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2 The new hunting ground is not the best… Low supply Yield decline Climate Change Market speculation / Futures High Demand Hunger Poverty Injustice and.

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Presentation on theme: "2 The new hunting ground is not the best… Low supply Yield decline Climate Change Market speculation / Futures High Demand Hunger Poverty Injustice and."— Presentation transcript:

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2 2 The new hunting ground is not the best…

3 Low supply Yield decline Climate Change Market speculation / Futures High Demand Hunger Poverty Injustice and Misery High Prices Land conversion Peak Oil Land grabbing GMOs

4 BIGAS(Rice) Conference, 1985 Failure of Green Revolution: Loss of local varieties More inputs, higher costs More pests, new biotypes Infertile soils Degraded environment Poisoning >>Farmers “forgot how to grow rice” = Farmers’ greater indebtedness, rural poverty

5 The Beginnings: Farmers  Victims of social injustice  Complained of the direct effects and impacts of the green revolution  Pushed the implementation of an alternative farming system  Willingness to participate, help, and lead

6 MASIPAG Magsasaka at Siyentipiko para sa Pag-unlad ng Agrikultura (Farmer-Scientist Partnership for Development):  organized in 1986 as partnership between farmers, scientists and NGOs as alternative approach to the Green revolution Goal: Empower resource-poor farmers through access and control of production resources (seeds, technology, land)

7 Farmer-Scientist Partnership: The MASIPAG Experience Partners: Farmers, through their organizations (wealth of experience) Non-Government Organizations (organizing skills) Scientists (experimentation skills)

8 Empowerment of farmers through: Farmers’ control of seeds Farmers’ control of technology Farmers’ control of other resources Shared leadership in organizations Mastery in technology generation Articulation of needs and pursuit of aspirations

9 Strategies

10 Diversified-Integrated Farming System (DIFS) Farmer-developed / adapted technology Network Strengthening Local Processing and Marketing Advocacy Programs Collection, Identification, Maintenance, Multiplication and Evaluation (CIMME) Breeding (Rice, Corn, Livestock) Soil Fertility Management Alternative Pest Management (APM)

11 Strategic Role of Farmers’ Organization  Effective coordination, multiplier  Planning and decision making  Mutual support  Ensure diffusion of benefits  Sustainability of activities

12 MASIPAG Farmers’ Organizations (PO) Luzon: 90 POs Nueva Ecija: 8, Pangasinan: 9, Zambales: 7, Camarines Sur: 16, Occidental Mindoro: 1, Nueva Viscaya: 11, Isabela: 6, Cagayan: 2, Quezon: 7, Pampanga: 1; Rizal: 1; Abra: 2; Kalinga/Apayao: 3; Laguna: 1; Palawan: 4, Ilocos Norte: 1, Albay: 1, La Union: 1 Visayas: 174 POs Negros Occidental: 95, Ilo ï lo: 18, Antique: 13, Aklan: 12, Leyte: 7, Bohol: 1; Capiz: 12; Southern Leyte: 16; E. Samar: 2; N. Samar: 6 Mindanao: 390 POs Agusan del Norte: 34; Agusan Sur: 35; Bukidnon: 26; Compostela Valley: 1; Davao City: 39; Davao Norte: 29; Davao Oriental: 16; Davao del Sur: 9; Lanao del Norte: 11; Lanao del Sur: 4; Maguindanao: 10; Misamis Occidental: 18; Misamis oriental: 14; North Cotabato: 16; Saranggani: 2; South Cotabato: 6; Sultan Kudarat: 11; Surigao Norte: 7; Surigao Sur: 13; Zamboanga del Norte: 24; Zamboanga Sibugay: 15; Zamboanga del Sur: 50  Masipag in 49 Provinces

13 Members Undergo the Following Process:  Organizing  Sustainable Agriculture orientation  Establish a trial farm -monitor agronomic characters -conduct field day -select locally adapted  Thematic trainings  Diffusion between farmers and between POs

14 Training:  Level 1 - Basic orientation on Sustainable Agric. (Global, national, and local situation of food and agriculture, the green and gene revolutions, Masipag as an alternative)  Level 2 - Soil Fertility Management (SFM) - Breeding (rice, corn, chicken) - Alternative Pest Management (APM) - Diversified and Integrated Farming System (DIFS) - Masipag Farmer Guarantee System (MFGS)  Level 3 (Trainor’s training)

15 Diffusion through People’s Organizations Farmers / LGU Trial Farm Observe / Characterize Organization Training New Technology New Selection Field Day /Advocacy Interested Orientation Increased Yield, Improved Income Breeding Locally Adapted Variety Organize Other Farmers Experiment

16 A. Seed Conservation and Diffusion 1. Farmers collect rice varieties (CIMME) >Collection, Identification, Multiplication, Maintenance, Evaluation) 2. Farmers organize and given SA orientation 3. Establish a trial farm (laboratory cum seed bank) -monitor agronomic characters -conduct field day -select locally adapted 4. Farmers’ training 5. Do Breeding and further selection 6. Diffusion of seeds and knowledge among farmers

17 Collection, development and use of TRVs: 1,105 Traditional Rice Varieties collected 1,085 Masipag rice developed 506 Farmer-bred selections 75 Native corn varieties 6 native chicken gene pool

18 Masipag Rice conservation and Seed support system National Back-up Farm 2,160 rice varieties & Selections Regional (2), Provincial (9) Back- up farms 300 to 1,200 rice varieties & selections PO-managed Trial farms (223) At least 50 varieties per TF Verification farms 6 to 24 varieties Farm Production At least 3 varieties

19 B. Rice Breeding by Farmers  67 farmer-breeders  506 rice developed

20 C. Role of Farmer- managed Trial Farm  Farmers’ laboratory  Develop site-specific varieties  Develop site-specific technology  Seed bank  Creative organizing  Advocacy

21 Luzon (83): Nueva Ecija: 8, Pangasinan: 2, Zambales:1, Camarines Sur: 13, Occidental Mindoro: 10, Nueva Viscaya: 9, Isabela: 18, Cagayan: 1, Quezon: 14, Pampanga: 1; Antipolo: 2; Abra: 2, Ilocos Norte: 1, La Union: 1 Visayas (81): Negros Occidental: 29, Negros Oriental: 1, Iloïlo: 10, Antique: 17, Aklan: 1, Cebu: 2, Leyte: 10, Bohol: 1; Capiz: 5; Eastern Samar: 5 Mindanao (61): North Cotabato: 5, Agusan del Norte: 1; Davao City: 1, Davao del Sur: 1; Lanao Norte: 2, Zamboanga del Sur: 3, Zamboanga del Norte: 15; Misamis Oriental: 1, Bukidnon: 6; Compostela Valley: 1; Maguindanao: 3; South Cotabato: 3; Sultan Kudarat: 2; Surigao del Norte: 5; Zamboanga Sibugay: 11 Farmer-Managed Trial Farms in 49 Provinces

22 Cagayan – Elon-elon, Ag 5, M8-3-1, M35-1-1, M45-1, M Locally Adapted MASIPAG Rice and TRVs Kalinga – Onay Nueva Vizcaya – Pinili, Hinomay, Valentino, Ag 19, M11-20, M3-6, M109, M5-6, M45, M90, M11-20SG, M5-1, M30-1, M135-1, M19, 102 Nueva Ecija - Wag-wag Aga, Senador, AG5, AG10, Abra white, C22, M115-R, M146-1, M4-3-1, M45-1, M21-2-B2, M104-2R, M108-1R, M35-4-1, M69-2-2, M5-BD-2, M130-3, M48-1-1, M11-5-1, M86-3-1, M21, M11, M69, M5B2, M30, M45, M36-4-2, M4-3-1 Aurora – Elon-elon, Camoros, Sampaguita, Wag-wag Aga, Palawan, Raminad, Londan-honay, Galo, Ag 5, Ag 17, Kadali, Ag 27, White Borong, Fortuna, M21, M6-11-1, M3, M4, M35 Laguna – Wag-wag Aga, Sampaguita, BS Nagkarlan, Africa, M5-AS, M8-2-1, M62-1-2, M45, M5-B-2, M13-1-1, M13-1-1B, M36-4-1, M B, M4-3-1, M3-2-1, M Quezon – AG17, AG5, M41, M35, M12-21 Camarines Sur – AG24, Elon-elon, M5- A, M48, M70, M102, M103, M106, M107, M110, M112, M128, M131, M143 Agusan del Norte- Palay Damo, AG5, AG10, Sta. Maria, San pablo, Carandang, Bengawan, Jap 1, Tapol 1, India, M5-AS, M117, M , M11-20-B2, M4-4B, M5C, MC14-2R, M87-W, M Surigao del Sur – San Pablo, M2-1-1, M5-BD, M13-2-1B, M3-4-1, M93-1 Davao del Norte – AG5, Layong Mabilog, Cicadiz, Sampaguita, Milagrosa, Hinumay, Malagkit, Tinangi, Bogret, Camoros, San Pablo, Red Wag- wag, Wag-wag Aga, M35, , M21-4-1, M58, M50, M59, M75-1, M4-4-B2 Davao del Sur – AG5, M117-3, M , M117, M95-5, M5-AS Pangasinan – Lamyung, Bulik, Mogen, Cinamon,, Pandan, Sampaguita, Parirutong, India, Resco, Imp. Milagrosa, C22, M45, M , M69-2-1, M120-4, M , M44-3, M4-B1, M5-B1, M40-2-2, M44-1, M140-2, M8-3-1 Oriental Mindoro – Elon-elon, Ka Luis, AG5, GV3, M13, XO, M97, M11, M45-1 Aklan – Imp. Camoros, M45-1, M , M11-5-1, M31-37-B4, M21-b1-1, M76-4-1, M2-1-1, M5-CS, M125-2, M140-1, M B, M5-A1, M11-5-1, M Antique – AG5, AG10, 16-70D, San Pablo, Minantika, Red Rice, M5-BD, M5-CS, M21- B3, M21-B1-1, M21-37-B4, M36-1, M36-3, M36-4-1, M62-1-1, M104-2, M139-2 Negros Occidental – Wag-wag, AG10, AG5, Binangan, Dinorado, Fortuna, Imp. Borong, Imp. Milagrosa, Inuwak, Macan, Red Borong, Sampaguita, White Borong, Zambales, 2R-IN, 90D-42, 90D-43, 90D-44 Bugana Rice, GL1-8-1, GL4-5-5, GL4-9, M10-2-1, M104-1R, M , M117-1R, M127-3, M13-2, M133-1, M139-1, M , M20-1, M B4, M22-2-1, M36-1, M36-4-1, M4-4B, M5-BD, M50-1-1, M50-2, M5-AS, M62-1-1, M62-1-2, M6-6, M69-3-1, M8-2-1, M8-3-1, M90-2, M90-LG, MV4-4, Mv4-8 Zamboanga del Sur – White Bengawan, Red Elon-elon, Red Wag-wag, AG5, AG17, C35, M , M112-4, M115-6, M76-3-1, M , M86-4-1, M97-2-1, M , M97-ES, M5-AS, M15-12 Lanao del Norte – Ala, Wag-wag Aga, Sulig, Hinumay, AG5, M , M19, M68, M91, M86-4-1, M109, M R, M108-1R, M36-2, M86-4-1, M8-3-1 North Cotabato – C21, Moguama Africa, Nagdami, Vahari, Vadani, BS Nagkarlan, Maligaya Rice, Pinitumpo, AG5, Puro- puro, San pablo, Tinagi, M , M67-2-1, M5-BD, M26-4-1, M115-1A, M108-1R, M5-C3, M5-CS, M4-4B, M36-4-1, M14-1-1, M11-6-1, M123-2, M129-1, M , M , M11-6-1, M B, M36-4, M-AS, M5-B2, M94-4-1,, M11-6-1, M , M13-21B, M131-1, M146-1, 21-2-B2, M South Cotabato – San Pablo, AG5, M2, M3-1-1, M5-CS Bukidnon – Lubang, C18, Senador, Wag-wag Aga, Bengawan Puti, red Elon-elon, Red Borong, AG24, Bogret, Makagina, Mamintana, Pungko, Sologanon, SP Red, Sta. Maria, Sto. Niño, Sulig, AG5, Maligaya Rice, AG10, Puro-puro, Red Binato, M5-BD, C11-4, Dong Red, M76-1, M94, M , M3-4-1, M35-3-1, M51-1-1, M51-2, M5-C, M70-1W, M75-1, M86-1, M90-LG, M93-1 Iloilo - Kagingi, Imp. Camoros, Malido, Lubang, Inuwak, red Borong, M R, M Capiz – Libtong Mal, Milagrosa, Kadidit, Ag 23, M16-3, M115-1R, M114-4 Zambales -, Fortuna, Pandan, Japanese 3, C21, M45, M11R Bohol - Melobina, Maragay, Ag 5, Magsanaya, M148-1, SKK

23 Characteristic / Adaptation Traditional rice varieties Masipag rice High tillering capacity-42 Good ratooning ability-24 Low fertility soils 1236 Drought tolerance 8 9 Saltwater tolerance 712 Flooding tolerance 1 7 Pest/disease resistance 6 17 Red / Black/Violet15279 Number of Traditional Rice Varieties (TRVs) and Masipag rice with desired characteristics. RESULTS:

24 Flood tolerant – M116-2, M115-1R, M160-1, M45-1, PBB 401 Flood tolerant – JDC 3, JDC8, Dalagang Bukid Salt water tolerant – Jasmine, Kanoni, Elon-elon, Makaginga, Binulawan Drought tolerant – Elon- elon, San Vicente, Palawan, M160-1 Drought tolerant – M4-3-1, Hinumay Salt Water tolerant– Loreto, Binulungan, M115- 1R, M45-1 Drought tolerant – Red Borong, Zambales MLD 4-1 Legends: Farmer-bred lines Traditional rice varieties MASIPAG Selections Solano, Nueva Vizcaya Calabanga, Cam Sur Bato, Cam Sur Sta. Josefa, Agusan del Sur Malng, North Cotabato Sultan Kudarat, Saranggani Alimodian, IloiloLibagon, Southern LeyteDrought tolerant – M148-2, M394-1, M51- 2, M177-3, M74-1 Batbatngon, Leyte Drought tolerantt – Senador, Hubanib Patnongon, Antique Drought tolerant – M6-14-1R Climate Change-ready varieties

25 Green manure Compost, Vermicompost Soil Fertility Management D. Soil Fertility Management Fermented Plant Juice, Fish Amino Acid, Indigenous microorganisms

26 Soil fertility E. Alternative Pest Management Farm Management Practices Soil nutrient management Method and time of planting Crop and Varietal Water management Diversification Crop rotation Maintain Insect Pest,Pathogen, Ecological Weed Balance Technology Development by Farmers

27 F. Diversified and Integrated Farming System (DIFS) Diversification is insurance against stochastic events > 3-5 varieties of rice per farmer > Diversification in time (crop rotation) > Diversification in space (vertical space, horizontal space) > Diversification by use > Diversified and Integrated Farming System (DIFS) = a farm plan is needed

28 DIFS: more sources, more food, more income

29 DIFS and multifunctionality Maintain stock resources in the Farm Livestock: Bank in the backyard ! Ducks: Natural pest control

30 G. Poultry Gene Pool and Development Nine PO managed chicken gene pool

31 No Regrets Adaptation to Climate change: Cultivation of survival crops: Tuber crops are food insurance (sweet potato, cassava, taro, yam) Resilient crops (banana) Sturdy crops (coconut) > non-traditional food crops and animals Drought tolerant (sorghum, pigeon pea)

32 Carabao driven rotary used in rice farming by Abraham of Sultan Kudarat H. Farmer-developed and Adapted technologies Pangi leaves used as botanical pest control by Doming of Zamboanga del Sur

33 Organic farming for rural development Organic farming: use resources within the farm > Green Manuring (biofertilizers) > Crop and animal wastes (as organic fertilizers) > Vermicomposting > Companion crops >>> reduces farmers’ economic exposure to risks (less production costs)

34 34 Reduce vulnerability through farmer- based adaptive strategies Diversification > 3-5 varieties of rice per farmer > Diversified and Integrated Farming Systems > Tuber crops (food insurance) > non-traditional food crops and animals > Green Manuring (biofertilizers) > Livestock (bank in the backyard) > Medicinal plants (pharmacy in the backyard)

35 I. Local marketing of organic products MASIPAG Farmers’ Guarantee System: Organic standards Internal quality control Product and market development Processing facilities Management capacity bldg.

36 J. Advocacy Advocacy against development aggression: -GMOs, patenting of life, corporate control -Mining -Aerial spraying -Land grabbing and land conversion -Biofuels Advocacy in favor of: - agrarian reform - susag/organic ag and food security >> practical work is our best advocacy

37 Improved Income: Net agricultural income per hectare, 2007 (Pesos) Masipag Organic Masipag In Conversion Chemical Faming Luzon24,412**18,991**13,403** Visayas22,868**16,039**13,728** Mindanao Average 23,715 ns 23,599*** 17,362 ns 17,457*** 19,588 ns 15,643*** ** = highly significant differences *** = very highly significant differences Ns = no significant difference

38  As organization and network:  635 Peoples Organizations; 35,000+ farmers  60 Non-Government Organizations  15 Scientist-partners  67 farmer rice breeders; 12 corn breeders  100+ volunteer farmer-trainers  On-farm research resources  223 PO-managed trial farms +10 back-up  9 PO-managed native chicken gene pools  Active in 49 provinces

39 Summary MASIPAG works on: Farmers’ Empowerment Biodiversity conservation Sustainable agriculture and farming Organic production and marketing Food security and Poverty alleviation Coping mechanism to climate change >> Not Green or Gene revolution but “Farmer revolution” >> A partnership, a network, a philosophy and a way of life

40 Some Lessons in Participatory Research  Agricultural problems have technological as well as non-technological solutions  Certain degree of trust and confidence building as well as leveling-off is needed  R & D should be farmer-centered, not project-, discipline-, scientist-, agency-, or NGO-centered  Need-driven, not fund driven

41 Some Lessons in Participatory Research  Farmers’ counterparting and no dole-outs should be observed  Sense of ownership by the farmers should be inculcated  Organization has multiplier and sustainability effect  Change and development should only be as fast as the farmers can assimilate

42 Source: Barefoot Guide to Organizations

43 The paths are not to be found, but made And the activity of making them Changes both the maker and the destination. John Schaar Wanderer, your footsteps are on the road, Wanderer, there is no road, The road is made by walking. Antonio Machado Thank you for your attention.


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