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Presentation on theme: "FOOD SECURITY IN VIETNAM – CHALLENGES AND POLICY"— Presentation transcript:

Nguyen Trung Kien Acting Director, Commodity Markets Division Institute of Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development - IPSARD

2 Contents Food security situation in Vietnam
Possible risk scenarios of food security in Vietnam Policy for managing food security risks

3 Food Security Situation

4 Food Availability by Commune
Northern provinces achieved food sufficiency Southern provinces produced surplus food (rice) for export (a) Cropping intensity is about 1.85 and post-harvest loss is about 7%

5 Surplus supply now concentrated on: “Core Rice Belt’ in six provinces
Important structural changes are happening in MKD rice production. While rice is still produced in most districts, nearly all of the growth in production over the past decade has occurred within 20 to 25 districts, most of which being in the north west segment of the Delta. It is here double and triple cropping has been facilitated and where most of the technological changes are occurring. Interestingly, this “core” rice growing area will likely be more impacted by upstream developments on the Mekong River than the expected impacts from climate change over the coming several decades.

6 Vietnam per capita rice consumption has begun to decline, this will likely to accelerate
P.C. Rice Consumption in Asia (Kg/Yr) Myanmar 160 Vietnam 135 Philippines 128 Indonesia 104 China 95 South Korea 88 Malaysia 80 India 77 Japan 45

7 Domestic Market Growth: Changing size/composition of food expenditure
2010: $30 billion 2020: $ billion? Source: WB

8 Changing economic role of rice
…Rice: important yet declining economic shares: healthy sign of growing and diversifying economy Source: Steve Jaffee, WB, 2011

9 Food Affordability Domestic Food Price (VND/kg) Poverty Rate (%) 2006
2010 Vietnam 15.5 10.7 Urban 7.7 5.1 Rural 18 13.2 By region Red River Delta 10.1 6.5 North East 22.2 17.7 North West 39.4 32.7 North Central Coast 26.6 19.3 South Central Coast 17.2 14.7 Central Highlands 24 21 South East 4.6 3.7 Mekong Delta 13.3 11.4 Source: VHLSS 2002 – 2012

10 An Giang 2009/10 (MDI Survey Results)
Food Affordability High margin attained but income from rice production is still below $1 Per Capita/day An Giang 2009/10 (MDI Survey Results) Total Cost/KG (vnd 000) Profit/KG (vnd 000) Profit/Cost Profit Per HH (VND Million) Profit Per HH ($) Winter – Spring 2.87 1.53 53% 8.7 527 Summer Autumn 3.96 (0.03) -1% (0.1) Autumn Winter 3.30 1.90 61% 8.0 485 Average 3.33 1.09 33% 1012 Average household size is 4.4 members Average profit per capita $230/year = VND 3.8 million or 316,250/month. Current poverty line is VND 400,000/person/month

11 Food Utilization Threat of Undernourished Children Percentage of Under-5 Children Undernourished (weight for age) Group/Region Percentage Vietnam 20.2 VietNam - Kinh/Chinese 18 VietNam - Other Minorities 29.7 Red River Delta 18.5 North East 22.3 North West 28.8 North Central Coast 21 South Central Coast 23.7 Central Highlands 23.2 South East 10.8 Mekong River Delta 20.4

12 …. More rice cannot solve all problems of food insecurity…
Indicators 90-92 95-97 00-02 05-07 Malnutrition rate (%) 31 22 17 11 Number of malnourished people (million) 21.0 16.7 13.3 9.6 Minimum calorie request (Kcal/person/day) 1710 1740 1780 1810 Calorie consumption (Kcal/person/day) 2090 2310 2520 2770 Mekong Delta: malnutrition with food surplus Malnutrition rate is higher in the specialized area of rice production in comparison with areas with agricultural diversification There are correlations between poverty and malnutrition rate ( ) Source: CASRAD, 2011 Trong giai đoạn , cung năng lượng hàng ngày đã đạt 2770Kcal/người/ngày, vượt qua tất cả các nước châu Á đang phát triển khác, trừ Trung Quốc. Con số tương tự của Thái Lan và Indonesia là 2530 Kcal và 2540 Kcal. Tuy nhiên, an ninh lương thực không đơn thuần là vấn đề có đủ lương thực. Những vấn đề liên quan đến sức khỏe của mẹ, mất cân bằng dinh dưỡng trong bữa ăn, thiếu nguồn cung nước sạch, hoặc bệnh tật và giun sán là các yếu tố có tác động đến vấn đề suy dinh dưỡng nhiều hơn là vấn đề thiếu lương thực Source: FAO,

13 Food Security Risk

14 Chỉ số giá LT thế giới (2002-04 = 100)
World food market has witnessed 3 times of price shock since 2007, with amplitude 50% higher than the last 2 decades, and strong correlates with energy prices Chỉ số giá LT thế giới ( = 100) World Food Price Index Source: FAO

15 The rate of fertilizer price increase is higher than the rate of production growth and rice price increase Price of rice Price of NPK fertilizer Source: Agroinfo

16 Import and price of material for animal feed is increasing
Rice export value Animal feed and inputs import value (000 USD) Năm 2013, SX 16,8 triệu tấn TĂCN chế biến công nghiệp cho GS, GC và thủy sản. Nguyên liệu NK là: tấn = 54,9% tổng sản lượng TĂCN. Từ tháng 1/2014 đến tháng 4/2014, VN đã nhập khẩu trên 2 triệu tấn ngô Due to the rapid growth of livestock sector, animal feed companies have to import more than 60% of raw material quantity to produce each year. Soybean import price Source: GSO, Vietnam Animal Feed Association

17 Land use changes by land class and scenario, 2007 -2030
Source: Van Dijk et al., 2013

18 Climate change and impact on crop yield
Impact of climate change in Vietnam, Source: MONRE, 2009 Source: Van Dijk et al., 2013

19 Area with high flood risk in high climate change impact scenario
Source: Van Dijk et al., 2013

20 Impacts of natural disasters on agriculture
Paddy & cultivation area loss due to natural calamity (000 ha) Number of flash flood over years National Centre for Hydrometeorological Forecasting, MONRE 2010 Central Committee for Flood and Storm Control, 2010

21 Food Security Policy

22 Policy Objectives Focus on rice self-sufficiency Policy objectives:
To ensure national food security To ensure food supply sources To meet nutrition needs To ensure benefit of rice farmers To ensure people’s accessibility to food To increase efficiency of paddy land To improve international position of Vietnam

23 Food Security Policies
Supply intervention: Policy to ensure supply sources Policy to fix floor price for rice procurement Procurement policy for temporary storage Policy to fix conditions for the rice export enterprises Direct support policy for paddy farmers Demand intervention: Policy to restrict export in emergency case Policy to stabilize price by fixing the retail price Rice provision for poor households

24 Supply Interventions (1) To ensure supply sources
Objective: To ensure national food security Content: Planning and keeping 3.8 million ha of paddy land by 2020, of which 3.2 million ha is irrigated for >2 crops/year Effectiveness: It is an important policy to ensure food security Vietnam remain to have enough domestic supply with only 3 million ha of paddy land To improve income, farmers still convert the planned paddy land to other annual crops Need to consider rice export strategy to grasp the multi-dimensional benefits of rice production.

25 Vietnam’s Rice Balance in 2030 in the Worst Scenario Yield: 5
Vietnam’s Rice Balance in 2030 in the Worst Scenario Yield: 5.8 tons/ha. Post-harvest losses: 10% Scenarios Projection in 2030 Paddy quantity Rice consumption Rice export 3.8 mil ha 40.3 12.7 5.2 3.6 mil ha 38.2 4.1 3.3 mil ha 35.0 2.4 3.0 mil ha 31.8 0.8 2030: Population: 110, 4 million Consumption: kg per head Urbanization rate: 41,8% Trong 10 năm trở lại đây thì chỉ thiệt hại 1 triệu tấn lúa: 0,5 triệu tấn gạo trong trường hợp xấu nhất Source: WB, 2011

26 Efficiency Question 3.7 2.7 4.1 0.5 101.4 9.1 9.3 Paddy Coffee
Export value (billion USD) 3.7 2.7 Area (million ha) 4.1 0.5 Water use (billion m3) 101.4 9.1 Household number (million households) 9.3 Source: AgroCensus

27 Supply Interventions (2)
Policy to fix floor price to ensure a minimum profit of 30% production costs for farmers Objective: Ensure income of paddy farmers Content: Food enterprises purchase paddy at floor price . MOF, MARD set up method; provincial authorities estimate and declare floor price Provincial authorities monitor and manage the process of procurement. Effectiveness: It is difficult to calculate production costs Mainly apply in MRD, not for other regions

28 Households by Farm size (%)
Source: agrocensus 2011

29 Income Source of Paddy Farmers in MRD, 2010
Farm size The average income per capita of a rural household (VND/month) Total average income per capital (000 VND) Contribution by paddy production (%) 1 ha 859 19% 1 – 2 ha 1183 26% 3 ha 1930 36% 4 ha 1972 68% Source : VHLSS 2010 Trợ cấp /ha, quy mô hộ bình quân 4,4 người => mức trợ cấp bình quân đầu người: đ/ha/năm =9.500 đ/ha/tháng Quy mô hộ trồng lúa dưới 1ha, nếu tính cả các nguồn thu nhập khác cũng không đảm bảo thu nhập bình quân của hộ nông thôn Quy mô hộ trồng lúa dưới 3h, tỉ trọng thu nhập từ trồng lúa dwosi 50% => Người nông dân không thể sống chỉ dựa vào cây lúa

30 Supply Interventions (3) Procurement policy for temporary storage
Objective: increase demand to push procurement price Content: Support 100% interest rate for enterprises procuring for temporary storage within 3 months The amount of procurement is proposed by VFA at market price to stabilize national reservation, consumption and export. 

31 Unclear impact of the storage procurement policy
20/9 buy 0.5 mil tons Thailand 5% broken rice price (USD/ton) Vietnam whole sale rice price (USD/ton) Source: Agroinfo data

32 Conditionalities on rice export enterprises
Supply Interventions (4) Conditionalities on rice export enterprises Objectives: Develop long-term relationship between enterprises and paddy farmers to stabilize market outlets and income for farmers Ensure the balance between export and domestic consumption Stabilize rice market, enhance efficiency of export Content: Setting conditions for enterprises to participate in rice export: > 5000-ton specialized storage >1 milling factory with capacity of >10 tons/h Located in province/cities with rice surplus for export and international seaport . => Maintain the minimum storage, equivalent to 10% of export volume of rice in 6 months ago=> if the domestic price of rice increase suddenly, the storage will provide rice to meet demand Nghị định 109/NĐ-CP/2010 về kinh doanh XK gạo: Thời hạn áp dụng 1/10/2011 và được gia hạn đến 1/10/2012 => Chưa có hiệu lực) có ưu tiên riêng cho nhóm DN nào không? => Trả lời: Không. Đáp ứng điều kiện thì được cấp phép. Nhưng do điều kiện này đòi hỏi doanh nghiệp phải có vốn lớn => Thường những doanh nghiệp lớn thuộc VFA mới đáp ứng đủ điều kiện Nếu đảm bảo đủ điều kiện thì có thêm ưu đãi gì không? Ví dụ có thể thế chấp dự trữ và kho chứa để vay vốn ưu đãi không? Có làm dịch vụ cho ND gửi lúa không? => Trả lời: Bản thân các doanh nghiệp đáp ứng đủ yêu cầu thì được tham gia kinh doanh xuất khẩu, chứ không có điều kiện ưu đãi cụ thể. Tuy nhiên, khi doanh nghiệp xây dựng kho chứa và tham gia thu mua tạm trữ, có thể nhận được những ưu đãi như đã review trong các chính sách trước đó. Và các doanh nghiệp đó thường là nàm trong nhóm các doanh nghiệp đáp ứng được điều kiện của nghị định 109 Sàng lọc các doanh nghiệp nhỏ lẻ “tranh mua, tranh bán” (có phải là vấn đề không? Có làm hạ giá của ND hay không? Hay câu chuyện chính là việc hạ giá khi XK, mà đây có đúng là câu chuyện cần quan tâm không) Source: Decree No. 109/NĐ-CP/2010

33 Direct support to paddy farmers
Supply Interventions (5) Direct support to paddy farmers Objectives: Support to protect and develop paddy land Content: Supporting VND/ha/year for organizations, households, privates producing on specialized land of wet rice; Supporting VND/ha/year for organizations, households, privates producing on the other paddy land except the area of upland rice can expand themselves without following any regulations and plans of paddy land use. Effectiveness: Support famers directly Difficult to implement and monitor Difficult to identify upland rice area in land use planning Low effectiveness: Income of paddy farmers do not improve significantly => Move to other crops or to non-farm activities Source: Decree No. 42/2012/NĐ-CP issued 11/05/2012

34 Supply Interventions (6)
General Support Objective: to increase income of farmers from agricultural production Content: Exempting agricultural land use tax to the poor households, agriculture households in the disadvantaged areas, reduce 50% of agriculture land use tax for the others. Support in borrowing loans to buy facility, materials with priority interest rate. Exempting irrigation fee R&D Seed subsidy Rural infrustructure New rural village program .....

35 Policy to restrain export in emergency case
Demand Intervention (1) Policy to restrain export in emergency case Objectives: Reduce inflation, stabilize domestic consumption price and ensure food security Content: In 2008, crisis of global food price => The guidance of Prime Minister to stop signing any new contracts of rice export The Government imposes tax on rice export (period of validity: from 21/7-19/12/2010) Số: 1746/BCT-XNK V/v Điều hành xuất khẩu gạo năm 2008: “Các doanh nghiệp xuất khẩu gạo xuất trình hợp đồng xuất khẩu có xác nhận "đã đăng ký" của Hiệp hội Lương thực Việt Nam khi làm thủ tục xuất khẩu tại cơ quan hải quan” => Việc đăng ký là bắt buộc Source: Decision No.104/2008/QĐ-TTg issued 21 /7 /2008,

36 Policy to restrain export in emergency case
Profit analysis of stakeholders in the period of price fluctuation in 2008 (USD/ton) US Okays Japan export stock (5/2008) Export restriction time (25/3/2008)

37 Retail price stabilization
Demand Interventions (2) Retail price stabilization Objectives: Support the low income group in case of high inflation Content: Subsidize the sale of basic foods: tax concession and interest rate subsidies for retailers (focus on supermarket system) CT: 03/2008/CT-BTC (01/12/2008) CT: 03/CT-BTC (31/12/2009) CT: 05/CT-BTC (22/12/2010) CT: 03/CT-BTC (12/12/2011) Movement of retail price of rice (VND/kg)

38 Demand Interventions (3)
Direct food support Objective: Direct food support Content: Poor households involved in forestation and forest protection will receive 15 kg rice per capita per month during the period when they are not able to provide themselves with staple food (not over 7 years). Poor household in the border areas will be granted 15 kg rice/person/month until they can self- sufficient in food. Support for food-deficit provinces before the harvest Direct food support for provinces suffered from natural disasters Nghị quyết 30a của Chính phủ ban hành ngày 27/12/2008 quy định hộ nghèo nhận khoán chăm sóc, bảo vệ rừng được giao rừng và giao đất để trồng rừng sản xuất được hưởng trợ cấp 15 kg gạo/khẩu/tháng trong thời gian chưa tự túc được lương thực (không quá 7 năm). Ngoài ra, các hộ nghèo ở thôn, bản vùng giáp biên giới trong thời gian chưa tự túc được lương thực cũng được hỗ trợ 15 kg gạo/khẩu/tháng.

39 Changing Approach Current Approach New Approach Protect paddy land
Protect agricultural land Rice self-sufficiency Increase farmer income and improved nutrition Resource intensive Technology intensive and environmental friendly practices Production focus Post-harvest and trade focus Small farm and middleman domination Large scale and value chain linkage Administrative control Market-based intervention Food export Utilize the benefit of international integration Inflation control Target to poor and vulnerable groups of consumers


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