Presentation on theme: "Genetically Modified Organisms! Is Genetically Modified Food Safe Enough to feed the World’s Growing Population? ISU Nicketta Lagadoo Dec. 8, 2009 Mr."— Presentation transcript:
Genetically Modified Organisms! Is Genetically Modified Food Safe Enough to feed the World’s Growing Population? ISU Nicketta Lagadoo Dec. 8, 2009 Mr. Watts SBI4U
What Is Genetic Modification? Genetic Modification of an organism, is a process where by the genetic material( DNA or RNA) of an organism is transferred to another organism using biotechnology to achieve a desired effect Scientists alter the genetic make up of an organism to enhance a desired trait for commercial advantage for agricultural production Traits are taken from other plants, bacteria, viruses and animals Traits that are desired include: resistance to insects or pathogens, increase nutritional content, herbicide tolerance, longer shelf life in grocery stores, ability to grow faster and bigger, delayed ripening, or higher oil content, etc.
History of GMOs: Genetic Modification is not one of the 21st century, but has been around since the begginning of aguculture Humans have been naturally genetically modifying plants, to create the best offspring using selective breeding The process included the mixing of many genes together in order to achieve a specific result Since traditional breeding techniques are time consuming, and not accurate, genetic modification allows scientists to target the exact desired gene to be inserted into an organism in a short amount of time In 1994, the first commercially grown, genetically modified food was a tomato created by Flavr Savr Crops that have been genetically modified include: canola corn, including popcorn and sweet corn but not blue corn cotton flax papaya potatoes soybeans squash (yellow crookneck) sugar beet tomatoes, including cherry tomatoes
How the Process Works: The process of genetically modifying a plant is as follows: 1.A plant with the desired characteristic is identified. 2.The specific gene that produces the characteristic is located and restriction enzymes are used to cut the plants DNA. 3.A plasmid is joined to the gene to act as a carrier inorder to insert the gene into the cells of the plant. 4.A promoter is included with the gene and the plasmid, to help the gene function properly when inserted into the plant. 5.The gene package is then inserted back into the bacterium, which reproduces to create many copies of the gene package. 6.The gene packages are transferred into the plant that is being modified, using a “particle gun” or a soil bacterium. 7.The plant tissue that has taken up the genes is grown into full-size genetically modified plants.
Contd. Modified TraitCrop Input Traits Herbicide resistanceSugar beet, Soybean, Corn, Canola, Cotton, Flax Insect/herbicide resistanceCorn Insect resistanceTomato, Corn, Potato, Cotton Virus resistanceSquash, Papaya Male sterileCorn Output Traits Modified oilSoybean, Canola Modified fruit ripeningTomato Provitamin A enrichedRice Iron fortificationRice Beta-carotene, lycopene enrichedTomato Detoxification of mycotoxinsCorn Detoxification of cyanogensCassava Caffeine-freeCoffee beans Vitamin E enrichedCanola
Pros of GMOs: Enhance the taste and quality of foods Reduced maturation time Increase nutrients, yields, and stress tolerance Improved resistance to disease, pests and herbicides New products and growing techniques Conservation of soil, water and energy More efficient processing Increased food security for growing populations “Golden Rice”: Rice for many countries in the world is a primary food source Vitamin A from beta-carotene is made from mammals and is not found in polished white rice White rice was missing many essential vitamins and minerals, so people whose diet is heavily based on rice were malnourished The most severe consequences of malnutrition is blindness cause by the vitamin A deficiency Scientists genetically modified rice so that it could be high in vitamin A Turned rice, yellow in colour
Cons & Ethics of GMOs Cons of GMOs: Human health impacts (allergens or the transfer of antibiotic resistance markers) The transfer of transgenes through cross-pollination Loss of flora and fauna biodiversity Domination of world food production by a few companies Increasing dependence on industrialized nations by developing countries Harmful pollutants as a result of cross breeding plants and the formation of “super weeds” Ethics for GMOs: Violation of natural organism intrinsic values Tampering with nature by mixing genes among species
Labeling of GMOs in Canada: Canada is one of the largest producers of genetically modified crops, up to 70% of processed foods in the grocery stores contain genetically modified ingredients When a manufacturer wants to sell or advertise a new genetically modified product in Canada, they must submit data to Health Canada for a pre-market safety assessment as required under the Division 28 of Part B of the Food and Drugs Regulation. The information that is submitted is assessed by the evaluators who are experts in molecular biology, toxicology, chemistry, nutritional sciences, and microbiology. The criteria for assessing the new product is as follows: 1.How the modified product was developed 2.How the GM food compares to a non- modified counter part food in terms of composition and nutrition quality 3.The potential for production of new toxins in the food 4.The potential for causing allergic reactions 5.The microbiological and chemical safety of the food
Organizations Pro or Anti-GMOs: Pro GMOs: Organizations that support the creation of genetically modified foods are: AAEA (African American Environmentalist Association): -founded in a national, non-profit environmental organization that encourages participation in environmental issues -insist that GM foods are beneficial to helping feed hungry populations across the world -“Starvation is much more dangerous to more people than any threat presented by GM foods” Anti-GMOs: Organizations that do not support the creation of genetically modified foods are: The Royal Society of Canada: -“it is scientifically unjustifiable to presume that GM foods are safe, and that the default prediction for any GM foods is the creation of unintended side effects” Greenpeace: -Oppose the release of GMOs into the environment -advocates interim measures like the labeling of GM foods, and the segregation of GM crops and seeds from conventional and organic seeds
References: _________.(2006). Genetically Modified Foods. Retrieved Oct. 17, 2009, from Science Reference Center database. Eubanks, Mark W. (2003). Genetically Modified Foods. Retrieved Nov. 8, 2009, from Science Center database. Food Standards Agency. (2003). GM Basics. Retrieved Nov. 18, 2009, from Hanrahan, Clare (edu.). (2008). Global Resources. New York: Green Haven Press. Health Canada. (2009). The Safety of Genetically Modified Foods. Retrieved Nov. 10, 2009, from sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/iyh-vsv/food-aliment/gm-tg-eng.php. Human Genome Project Information.(2008). Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms. Retrieved Nov. 17, 2008, from Pictures: hotos/greenpeace activists- protest-a-10.jpg