2Chapter 28 Latin America Part 4 Foods of the World Note: This chapter covers the geography, climate, culture, and cuisine of Mexico and South America. This presentation displays the text objective related to each of these topics, followed by information to help students achieve the objective.
3ObjectiveDiscuss: What types of foods come to mind when you think of Mexico and South America? How do you think the use of these foods might have been influenced by geography and climate?Identify geographic and climatic factors that have influenced the characteristic foods of Mexico and the South American countries.
4Geography and Climate of Mexico In those sections of Mexico bordered by water, fish is an important part of the cuisine.The areas that border the United States are more suitable for raising cattle than crops.The geography and climate in the central plateau allow for profitable production of crops like corn and beans.Discuss: What bodies of water form Mexico’s coastline? What food is a staple in the areas just south of the U.S. border?What region of Mexico has a climate suitable for producing tropical fruits?
5Geography and Climate of South America High mountains and dense jungles have created geographic isolation in South America, which has led to the development of regional food customs.Nearly every kind of climate can be found in some part of South America.Discuss: What prominent mountain range runs through South America? What types of foods are produced in South America’s tropical regions? What types of foods are produced in South America’s cool mountainous areas?
6ObjectiveDiscuss: How are cultural factors that have affected the food customs of Mexico and South America similar to those that have affected the food customs of North America?Describe cultural factors that have affected the food customs of Mexico and South America.
7Mexican CultureThe Aztecs, who originally inhabited Mexico, added corn, beans, and peppers to the cuisine.Spanish explorers influenced Mexican culture and introduced rice, wheat, beef, and oil.Discuss: What other foods did the Aztecs contribute to Mexican cuisine? What were the main cooking techniques used by the Aztecs? What other foods did the Spanish add to Mexican cuisine? What cooking technique became popular once oil was introduced into the cuisine?What are some examples of how Mexico’s major crops are used in Mexican dishes?
8South American Culture South America was originally inhabited by native tribes, including the Inca.Portuguese and Spanish explorers brought their food customs with them to South America.Africans brought to South America contributed such foods as bananas, yams, and coconuts.Discuss: What is an example of how Incan food customs have influenced South American cuisine? Where in South America is Portuguese influence especially apparent? Who brought Africans to South America and why?
9Objective Prepare foods native to Latin America. Discuss: Which of the cuisines discussed in this chapter did you find most interesting? Why?Prepare foods native to Latin America.
10Staple Ingredients in Mexican Cuisine CornBeansPeppersDiscuss: What are some examples of how tortillas are used in Mexican cuisine? What is a popular Mexican dish made with beans? How can the peppers used most often in cooking be grouped and how do Mexican cooks use each group?What is the most important use of corn in Mexican cooking?
11Characteristic Foods of Mexico Discuss: How would you describe the Mexican vegetables mentioned here? What Mexican fruit is used to make guacamole?Mexican vegetables, such as huazontle, jicama, and chayotes, are often added to casseroles.Tropical fruits, including papayas, guavas, and pineapples, may be served in syrup as a light dessert.
12Characteristic Foods of Mexico Mexican sauces, or moles, are served with many foods and form the basis of flavorful stews.Desserts such as flan were influenced by Spanish and Portuguese cooks.Popular beverages include chocolate drinks and coffee.Discuss: How is geography in some parts of Mexico a factor in the preparation of stews? What types of desserts did the Aztecs eat? How are chocolate drinks and coffee prepared in Mexico?
13Mexican Regional Cuisine Wheat and beef are important in the cuisine of northern Mexico.Seafood is well liked among people living in coastal regions.Wild duck is common in eastern Mexico, whereas turkey is more common in the Yucatan.Bananas play a notable role in the cuisine of southern Mexico.Discuss: How do the tortillas eaten in northern Mexico differ from those consumed in other parts of the country? What is an example of how seafood is prepared in coastal regions of Mexico? Where is the Yucatan? How are banana leaves used in southern Mexico?
14South American Cuisine Discuss: What is an example of Spanish, Portuguese, or African influence in South American cuisine? What is another name for manioc?South American cuisine combines influences of native tribes with those of the Spanish, Portuguese, and Africans.Corn, potatoes, and manioc are staple foods found throughout South America.
15South American DishesVenezuela’s national dish, hallacas, is cornmeal dough filled with other foods.Ajiaco is a Colombian soup made with potatoes, chicken, corn, and cassava.Many Ecuadorian dishes feature locally grown bananas.Potatoes, or papa, are a staple food of the Peruvian people and are used in such dishes as causa a la limena.Discuss: What is a traditional Venezuelan bread? How do staple foods differ regionally in Colombia? What is an example of how bananas are used in Ecuador? How is causa a la limena prepared?
16South American DishesChileans eat a lot of seafood, and chupe de marisco is a popular scallop dish.Argentine metambre is made with spinach, hard-cooked eggs, carrots, onions, and flank steak.Brazil’s national dish, feijoada completa, is meat served with black beans and other accompaniments.Discuss: Why do Chileans eat little meat? How is metambre cooked? What are some of the accompaniments commonly served with feijoada completa?
17Apply It!Discuss: How are the food groups of the USDA Food Guide represented in your menu? How would you describe your menu in terms of color, texture, shape, size, and temperature variety?You want to take your family on a culinary tour of Latin America.Plan a four-course menu in which each course represents a different Latin American country.
18What Latin American foods will you serve your family? Key QuestionNote: Encourage students to use this question to help them review chapter information and apply it to their lives.What Latin American foods will you serve your family?
19Other Questions to Consider How is food used in holiday celebrations throughout Latin America?What kind of meal patterns are followed in Mexico?What are some of the highlights of modern culture in South America?Discuss: What other questions did this chapter raise that you would like to explore?