2 JournalWrite a brief dialogue that might have taken place among the Native Americans observing the European ship.
3 Ancient Cultures in the Americas 20,000 B.C. a land bridge exists between Asia and Alaska across Bering Straight8,000 B.C. temperatures warm -> agriculture develops -> people plant crops in MexicoAncient American societiesOlmec in southern Mexico (1200 B.C.-400 B.C.)Maya in Guatemala (A.D. 250 – 900 A.D.)Aztecs in Mexico (1200 – 1500s)Inca dominate west coast of S. America (1200 – 1500s)Built cities and ceremonial centers, empires,
5 Native American Societies of the 1400s Hohokam and the Anasazi introduce crops (corn, beans, squash) into American S. Westnorthern Cali = Nootka hunt ocean for whalesNew Mexico + Arizona = Pueblo tribes grow corn + beans -> live in multi-story adobe housesNY = Iroquois hunt deer and bears
6 Common Characteristics Land was not to be soldExtensive trade routesCultures suited for their environmentNatural world is filled with spiritsBasic unit of organization = familyBirth, marriage, death guided by tradition
7 West African Societies of the 1400s 600 – 1600 dominant empires = Ghana, Mali, SonghaiControl of trans-Sahara tradeKingdoms of Benin and KongoStrong govts., powerful rulers, collective ownership of landImportance of family, tradition and belief in one creator
8 West African Societies of the 1400s Timbuktu, center of trading network that connects W. Africa to ports in N. AfricaIslam brought by traders from N. African tradersPortuguese set up trading posts in W. Africa
9 Assignment: Ch. 1 Sec. 1PeopleAchievementsAncient AmericansNative AmericansWest AfricansDefine and explain the significance of the following:Beringia land bridge, Anasazi, Pueblo, Songhai
10 JournalYou are the ruler of Portugal in the 1400s. Your gold mines are running low and you are concerned about the growing power of your European rivals. You need the resources available in India. What are you going to do?
12 European Societies of the 1400s 1. Monarchs and aristocrats (land owners)2. Clergy (members of the church)3. Agricultural laborers (peasants)Merchants and artisans could achieve some mobility
13 European Societies of the 1400s Western Europe = ChristianityPope + bishops of Catholic church = political power1096 – Crusades – Christian armies try to force Muslims out of JerusalemAsian trade routes are openedMany nobles die or lose money -> monarchs become more powerful
14 European Societies of the 1400s 1500s – people want changeReformation – church practices + the pope are criticizedProtestants support the Reformation -> seek religious freedomCatholics do notCompetition between Spain, Portugal, France, and England for exploration
15 European Societies of the 1400s The Renaissance = the great revival of art, literature, and learning in EuropeEncouraged people to think for themselvesExplorers are encouraged to seek adventure and conquestGutenberg’s printing press helps spread ideas
16 European Societies of the 1400s Map making improvesCompass and astrolabe are improvedEuropeans need a water route to AsiaMonarchs need money to finance large armiesPortuguese explorers reach India -> sail around bottom of Africa
17 Assignment #2 Section 11. How did the following factors contribute to overseas expansion?Hierarchical societyCatholic churchReformationRenaissanceSailing technology2. Why do you think other European nations lagged behind Portugal in overseas expansion?3. What effects did Portuguese trade have on West Africa?
19 JournalHow would it feel to venture into the unknown, where there are no accounts from someone who has gone before, no maps, and no assurance of ever coming back?
20 Columbus Crosses the Atlantic 1492 – Columbus sails west to find a route to AsiaHe reaches Hispaniola and CubaThinks he lands on islands off Asia (Indies)Returns a year later + colonizes islands for SpainNatives, Taino, are forced onto plantationsEuropean diseases and weapons destroy native pop.West African slaves replace them (10 million)
21 Columbus Crosses the Atlantic 1,000s of Europeans want a new life in the Americas1494 – Spain + Portugal sign Treaty of Tordesillas -> Western Hemisphere is divided
23 The Spanish Claim a New Empire Conquistadors, explorers from Spain, conquer most of AmericasHernando Cortes takes over Aztecs and their leader Montezuma with 508 men
24 Journal1. What movements/events contributed to Europeans feeling more confident about exploring?2. Why are West African slaves brought into the Americas?3. Which two countries divided the Western Hemisphere?4. Name two things that went through the Columbian exchange?5. Who conquered the Aztecs?
25 The Spanish Pattern of Conquest Mestizo – mixed Spanish and Native American pop.Encomienda – natives farm + mine for Spanish landlordsSpanish priests complainEnds in 1542
26 The Spanish Pattern of Conquest New SpainPizarro conquers Inca EmpireMexico, Guatemala, parts of Central America + Caribbean, and the U.S.
27 Spain Explores the Southwest and West Coronado leaves -> no goldWhy would the Spanish return?
28 Spain Explores the Southwest and West Gov. of New Mexico helps build 1,800-mile trail (El Camino Real) from Sante Fe to Mexico CityCatholic missions are established in 1682 in El Paso, Texas1542 – Cabrillo discovers San Diego harborBy 1823 – 21 missions in Cali. are built and protected by forts (presidios)Spread Catholicism and protect Spain’s holdings from other European nations
29 Resistance to the Spanish Native Americans had to convert to Christianity, live in the missions, away from their families, work on the farms or in mines, wear European clothes, and pay a tributePueblo religious leader, Pope, organizes 17,000 Native Americans and drives the Spanish out of New Mexico for 12 years
30 “The best are good for nothing, and I will not go where there is chance of meeting one of them.” -Hatuey, Native American who resisted the Spanish
31 ResultsEuropean influence spread into present-day Cali., Texas, N. MexicoSome Native Americans convert to CatholicismSome resisted
33 The English Settle at Jamestown John Smith establishes first permanent English colony in North America in Jamestown, Virginia (1607)Indentured servants – passage to America if they work for 4-7 yearsEnslaved Africans received land and freedomMore space for tobacco fields leads to fights with the N. AmericansFree indentured white servants rebel against local govt.
34 Puritans Create a “New England” Pilgrims (Puritans who want to separate from Catholic Church) establish 2nd permanent English colony in Plymouth, Mass. (1620)Puritans establish Massachusetts Bay Colony and are led by John WinthropRoger Williams establishes a colony in Providence, Rhode Island with religious freedomWar between N. Americans and colonists (King Philip’s War)
35 Settlement of the Middle Colonies New Amsterdam (1625) taken over by English in 1644 and renamed New YorkWilliam Penn, Quaker, establishes Pennsylvania in 1682 with a representative govt. and freedom of religion
36 England and Its Colonies Prosper 13 colonies created from 1600s – 1700sColonies exported lumber + furs to England and bought manufactured goods from EnglandMercantilism – a nation can become powerful if it sells more goods than it buys
38 JournalIs it possible to be wealthy without relying on the work of poorer people?
39 Plantation Economy in the South RuralNear riversSelf-sufficientCash crops – rice, indigo, tobaccoImmigrants – Germans, Scots, enslaved AfricansPop. = mostly farmersPlantation owners control societyEnslaved Africans at the bottom
41 Middle Passage Slaves are brought from the W. Indies to the N. America 13% died from injuries and disease during 3-5 month journey across the Atlantic1400 – 1800s Africa loses million people
42 African Slaves 80-90% work in the fields Domestic servants Kept their storytelling, musical, and dance traditionsResistanceBreak toolsStono Rebellion (1739)
43 Trade Grows in the North Industries = grinding wheat, harvesting fish, lumber, ship buildingMajor ports = Boston, NY, PhiladelphiaDutch, Scandinavians, Germans, Scots, Jewish immigrantsMore citiesGrowing wheat + corn -> less need for slave labor
44 The EnlightenmentPhilosophers value reason and scientific methods to understand the world instead of relying on the churchLeads to questioning authority of British monarchyHumans are born with natural rights
45 The Great AwakeningPuritan merchants prosper financially -> dedication to their faith declinesReligious revivals sweep the nationJonathan Edwards gives passionate speeches about rededication to God
46 Effects Colonists question traditional authority The importance of the individualBelief in science and reason
47 The French and Indian war French are fur traders -> business partners with N. AmericansEnglish want to establish coloniesMany wars in Europe between France + EnglandConflict over Fort. Duquesne (Penn.)Native Americans + French vs. British + coloniesBritish win when William Pitt takes over the army
48 The French and Indian War Britain takes most of N. AmericaNative American leader Pontiac leads revolt against BritishBritish spread small poxNative Americans sign treatiesProclamation of 1763 prohibits westward expansion