Presentation on theme: "NIU ILAS 301 Michael Rice. I can articulate the 4 guiding questions of a Professional Learning Community I can explain the backward design curriculum."— Presentation transcript:
I can articulate the 4 guiding questions of a Professional Learning Community I can explain the backward design curriculum process I can write assessments and assessment questions according to current best practice (through a backward design lens) I can explain the role of differentiation in the classroom I can explain how assessment creation and use drives the differentiation process I can cite specific examples and non-examples of differentiation in use
Highly effective professional learning communities function based on the implementation of the answers to the following questions: What do we want our students to know and be able to do? How will we know when they’ve learned it? What will we do when they don’t? What will we do when they already know it? Each of these questions drives a specific practice in a professional learning community.
The first question of a PLC points members toward curriculum development Understanding by Design/backward design process Standards drive objectives drive learning targets drive assessments drive instruction Standards Objectives Learning Targets Assessment Instruction
A professional learning community rests on the foundation of a standards-based common curriculum (not pedagogy) in which all students and teachers can articulate expectations for learning So, how do we do this?
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.9-10.1bCCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.9-10.1b Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns. Develop a claim Develop a counterclaim Anticipate audience Evaluate evidence Supply evidence
So, from the published standard, I can create several objectives I can develop a claim I can develop a counterclaim I can anticipate my audience I can evaluate evidence I can supply evidence
Step 2: Establishing a learning target from an objective In effect, your job now is to do a “task analysis” to understand what knowledge and skills are needed in order for a student to demonstrate he/she can do the objective
Objective: I can develop a claim Target 1: I can define a claim Target 2: I can evaluate two sides of an argument Target 3: I can explain my own opinion Target 4: I can write a claim in the appropriate format Target 5: I can find evidence to support my claim These learning targets become the basis of instruction and the foundation of your assessments
The second question of a PLC guides instruction and assessment; the two fit hand in hand Assessment should be created and utilized prior to planning instruction Two types of assessment you should be familiar with are: Formative assessment (assessment FOR learning) Summative assessment (assessment OF learning) In other words, what do you DO with the results of the assessment?
Strong assessment practices include a variety of summative, formative, formal, and informal assessment Assessments should be useful to not only teachers, but also students, parents, and the school as a whole Assessment should no longer be looked at as a way to “prove” you taught something; rather as an “opportunity” for students to demonstrate learning
Formative Assessment Teacher: adjust instruction accordingly to meet the varying needs of your classroom Student: identify progress toward meeting established goals and plan to address deficiencies Parents: identify your child’s progress toward mastering material and plan to help him/her proceed System: measure implementation of curriculum and guide teachers’ collaborative conversations
Summative Assessment Teacher: measure student learning at the end of a course of study* Student: demonstrate learning at the end of a course of study* Parent: track student’s progress in a more traditional way System: measure implementation of curriculum and guide teachers’ collaborative conversations
Each question on an assessment—formative or summative— should relate to an identified learning target from the course of study Remember these Learning Targets? Target 1: I can define a claim Target 2: I can evaluate two sides of an argument Target 3: I can explain my own opinion Target 4: I can write a claim in the appropriate format Target 5: I can find evidence to support my claim
Students should have multiple opportunities to exhibit their understanding of a concept/skill—especially on a summative assessment I can define a claim Assessment Question 1 Assessment Question 2 Assessment Question 3
Best practice is to try to assess learning targets in as much isolation as possible, though sometimes multiple learning targets are assessed together in order to assess a student’s capability with an overall objective I can develop a claim I can write a claim in the appropriate format I can explain my own opinion
Do: write your assessments after establishing your learning targets (usually collaboratively with other teachers of the same course) Don’t: wait to write your assessments until after main ideas have emerged from a course of study Do: break summative assessments into smaller formative assessments to use throughout the course of study Don’t: assess students on material that is not an explicit learning target of the course of study
Strong assessment practices allow teachers to tackle the final two questions of a PLC—those that get to the core of instruction and how to best serve students The “assembly line” model of education is no more; students learn different things at different times in different ways Differentiation is a core expectation of all teachers for all students, not just some teachers for certain students (IEP, 504, ELL, etc.)
Differentiation has its roots in the RTI concept—a classroom teacher should reasonably expect to meet the instructional needs of 80% of the students in her classroom (Tier 1) Another 15% of students will have their needs met by adding an intervention (there are many types) in addition to the classroom teacher’s instruction (Tier 2) The final 5% of students will have their needs met by adding yet another intervention on top of their classroom and tier 2 instruction (Tier 3)
Differentiation is the practice of adapting elements of a lesson to meet the various needs of your students Remediation to a prior step in the learning process for struggling students Acceleration to the next step in the learning process for excelling students Alternate assignment for students with varying interests Different content (that practices the same skill) for varying interests Different skill (while still learning same content) for varying interests Different reading levels but same content for varying skill levels Extended time for students with processing needs The key is that you are not changing the learning target, simply how it is accessed
Different types of assessment allow teachers to differentiate more effectively. Consider the following examples Here are those pesky learning targets again… Target 1: I can define a claim Target 2: I can evaluate two sides of an argument Target 3: I can explain my own opinion Target 4: I can write a claim in the appropriate format Target 5: I can find evidence to support my claim
Mr. Rice gives a pretest the day before he begins his Research Paper unit with his Freshmen. He notices that 27 of his 31 kids can define a claim. However, when asked to write their own claim about a set of circumstances, they are unable to create one in the appropriate format. When Mr. Rice planned his course of study, he expected to have to devote one full day to defining a claim and its respective pieces. What might he do now based on the information he gained from his pretest?
Mr. Rice’s class has spent time looking at claims written by other authors, defining the required parts of a claim when they see them in others’ writing, and working as a class to develop claims in the appropriate format about given sets of circumstances. Mr. Rice asks students to complete an “exit ticket” before leaving Wednesday. The task is to independently create a claim for a set of circumstances he put up on the projector. When he looks at the exit tickets, Mr. Rice realizes about half of his students are still writing their claims incorrectly. What might Mr. Rice do tomorrow based on this information?
Today is a research day in the library. Mr. Rice knows that based on MAP scores and their 8 th grade EXPLORE scores there are 8 students in his class that came in to the year reading at a 5 th grade or below reading level. What might Mr. Rice do in order to ensure these students can still demonstrate knowledge of the unit’s learning targets?
At the end of research day #1, one student comes to Mr. Rice and hands him a completed assignment. This student had transferred from another school at the beginning of the year and was apparently placed in the pre-AP program, but this school does not have pre-AP English. Upon reviewing the paper that evening, Mr. Rice realizes that not only has this students exhibited mastery of the learning targets for one objective of the unit, but she has already mastered all of the learning targets to be addressed with this paper. What might Mr. Rice do for this student based on this information?
Differentiation allows more students to learn in more meaningful and relevant ways Differentiation becomes easier with experience and collaborative planning The more voices with experience in reaching students the more ideas for differentiation are available The more collaborative the differentiation process the more opportunity to spread the creation of differentiated activities