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Black Rice Week 11 Lecture 01 An African Contribution to American Agriculture This lecture was last updated on 28 December, 2014 This lecture was last.

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Presentation on theme: "Black Rice Week 11 Lecture 01 An African Contribution to American Agriculture This lecture was last updated on 28 December, 2014 This lecture was last."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Black Rice Week 11 Lecture 01 An African Contribution to American Agriculture This lecture was last updated on 28 December, 2014 This lecture was last updated on 13 December, 2014 This lecture was last updated 03 November, 2013

3 This week’s lecture is based primarily on the reading for the week: Carney, Judith A Black Rice: The African Origins of Rice Cultivation in the Americas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Additional information was gathered from the sources shown on the next three slides

4 Black Rice: Additional Sources Burling., Robbins Hill Farms and Paddy Fields: Life in Mainland Southeast Asia. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. P. 30. Chrispeels, Maarten J., and David Sadava Plants, Food, and People. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company. P. 19. Details of the nutritonal quality of rice appear in Kennedy, Barbara M Nutritional Quiality of Rice Endosperm. In Luh, Bor S. editor, Rice: Production and Utilization. Westport Conn: Avi Publishing Company, Inc. Pp De Datta, Surajit K Principles and Practices of Rice Production. New York: John Wiley and Sons. P Gallais, Jean Le Delta Intérieur du Niger: Etude de Géographie Régionale,. 2 vols. Dakar: Institut Fondamental de l’Afrique Noir. Vol. 1, p. 99. Gallais cites the research of French agronomist Pierre Viguier, who worked in the area in the 1930s.

5 Black Rice: Additional Sources Hanks, Lucien Rice and Man: Agricultural Ecology in Southeast Asia. New York: Aldine. P. 16. Hess, Karen The Carolina Rice Kitchen: The African Connection. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press. Humphreys, Charles P., and Patricia L. Rader Rice Policy in the Ivory Coast. In Pearson, Scott R., J. Dirck Stryker, and Charles P. Humphreys, editors, Rice in West Africa: Policy and Economics. Stanford: Stanford University Press. P. 22. Kittler, Pamela Goyan, and Kathryn P. Sucher Food and Culture in America: A Nutrition Handbook. Belmont, Calif: West/Wadsworth. Second edition. Pp Linares, Olga F African rice (Oryza glaberrima): History and future potential. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99(25):

6 Black Rice: Additional Sources McIntire, John Rice Production in Mali. In Pearson, Scott R., J. Dirck Stryker, and Charles P. Humphreys, editors, Rice in West Africa: Policy and Economics. Stanford: Stanford University Press. P Oka, H. I. 1988, Origin of Cultivated Rice. New York: Elsevier and Japan Scientific Societies Press. Pp Pearson, Scott R., J. Dirck Stryker, and Charles P. Humphreys Introduction. In Pearson, Scott R., J. Dirck Stryker, and Charles P. Humphreys, editors, Rice in West Africa: Policy and Economics. Stanford: Stanford University Press. P. 1. Richards, Paul Coping with Hunger: Hazard and Experiment in an African Rice- Farming System. London: Allen and Unwin. Pp and 154. Bilger, Richard True Grits: In Charleston a Quest to Revive Authentic Southern Cooking. The New Yorker October 31, 2011: 40 et seq.True Grits: In Charleston a Quest to Revive Authentic Southern Cooking

7 Black Rice: Additional Sources A few additional sources are given on the slide where the information appears.

8 Montclair State University Department of Anthropology Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World Dr. Richard W. Franke Black Rice: The learning objectives for week 11 part 01 are: –to understand the latest discovery of African contributions to America: African rice and rice production practices –to appreciate the significance of African rice production skills in facilitating economic growth in colonial America –to understand the main facts about the slave trade as they help to understand African contributions to the Americas 7Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

9 Montclair State University Department of Anthropology Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World Dr. Richard W. Franke Black Rice Terms you should know for week 11 part 01 are: –Carolina Rice –Middle passage –Hanging dike 8Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

10 Rice  The single most important food grain in the world  Providing half the calories to one-third of the world’s people in 2002 Source: The New York Times 5 April Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

11 Advantages of Rice  Can grow on almost any type of soil  Is one of the most nutritious foods with *carbohydrates *iron *vitamin B *7% protein (8% for brown rice) *niacin 10Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

12 Advantages of Rice In the make-up of its protein content, rice is even more valuable than the percent figure suggests. Using the hen’s egg as a protein score of 100 means that the protein contains the amino acids the human body cannot synthesize in almost exactly the correct proportions. 11Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

13 Advantages of Rice Potatoes have a protein score of 34, beans 44, corn 49, wheat 62, and soybeans 67. Rice has a score of 69, with a near perfect proportion of leucine and good proportions of tryptophan and valine. Sources: Chrispeels, Maarten J., and David Sadava Plants, Food, and People. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company. P. 19. Details of the nutritional quality of rice appear in Kennedy, Barbara M Nutritional Quality of Rice Endosperm. In Luh, Bor S. editor, Rice: Production and Utilization. Westport Conn: Avi Publishing Company, Inc. Pp Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

14 How Rice Grows  Cell structure of the roots has wide canals, which allow the plant to take in oxygen and nutrients from water.  Thus, flooding of the young plants can greatly increase the output of rice.  “The capacity of most [flooded] terraces to respond to loving care is amazing.” Source: Clifford Geertz Agricultural Involution. Berkeley: University of California Press. P Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

15 How Rice Grows  Seeds grow from the top of the shaft, unlike wheat and corn that grow from the side.  At harvest, each plant has 5 or more ribs radiating out in a fan shape. Source: Hanks, Lucien Rice and Man: Agricultural Ecology in Southeast Asia. New York: Aldine. P Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

16 How Rice Grows  The thin tropical soils are compensated for by the nutrients brought in by the irrigation water.  Blue-green algae in the warm water help the rice plants fix nitrogen.  The gentle movement of the water in the paddy field aerates the rice plants. 15Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

17 Growing Rice: The 7 Steps  Clearing, Repairing Terraces and Dikes  Plowing: turning the soil  Smoothing and flooding: “The soil is pulverized and soaked until it becomes a mire of heavy mud.” (Robbins Burling)  Planting then Transplanting  Weeding, Fertilizing, Pesticides  Draining  Harvesting Source: Robbins Burling Hill Farms and Paddy Fields: Life in Mainland Southeast Asia. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. P Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

18 Repairing the Dikes can be back-breaking work as this Javanese rice farmer shows. 17Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

19 Repairing the Dikes often continues through the flooding and even planting periods, creating the hard work that this Indian farm laborer needs to survive. 18Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

20 Asian Rice Terraces In parts of China, India, Japan, Vietnam, the Philippines, as on this Javanese hillside 19Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

21 Asian Rice Terraces farmers making dikes have also carved out spectacular terraces to limit erosion, make the slopes flat, and bring additional land under cultivation. Outsiders have marveled at the skill of the farmers and the beauty of the fields. 20Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

22 21Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

23 Asian Rice Terraces The Southeast Asian terraces in the previous slide show why. 22Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

24 Plowing can also be heavy labor as shown by this Indian farmer as he prepares the soil for the first rains with the help of two oxen. 23Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

25 Smoothing and Flooding is the heaviest work, even with the help of the stalwart Javanese water buffaloes. 24Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

26 Smoothing and Flooding These Indian farmers work together to prepare the field for the young rice plants that will be inserted into the mud by women laborers. 25Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

27 Forty Days after Planting the seedlings are pulled up and transplanted at precisely 25 centimeters intervals to give the best root growth. 26Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

28 Transplanting Today this is known as the “Japanese Method,” and is practiced throughout Asia. 27Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

29 Transplanting… is done throughout Asia by women and is some of the hardest labor, requiring bending over for hours to shove the seedlings into the mud. Just taking a step backwards is hard work in the thick goo of the padi field. 28Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

30 Harvesting takes place about 90 days after transplanting and requires the backbreaking work of women throughout Asia. 29Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

31 Harvesting Like the woman in the previous slide, these Indian farm laborers cut the rice plants one by one to maximize output per unit of land. 30Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

32 Is Followed by Binding up the rice in bundles to carry to the landowner’s house where the (in this case) Javanese landlord’s rice will be dried and threshed. 31Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

33 Carrying can also be a formidable task, at least in this Indian village. 32Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

34 Preparing Rice After harvest, the rice must be  Dried  Threshed, to remove the grains from the stalks,  Pounded, to break the husk off the grain  Winnowed, to separate the chaff from the grain 33Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

35 Threshing can be done as hand pounding or with the feet, rolling the rice seeds back and forth under the weight of one’s body. 34Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

36 Preparing Rice  Some cultures cook the rice once while still in the husk.  This is called “parboiling.” 35Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

37 Preparing Rice Parboiling increases the nutritional value of rice because some of the vitamins in the seed coat penetrate into the kernel. The losses from polishing are reduced. Parboiling also makes the seeds less brittle so fewer of them crack during milling. Source: Borgstrom, Georg Harvesting the Earth. New York: Abelard-Schuman. P Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

38 Preparing Rice  Rice can be eaten with some of the inner husk left (brown rice), or  Rice can be polished to a pure white. 37Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

39 There Are Many Types of Rice with Many Flavors and Textures Thousands of varieties worldwide Jasmine Basmati Brown Red Sticky Sweet, etc. 38Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

40 Eating Rice The classic Western vision of rice is the Chinese rice bowl, awaiting the chopsticks. 39Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

41 Eating Rice Rice is the central food around which Chinese meals are constructed. 40Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

42 Eating Rice In South India rice is steamed with coconut and sugar to make a popular breakfast. 41Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

43 Eating Rice Another breakfast item is rice cakes with a spicy vegetable sauce called “sambar.” 42Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

44 Origins of Rice Rice farming probably originated in China, perhaps over 4,000 years ago. In a study of Asian agriculture published in 1911, Franklin Hiram King called the Chinese people the “farmers of 40 centuries.” King, Franklin Hiram Farmers of Forty Centuries, or, Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea, and Japan. Madison, Wis: Mrs. F. H. King. Republished in 1973 by Rodale Press. 43Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

45 Origins of Rice For centuries, Western scientists and observers have assumed the Chinese and other Asian varieties were the only source for all the world’s domesticated rice. 44Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

46 Origins of Rice The Asian rice is known as Oryza sativa, and was long considered the species from which all modern rice varieties descended. 45Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

47 New Evidence on Rice In 2001, Judith Carney’s book brought together evidence showing that an African rice variety was independently domesticated hundreds of years ago. 46Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

48 African Rice In the 19 th Century French botanists working in West Africa began describing a kind of rice that differed significantly from Oryza sativa. In 1914, French botanist August Chevalier formally advanced the hypothesis of an indigenous African rice. 47Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

49 African Rice By the 1970s scientists had reached agreement on the existence of African rice, now named Oryza glaberrima, (smooth husk rice), the term suggested by German botanist Ernst Steudel in 1855 while examining some of the French samples. Carney, Judith A Black Rice: The African Origins of Rice Cultivation in the Americas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Page Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

50 African Rice Thus, it now appears that of the 20 species of rice that grow wild on earth, two were domesticated: Oryza sativa in Asia 7,000 years ago, and Oryza glaberrima in West Africa, date unknown 49Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

51 African Rice This slide was added 23 January 2012 Week 11 Africa 3 Rice50 Karen Hess (1992:13) cites research indicating that African domesticated rice has been cultivated since at least 1,500 BCE.

52 What’s the Importance? Our knowledge of a separate African domestication of rice helps solve many historical problems, such as why many African peoples use European words for rice, but others such as the Mandinka and Wolof have original words of non-European origin. 51Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

53 What’s the Importance? It also helps explain why some Arab and Italian travelers to Africa mentioned the presence of large amounts of rice in Jenne, Gao, and Timbuktu in the great inland Niger River Delta region many years before the Portuguese brought Oryza sativa from Asia in the late 15 th Century. Source: Carney, page 43 52Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

54 What’s the Importance? Carolina Rice But the greatest importance of this finding is that we now have strong reasons to believe that African slaves brought the knowledge and skills from their African homeland to create the first great commercial crop of the New World: Carolina Rice. 53Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

55 Rice in North America Many people are familiar with Carolina brand rice. Fewer realize that rice from Georgia and South Carolina was a major crop that sold in the markets of Europe from as early as Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

56 Rice in North America The association of Black people with white rice in the supermarket results from a Texas company’s marketing strategy many years ago. 55Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

57 Rice in North America An African-American rice farmer in Texas named “Ben” gained a regional reputation for his skill and the high quality of his rice. 56Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

58 What’s the Importance? For centuries European and North American observers have presumed that Carolina rice was Oryza sativa, brought from Asia by Portuguese traders, and grown under the supervision of brilliant white managers who instantly designed irrigation and planting techniques that adapted Asian rice to the special conditions of Georgia and South Carolina. 57Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

59 What’s the Importance? But Judith Carney’s careful and innovative historical research suggests that it was slaves from the rice- producing areas of West Africa who created the sophisticated irrigation and drainage systems found in Georgia and South Carolina. 58Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

60 What’s the Importance? These systems resemble those found in West Africa in remarkable detail and do not look like the Asian irrigation works. 59Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

61 What’s the Importance? The Europeans of the time had no knowledge of irrigated rice agriculture. And—their planting and water management techniques differed significantly from those of their African slaves. 60Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

62 What’s the Importance? Instead, we should look to the traditional knowledge of West African rice farmers for the basis of Carolina rice. They were the only expert farmers present at the creation of the sluices, canals, drainage works, plugs, and other devices used in North American rice farming in the period from the 1690s to 1776 when Carolina rice became a major export crop to Europe. 61Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

63 African Rice Origins African peoples developed three different systems for growing Oryza glaberrima 62Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

64 African Rice Origins 1. Highland 2.Freshwater Floodplain 3. Mangrove 63Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

65 African Rice Origins Each system was fine- tuned to specific environ- mental condit- ions. 64Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

66 Highland Rice in America In the mid 1700s Thomas Jefferson attempted dry upland rice production in Virginia. He used slave labor, but we do not know if the slaves came from the rice producing areas of West Africa. The project failed commercially. 65Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

67 Slave Trade Basics Let us consider for a few moments the basic facts about the slave trade. 66Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

68 Slave Trade Basics: Updated 2011 Thanks to the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Data Base recently created and online free at: 67Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

69 Slave Trade Basics: Updated 2011 We now have detailed facts about what actually happened during the slave trade. 68Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

70 Slave Trade Basics: Updated 2011  From 1514 to ,000 slave ship voyages carried 12.5 million people from Africa to the New World as slaves.  Around 10.7 million arrived alive; the other 1.8 million died on the way, on what African Americans call the “Middle Passage.”  By 1850, one-third of all Africans were living outside Africa as slaves. 69Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

71 Slave Trade Basics The slaves were brought to – North America 7% (USA 5%) North America 7% (USA 5%) The Caribbean 42% The Caribbean 42% South America 49% South America 49% 70Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

72 Slave Trade Basics From 1701 to 1810, a period for which we have good shipping records, 59% came from the West African regions of Senegambia, Sierra Leone, and Ghana. 71Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

73 Slave Trade Basics Judith Carney presents convincing historical documentary evidence to show that the plantation owners in the rice growing regions of Georgia and South Carolina actively sought to purchase slaves from these West African areas, knowing they had rice growing knowledge and skills. 72Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

74 Slave Trade Basics: 2012 Update Karen Hess (1992:13) cites a Charleston newspaper advertisement in 1785 that described “a choice cargo of windward and gold coast negroes, who have been accustomed to the planting of rice.” Source: Hess, Karen The Carolina Rice Kitchen: The African Connection. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press. Page Week 11 Africa 3 Rice This slide was added 23 January 2012

75 Slave Trade Basics: 2012 Update Hess (1992:14 – 15) further cites studies showing that South Carolina slaves used seed planting methods identical to those in Africa where they pushed a hole with their heel as they walked along, then covered the seed by pushing down with their foot. Source: Hess, Karen The Carolina Rice Kitchen: The African Connection. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press. Page s14 – Week 11 Africa 3 Rice This slide was added 23 January 2012

76 Slave Trade Basics: 2012 Update Hoeing in unison to work songs was another African procedure used in rice planting that was not imposed by the European planters. Source: Hess, Karen The Carolina Rice Kitchen: The African Connection. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press. Page14. 75Week 11 Africa 3 Rice This slide was added 23 January 2012

77 Slave Trade Basics West Africans were also desirable because of their resistance to malaria, something the white owners recognized but could not explain. Today we know that the presence of sickle cell in their blood and certain foods in their diet gave them substantial immunity from the disease. 76Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

78 Slave Trade Basics The US Congress outlawed the slave trade in 1808, but slavery as an institution had already been enshrined in the US Constitution. Slave trading continued in the New World until about Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

79 Slave Trade Basics US slaveholders dealt with the abolition of the overseas slave trade by creating slave breeding “farms” so that an internal slave market and slave trade developed. 78Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

80 Slave Trade Basics: 2012 Update Thousands of slaves went from breeding farms in Kentucky to Mississippi or Alabama. Up to 16% of all Kentucky slaves were “sold down the [Ohio and Mississippi] river” (which is where that saying comes from). 79Week 11 Africa 3 Rice This slide was added 23 January 2012

81 Slave Trade Basics: 2012 Update The white and black characters who ride down the Mississippi together on a raft in Mark Twain’s 1884 novel Adventures of Huckleberry Finn capture some of the drama because this fact was known to readers in his lifetime. 80Week 11 Africa 3 Rice This slide was added 23 January 2012

82 Slave Trade Basics: 2013 Update Slavery was abolished legally in the US in 1865 by the 13th Amendment to the Constitution. Some of the drama surrounding the Amendment is shown in the 2012 feature film “Lincoln.”13th Amendment Lincoln 81Week 11 Africa 3 Rice This slide was updated 03 November 2013

83 Floodplain and Coastal Rice During the slave era in Georgia and South Carolina, floodplain and coastal rice plantations arose. 82Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

84 African Rice Systems West African rice farmers were experts at the technical aspects of inland and at the technical aspects of inland and tidal rice growing. 83Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

85 Floodplain and Coastal Rice in America European slave owners knew nothing about wet rice agriculture or irrigation systems yet they developed highly profitable rice plantations in Georgia and South Carolina in the 17 th and 18 th centuries. 84Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

86 Floodplain and Coastal Rice in America African rice farming connects with the earliest New World systems through the techniques of managing water flow and keeping fresh water safe from salt water intrusions. 85Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

87 African Rice in America On the Cooper River Plantation in South Carolina we find evidence of West African inland and tidal systems that differ from the Asian designs. 86Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

88 African Rice in America This plantation has some of the oldest rice growing dike and canal works known in the New World, perhaps dating from 1690 or before. This was one of the most profitable and successful of the Carolina Rice centers. 87Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

89 African Rice in America Among the many African-based contribu- tions to Carolina rice production was the “hanging dike,” shown in the next slide. 88Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

90 African Rice in America 89Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

91 African Rice in America The hanging dike facilitated the entry of the layer of fresh water that runs along the top of the salt water in tidal marshes. The salty water is mostly kept out by this device. Knowledge of this particular hydraulic engineering technique was available to West African rice farmers. 90Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

92 African Rice in America The hanging dike also facilitated control over the amount of water fed to the rice plants at different stages of the growing season and helped in bringing nutrients to the seedlings. 91Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

93 African Rice in America On the Boone Plantation in South Carolina we see modern remains of a similar irrigation layout. 92Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

94 African Rice in America Rice, followed in some areas by tobacco and then cotton, led to the great Southern fortunes and the construction of Greek style mansions. 93Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

95 African Rice in America On the Boone Plantation in South Carolina, tourists view the splendid accumulations of classic art and furniture of the former slave- owning Southern families. 94Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

96 African Rice in America Quarters for the slaves who created the wealth were less lavish. 95Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

97 Oryza glaberrima in America? Judith Carney presents historical evidence that the earliest slaves in the New World grew African rice, Oryza glaberrima, on their household plots. 96Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

98 Oryza glaberrima in America? The European slave owners quickly realized that the hydrological and agricultural skills of the African rice growers could help them make big profits by growing rice in America and selling it to Europe. 97Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

99 Oryza glaberrima in America? Oryza glaberrima, the West African rice variety, would have been the first to grow in the Carolina inland swamps and tidal areas. 98Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

100 Oryza glaberrima in America? But the Asian variety, Oryza sativa, gave higher output and would have quickly replaced the African rice in a commercial environment. 99Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

101 Oryza glaberrima in America? So the African Oryza glaberrima would have been driven out of New World rice production even though the agricultural techniques applied to Oryza sativa had originated with the African variety. 100Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

102 The Spread of Oryza sativa In Africa, too, plantation and commercial agriculture led colonial governments to promote Oryza sativa over glaberrima in hopes of gaining quick profits through higher outputs. Source: Pearson, Scott R., J. Dirck Stryker, and Charles P. Humphreys Introduction. In Pearson, Scott R., J. Dirck Stryker, and Charles P. Humphreys, editors, Rice in West Africa: Policy and Economics. Stanford: Stanford University Press. P Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

103 Oryza sativa in Africa By the 1970s, when Oryza glaberrima was being recognized as an African domesticated rice variety, in the West African nation of Ivory Coast, only about 10% of the rice produced was of the African type. In Mali a significant amount of Oryza glaberrima production remained in the great inland Niger River Delta – the likely origin site of the domestication of African rice. Source: Humphreys, Charles P., and Patricia L. Rader Rice Policy in the Ivory Coast. In Pearson, Scott R., J. Dirck Stryker, and Charles P. Humphreys, editors, Rice in West Africa: Policy and Economics. Stanford: Stanford University Press. P Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

104 Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima The sativa rices gave two to three times the output of the glaberrima varieties, but the glaberrima varieties have other advantages we will mention later. Source: same as previous slide: pages Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

105 Oryza glaberrima in America? But can any traces of Oryza glaberrima be found in the New World today? 104Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

106 Oryza glaberrima in America? Carney (page 153)found direct seed data confirming Oryza glaberrima in Cayenne French Guiana and in El Salvador. 105Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

107 Oryza glaberrima in America? She found substantial historical evidence for its presence in Brazil, Surinam, Haiti, South Carolina, and Georgia. 106Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

108 African Foods in America In addition to Oryza glaberrima and its production techniques, West Africans brought to the New World: Watermelon (see more 2 slides down) Watermelon (see more 2 slides down) Okra Okra Sesame Sesame Black-eyed peas – Black-eyed peas – to read a short New York Times essay about how black-eyed peas influence New Year’s celebrations in parts of the USA, click here here 107Week 11 Africa 3 Rice Source: Kittler, Pamela Goyan, and Kathryn P. Sucher Food and Culture in America: A Nutrition Handbook. Belmont, Calif: West/Wadsworth. Second edition. Pp

109 African Foods in America: 2012 Update Recently African foods such as benne (African sesame), African rice,Tanzanian field peas, African red peas, African squash and Ethiopian blue malting barley have become the basis for a revival of gourmet indigenous American cooking in South Carolina...as featured in the October 31, 2011 New Yorker Magazine. (You can get the article in Sprague’s online service or if you are a New Yorker subscriber.)October 31, 2011 New Yorker Magazine Source: Bilger, Richard True Grits: In Charleston a Quest to Revive Authentic Southern Cooking. The New Yorker October 31, 2011: 40 et seq. 108Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

110 African Foods in America: 2014 Update watermelon The African domesticated watermelon on the other hand, emerged as partly a symbol of ridicule that some white racists have used to insult and degrade African Americans right up to the present time. A December 2014 article in Atlantic Monthly surveys the background to the rise of the watermelon as a racially charged symbol. Some of the information will surprise you. Click here. December 2014 article in Atlantic Monthly here Source: William Black How Watermelons Became a Racist Trope. Atlantic Monthly, December, Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

111 African Foods in America: 2014 Update And – a quintessential American comfort food – fried chicken with a batter covering – turns out to be a gift from African slave cooks in the U.S. Week 11 Africa 3 Rice110 This slide was added on 28 December, 2014

112 African Foods in America: 2014 Update Journalist Andrew Lawler’s newly published history of the chicken includes material somewhat parallel to the watermelon story (see two slides back). Domesticated chickens were brought from Africa by slaves who – despite their servitude – were able to own the chickens and sell them to their masters or to others. Week 11 Africa 3 Rice111 This slide was added on 28 December, 2014

113 African Foods in America: 2014 Update Slaves kept and managed chickens on their small house plots – where they also grew rice as described by Judith Carney in her study of African based rice production that we saw earlier in this slideshow. Week 11 Africa 3 Rice112 This slide was added on 28 December, 2014

114 African Foods in America: 2014 Update Black slave cooks on the plantations brought West African chicken pieces fried in oil to their white masters who took to the new food. This basic chicken dish later became a favorite of immigrant groups from Europe and Asia who added new varieties of chickens from their homelands. Source: Lawler, Andrew Why Did the Chicken Cross the World? The Epic Saga of the Bird that Powers Civilization. New York: Atria Books. Week 11 Africa 3 Rice113 This slide was added on 28 December, 2014

115 African Foods in America: 2014 Update You can read the whole story in Lawler’s new book, or just check out a few paragraphs summary that was printed in The New York Times on November 26, Click here. here Week 11 Africa 3 Rice114 This slide was added on 28 December, 2014

116 The Future of African Rice Today Asian rice Oryza sativa is spreading in West Africa while some older rice areas are going to other crops. Source: Richards, Paul Coping with Hunger: Hazard and Experiment in an African Rice- Farming System. London: Allen and Unwin. P Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

117 The Future of African Rice Some experts have even labeled Oryza glaberrima a weed when it grows on the same fields as sativa varieties. Source: De Datta, Surajit K Principles and Practices of Rice Production. New York: John Wiley and Sons. P Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

118 The Future of African Rice But Oryza glaberrima continues to be grown in some of the original African rice areas. 117Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

119 The Future of African Rice African domesticated rice has characteristics that offer hope for improving the world food supply. 118Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

120 African Rice and the Human Future French agronomists have identified at least 41 varieties of oryza glaberrima. Sources: McIntire, John Rice Production in Mali. In Pearson, Scott R., J. Dirck Stryker, and Charles P. Humphreys, editors, Rice in West Africa: Policy and Economics. Stanford: Stanford University Press. P McIntire cites for this information Jean Gallais, Le Delta Intérieur du Niger: Etude de Géographie Régionale,. 2 vols. Dakar: Institut Fondamental de l’Afrique Noir. Vol. 1, p. 99. Gallais in turn cites the research of French agronomist Pierre Viguier, who worked in the area in the 1930s. 119Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

121 African Rice and the Human Future Oryza glaberrima, it turns out, has a very short growing cycle – less than 90 days – and thus offers promise for speeding up and therefore increasing the annual production of grains in tidal marshes and swampy areas. Source: Richards, Paul Coping with Hunger: Hazard and Experiment in an African Rice-Farming System. London: Allen and Unwin. Pp and Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

122 African Rice and the Human Future Despite its distant origin both in time and geography from Oryza sativa, the two can be crossbred to produce hybrids with numerous possibilities in terms of output, disease resistance, timing, and other important qualities. Source: Oka, H. I. 1988, Origin of Cultivated Rice. New York: Elsevier and Japan Scientific Societies Press. Pp Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

123 African Rice and the Human Future African rice holds a promise for future generations of a better food supply and wealth and resources more fairly distributed than in the days of the slave trade. 122Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

124 African Rice It can be part of a better future for all peoples. 123Week 11 Africa 3 Rice

125 African Rice End of Week 11 Lecture 01 African Rice in America 124Week 11 Africa 3 Rice


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