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Science and Policy for Food Security: USAID’s Feed the Future Research Programs and Partnerships Rob Bertram, Bureau for Food Security June 22, 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Science and Policy for Food Security: USAID’s Feed the Future Research Programs and Partnerships Rob Bertram, Bureau for Food Security June 22, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Science and Policy for Food Security: USAID’s Feed the Future Research Programs and Partnerships Rob Bertram, Bureau for Food Security June 22, 2012

2 Global Food Prices Source: FAO The Global Challenge

3 Feed the Future Staples-led growth Announced in 2009 at G-8 Summit in L’Aquila, Italy, with $3.5 B investment Presidential initiative Addresses root causes of hunger and undernutrition Whole of government Photo: Borlaug Foundation Our Response

4 Source: Stan Wood et al. (IFPRI) 2009. Sub-national poverty ca. 2005 (<$1.25/day) Number Prevalence Defining FTF Research Priorities Using poverty & nutrition lens: Identify key production systems where hunger and poverty are significant…

5 Source: USAID and IFPRI, Harvest Choice maps Child stunting

6 Advancing the productivity frontier Transforming key production systems Improving nutrition and food safety Three research themes: Indo-gangetic plains in South Asia Sudano-sahelien systems in West Africa Maize-mixed systems in East and Southern Africa Ethiopian highlands Anchored by key geographies: Overarching Goal Emerged: Sustainable Intensification Research Strategy

7 Longer-term Research - Major Themes 1. Heat and drought tolerant, climate adapted cereals 2. Advanced technology solutions for animal and plant diseases 3. Legume productivity for improved nutrition and incomes Application of Advanced Research for Productivity and Resilience - Policy, social science and nutrition research (e.g. utilization of food) - Increased availability and access to high quality foods for improved diets (animal sourced food, horticulture, aflatoxin control) South Asia Indo- Gangetic Plains Bangladesh Maize-mixed East & Southern Africa Tanzania Sudano- Sahelian West Africa Ghana Ethiopian Highlands Ethiopia Longer-Term Investments Near-Term Impact Sustainable Intensification of Key Production Systems Complement Mission investments in select value chains Integrate component technologies, policies, social sciences, nutrition Research at USAID

8 Big Idea 1: Climate Resilient Cereals Challenge: Climate change (heat, drought) impacts cereal yields Tropical maize yields to decline 7% with one degree C temperature rise 25 million ha of crop land are affected by drought annually Recent heat waves caused losses of 30% in wheat and 70% in maize hybrids Solution: Higher yielding, heat tolerant, climate resilient cereals Climate resilient wheat: help boost food security for 900 M people Improved rice: 9.6 M more tons of rice in S. Asia by 2020 Drought and HT maize: lift 4 M Africans from poverty by 2016 How ? Partner with private sector to advance “big win technologies” Focus resources on drought and heat tolerance in rice and wheat Selectively leverage other investments (esp private sector) in maize Maintain ongoing investments in rice, wheat, maize, sorghum & millet Cereal Staples Research

9 Big Idea 3: Major gains in grain legume productivity Challenge: Lagging yield gains in legumes, key for nutrition and income, are leading to increased prices and reduced consumption From 1965 to 2009, bean yields in Africa have remained stagnant (0.6-0.7 tons/ha) while maize yields have doubled Optimal dietary ratio of cereals to legumes is 2 to 1. In South Asia, the current consumption ratio is skewed towards cereals at 9 to 1 Solution: Enhanced yield and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance Improved biological nitrogen fixation 200 million Africans consume cowpea: Bt cowpea effective against Maruca New varieties with improved heat and drought tolerance Enhanced resistance to soil-borne pathogens How: Address main constraints by strengthening collaborations between USAID partners to achieve major gains in legume yield Cowpea yields can increase by more than 0.5 ton/ha with greater heat, drought and biotic stress tolerance in Sudano-Sahelian agro-ecosystem. Chickpea yields in South Asia’s Rice-Wheat system can increase by ~0.4 tons/ha with greater biotic stress tolerance combined with heat and drought tolerance. Grain Legumes Research

10 Focus: Seed Systems & Technologies Research: – New staple crop varieties and hybrids critical Conventional breeding and genetic engineering – Policy research and engagement Biotech regulatory policy Seed systems, intellectual property, etc. Seed systems support – Seed Trade Associations (AfSTA)

11 DGP CRSP: Bean Technology Dissemination Shortage of high-quality bean seed in Haiti, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua Program facilitates multiplication of quality seed and dissemination Involves Community Seed Banks and promotes adoption of improved bean varieties Recent Developments

12 Increased access to quality, improved seed USAID programs promote quality seed access – PROFIT (Zambia) Input Dealer/Cooperatives—NASFAM/Malawi Pro-private sector targeted subsidies—no seed “give-aways” Quality seed and genetic improvement technologies – mutually interdependent, drives demand for both Recent Developments

13 Agriculture enabling environment Biosafety regulations and seed systems Food security research and cross-cutting issues Financial systems, insurance, market access Nutrition research – the human dimension Food utilization Behavioral change & household decision making Gender/family dynamics Availability and access to high quality, nutritious foods Horticulture, livestock, fish, dairy, legumes Aflatoxin control and improved food safety Biofortified crops for micronutrient deficiency Medium-term Research


15 Challenges in Seed Markets Combination of public-sector support and private-sector commercial activities Science-based policy Providing economies of scale Seed market features – Hybrids vs open-pollinated varieties – Partnerships, best practices for seed markets

16 Partnership roles: Public/Private Balance 1.Range of activity within the seed system 2.Type of crop – seed production complexity (the more complex to produce the more farmers depend on private suppliers) 3.Stage of development: transition from state- dominated seed systems to private provision of key services 4.State capacity to carry out critical regulatory functions

17 Facilitating technology transfer How/when our researchers engage private sector – W. Africa herbicide resistant sorghum (INTSORMIL) with NARS & Pioneer – Direct support to private sector companies – India/ Mahyco

18 G-8 Focus on Food Security Recognition of importance of access to technologies, esp. seed, to advance agricultural productivity Scaling Seeds and Technologies Partnership – Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) – Broad stakeholder partnerships – Targets smallholder producers

19 19 Summing up…3 principles Legal and regulatory framework provide needed certainty and market conditions for private sector seed growth Govt’s move from public control to support for markets through sound PPP Achieve regional harmonization (economies of scale) through coordination and support of implementation

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