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Improving nitrogen fertilization in rice by site-specific N management. A review* 作者: Shaobing Peng, Roland J. Buresh, Jianliang Huang, Xuhua Zhong, Yingbin.

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Presentation on theme: "Improving nitrogen fertilization in rice by site-specific N management. A review* 作者: Shaobing Peng, Roland J. Buresh, Jianliang Huang, Xuhua Zhong, Yingbin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Improving nitrogen fertilization in rice by site-specific N management. A review* 作者: Shaobing Peng, Roland J. Buresh, Jianliang Huang, Xuhua Zhong, Yingbin Zou, Jianchang Yang,Guanghuo Wang, Yuanying Liu, Ruifa Hu, Qiyuan Tang, Kehui Cui, Fusuo Zhang, Achim Dobermann 出處: Agron. Sustain. Dev. 30 (2010) 649–656 報告人:陳筱鈞、莊豐鳴、陳伊蓉、吳昌烜

2 Outline Introduction - Nitrogen use efficiency - SSNM

3 Introduction Increase in fertilizer nutrient input, especially N fertilizer, has contributed significantly to the improvement of crop yields in the world. Over-application of N fertilizer may actually decrease grain yield by increasing susceptibility to lodging and damage from pests and diseases.

4 Introduction China is currently the world’s largest consumer of N fertilizer. In 2006, annual N fertilizer consumption in China was 31 million metric tons or 31.7% of the global N consumption. China’s national average N rate for rice was 193 kg ha − 1 in 2006, about 90% higher than the world average.

5 N-omission plots Fertilizer N use efficiency can be measured in different ways using N-omission plots. 1.Full fertilization:NPK applied 2.N omission( – N):No N applied, PK applied 3.P omission( – P):No P applied, NK applied 4.K omission( – K):No K applied, NP applied - an N omission plot illustrates the deficit between the crop demand for N and indigenous supply of N, which must be met by fertilizers.

6 Nitrogen Use Efficiency 1.Total N rate. 2.Agronomic N use efficiency. 3.Recovery efficiency of fertilizer N. 4.Yield response to N application. 5.Partial factor productivity of apply N (PFP).

7 Nitrogen Use Efficiency(1) Total N rate : - 單位面積的所施的氮肥量,單位 kg ha -1 。 Yield response to N application (N response) : - It is calculated as the difference between yields with and without N fertilizer. N response = Y T - Y 0 in kg ha -1

8 Nitrogen Use Efficiency(2) Agronomic N use efficiency : - The yield increase that results from N application in comparison with no N application. AE N = (Y T - Y 0 ) / F N = ΔY/ΔN in kg kg -1 = N response / total N rate

9 Nitrogen Use Efficiency(3) Recovery efficiency of fertilizer N : - which is used to express the percentage of fertilizer N recovered in aboveground plant biomass at the end of the cropping season. RE N = ( U T - U 0 ) / F N = ΔU/ΔN in kg kg -1

10 Nitrogen Use Efficiency(4) Partial factor productivity of apply N (PFP) : - the ratio of grain yield to N applied and it provides an integrative index that quantifies total economic output relative to utilization of all N resources in the system, including indigenous soil N and fertilizer N. PFP N = Y T / F N in kg kg -1 =Grain yield / total N rate

11 1. Zhu (1985) reported that recovery efficiency in China was less than 30% for ammonium bicarbonate and 30–40% for urea. 2. In China, agronomic N use efficiency was 15–20 kg kg − 1 N from 1958 to 1963 and declined to only 9.1 kg kg − 1 N between 1981 and 1983 (Lin, 1991). 3. Peng et al.(2006) reported that rice yield increases by only 5 to 10 kg for every kg of N fertilizer input by using farmers’ N fertilizer practice in China.

12 SSNM Site-specific N management : SSNM was developed to increase fertilizer N use efficiency of irrigated rice. In SSNM, N application is based on the crop demand for N.

13 - N-omission plots - chlorophyll meter (SPAD) 、 leaf color chart

14 Leaf N status During the growing season, leaf N status measured with a chlorophyll meter (SPAD) or leaf color chart is a good indicator of crop N demand. transplanting, midtillering, panicle initiation and heading

15 The N rate The pre-determined N rate is 30 kg ha − 1 at midtillering and 40 kg ha − 1 at panicle initiation. The actual rates of N topdressing at midtillering and panicle initiation are adjusted by ± 10 kg N ha − 1 according to leaf N status measured with a SPAD or leaf color chart.

16 The four steps about SSNM… 1.Set an attainable yield target based on 85% of yield Potential. 2.Estimate indigenous N supply – yield without N fertilizer. 3.Estimate N response – the difference between target yield and yield without N fertilizer. 4.Estimate N rate based on N response and agronomic N use efficiency.

17 Improving nitrogen fertilization in rice by site-specific N management. A review 3. IRRI-CHINA COLLABORATION ON SSNM RESEARCH Speaker: 莊豐鳴 Journal: Agronomy for Sustainable Development 30 (2010) 649–656 Author: Shaobing Peng et al.

18 SSNM in IRRI

19 SSNM experiment design IRRI and China cooperation since 1997 Data sources: -on-farm field trails in 5 provinces -on-farm demonstration in 6 provinces (J.G. Richardson, 2003) -farmer’s participatory research in 5 provinces (Rice knowledge bank, IRRI )

20 Distribution of experimental provinces

21 on-farm trails in Zhejiang( 浙江 ) 、 Guangdong( 廣 東 ) 、 Hunan( 湖南 ) 及 Jiangsu( 江蘇 ) (Peng et al, 2006)

22 A on-farm trails in Hubei( 湖北 ) 、 Guangdong( 廣東 ) 、 Hunan( 湖南 ) 及 Jiangsu( 江蘇 ) Other treatmentsexplanation (1)Real-time N managementBelow critical N level with SPAD (2)Farmer’s N fertilizer practiceN rate based on farmer’s decision (3)Modified farmer’s N fertilizer practice Reducing total N rate by 30% within 10 days after transplanting (4)Three fixed –N split treatmentN rates of 60,120,180 kg/ha(35% basal,20% midtillering, 30% panicle initiation, 15% heading )

23 Farmer participatory research(FPR) in Hubei( 湖北 ) 、 Guangdong( 廣東 ) 、 Hunan( 湖南 ) and Jiangsu( 江蘇 ). (Hu et al., 2007) 1.Farmer participatory research:12-15 farmers in each study village and total 144 farmers. 2.Farmer-modified SSNM: Decrease N topdressing, and increase basal N. Site selection Exp. Design and decision making Implementation and evaluation

24 B on-farm demonstrations 1.Six provinces: Zhejiang( 浙江 ) 、 Guangdong( 廣 東 ) 、 Hunan( 湖南 ) 、 Jiangsu( 江蘇 ) 、 Hubei( 湖北 )and Heilongjiang( 黑龍江 ) 2.One location is selected in each province, and 10 farmers are selected in each location. 3.Experimental design: SSNM with N omission plot Farmer’s N fertilizer practice on_plot.htm

25 Data analysis Pooled the data from 2001 to 2007 in 6 provinces (544 observations) Compare SSNM with other N treatments Analytic parameters: -yield -N response -Agronomic N use efficiency -Partial factor productivity of applied N(PFP)

26 Improving nitrogen fertilization in rice by site-specific N management. 4. Key research findings Speaker :陳伊蓉

27 Table 1 a. 107 farmers form six provinces in China between 2003 and 2007 b.average grain yield of zero-N control was 5.69 t ha -1 across the 107 farmers SSNM Grain yield N rate N response Agronomic N use efficiency PFP

28 a. 25 on-farm field experiments conducted in five provinces in China between 2001 and 2007 b.average grain yield of zero-N control was 5.69 t ha -1 across the 25 experiments Table 2 SSNM Grain yield N rate N response Agronomic N use efficiency PFP

29 Grain yield and N rate of site-specific N management and other N treatments site-specific N management other N treatments Six provinces in China form

30 Relationship between grain yield with and without N fertilizer y = x (r = 0.70; n = 544) Six provinces in China form

31 Relationship between yield response to N application and N rate Six provinces in China form observations N response average 1.5 t ha

32 Relationship between yield response to N application and grain yield with N fertilizer Six provinces in China form

33 Relationship between agronomic N use efficiency and N rate Six provinces in China form

34 Relationship between agronomic N use efficiency and grain yield with N fertilizer Six provinces in China form

35 5. Remarks on site-specific N management 報告學生 : 吳昌烜

36 Remarks on site-specific N management 1.High indigenous N supply capacity in China. – Reduce N rate during early vegetative stage 2.Total N rate is based on N response and AE N. – Experimental results – Indigenous N supply capacity 3.Adjustments of topdressing N rate by ±10 kg/ha at critical time based on leaf N status. Charlie fong

37 The Limitations of the SSNM 1.N response varies with the location across seasons. – Cropping history, variety, climatic condition 2.Total N rate can not be very accurate. – N response and AE N 3.Tillering capacity and early growth vigor. – Varietal differences 4.In-season adjustment of N rate by ± 10 kg/ha may be inadequate. – the magnitude of N response Charlie fong

38 Conclusion 1.SSNM is a matured technology. – AE N and yield of irrigated rice crop 2.For a better performance of SSNM. – N response and AE N 3.In-season adjustment on N rate. – Location, season and variety Charlie fong

39 Conclusion 1.Simplify the procedure of SSNM. 2.To convince policy-makers. 3.To develop SSNM based on remote sensing technology for large scale practice. Charlie fong 推廣

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