying on the church Leads to questioning authority of British monarchy Humans are born with natural rights

45 The Great Awakening Puritan merchants prosper financially -> dedication to their faith declines Religious revivals sweep the nation Jonathan Edwards gives passionate speeches about rededication to God

46 Effects Colonists question traditional authority
The importance of the individual Belief in science and reason

47 The French and Indian war
French are fur traders -> business partners with N. Americans English want to establish colonies Many wars in Europe between France + England Conflict over Fort. Duquesne (Penn.) Native Americans + French vs. British + colonies British win when William Pitt takes over the army

48 The French and Indian War
Britain takes most of N. America Native American leader Pontiac leads revolt against British British spread small pox Native Americans sign treaties Proclamation of 1763 prohibits westward expansion

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