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Rice: History Indochinese Peninsula 5000 BC Chang River Valley grains

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1 Rice: History Indochinese Peninsula 5000 BC Chang River Valley grains
Reproduction of the Gengzhi Tu, a series of Song Dynasty ( AD) wood carvings used as rice farming reference and metaphor of Confucian society. Throughout history, rice has probably fed more people than any other grain on Earth. But where did it originate? It’s hard to say. Some scientists and historians argue that Africa is the home of rice. Probably more people would put their money on the Indochinese Peninsula in Southeast Asia as the place where rice first grew wild. Maybe Northern Thailand, or Laos, or Vietnam or Myanmar. Today this region has more varieties of wild rice than any other place on Earth. From here, there are snapshot hints of rice’s history. Rice grains that have been determined to date back to BC were discovered in China’s Chang River (Yangtze) valley. Archeologists have also found pottery with rice grain imprints in Laos, Vietnam and Northern Thailand from around that same time. Records show that rice had traveled to the Philippines by 2000 BC, Japan by 350 BC and it traveled to Greece and the Middle East during Roman times. Africa has cultivated its species of rice, Oryza O. glaberrima, for at least 3500 years, the Moors brought rice to the Iberian Peninsula, and the Spanish brought rice to the Caribbean.,-From-Gengzhi-Tu-(pictures-Of-Tilling-And-Weaving).html Indochinese Peninsula 5000 BC Chang River Valley grains 5000 BC Laos, Vietnam, N. Thailand pottery Dewi Sri, Javanese Rice Goddess

2 Kedah Rice Museum, Malaysia Rice Museum, Georgetown, S.C.
Rice: History Kedah Rice Museum, Malaysia Rice Museum, Georgetown, S.C. Malaysia’s oldest industry is rice cultivation. Here is the Kedah Rice Museum in Malaysia. Closer to home, there is a also the Rice Museum in Georgetown, South Carolina.

3 Rice: U.S. History The United States does have a history with rice and, in fact, early colonial settlers in Georgia and the Carolinas made rice a major crop in the 17th century. The variety grown and exported was Carolina Gold Rice, which today has been experiencing a renaissance. Because rice is so labor intensive, it depended on slave labor. Colonists knew the coastal areas would be ideal for rice, so they purchased slaves from Africa’s rice coast (from Senegal to West Africa, stretching from Senegal down to Sierra Leone and Liberia) who knew how to grow it. It could be said that the early rice plantations were a model for plantation farming that created the economic infrastructure of the South prior to the Civil War. The engraving is from Harper’s Magazine in 1865, and shows a rice plantation near Savannah, Georgia.

4 Rice: U.S. History Chinese immigrants in California helped spark the rice industry in the Sacramento River Valley. After the Civil War, rice cultivation moved west to Arkansas, Texas, Mississippi and Louisiana, where soldiers returning home found a new crop to help them start a new life. But because rice required hand labor, the industry did not enjoy a boom until mechanized planting and harvesting came into existence. Meanwhile in California, Chinese immigrants arriving on the scene after the California Gold Rush of 1849 ushered in a new demand for rice. The Sacramento Valley with its old flood basin proved to be an ideal spot for rice production. Chinese immigrants in California in the 19th century made up 10 percent of the state’s population. They worked on the railroads, in agriculture and in the mines. They spiked the demand for rice. By 1912, the California rice industry was well under way. All the rice grown in the U.S. is paddy rice, meaning it is grown in flooded fields. This is the most common way rice is grown around the world. Rice is no longer produced in Georgia and the Carolinas. But these other states --- Arkansas, California, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas – are growing varieties from other parts of the globe to feed not only Americans, but also as an export product. Louisiana, as we will touch on later, is the only state where rice was folded into the regional cuisine.

5 Rice: Classifications
Waxy vs. non-waxy Long vs. medium vs. short Indica vs. Japonica vs. Javanica (bulu) Grades of processing Rice shop in Vietnam There are many ways to categorize rice. By length: - long/medium/short grain. Sub-spieces: Indica/japonica/javanica. However, with a lot of breeding and genetic changes that have occurred with rice over the years to develop disease resistance and high yields, these distinctions have more overlapping qualities, so they are in effect less important. Also, rice can be waxy or non-waxy. Finally, each country that produces rice has its own grading system. We will talk a little bit about how rice is graded in the U.S.

6 Rice: Classification Waxy (glutinous/sticky) Non-waxy
Low amylose/high amylopectin High amylose/low amylopectin Absorb less water during cooking Are sticky after cooking, grains lose shape More gelatinous Absorb more water Sensitive to overcooking Fluffy, grains stay separate after cooking Short and medium grain rices Japanese and Thai sticky rices, Arborio Risottos, sushi, sticky rice rice puddings Usually japonica Long grain rices Basmati, Carolina Gold Biryani, pilafs Usually indica The starches in rice determine how it will cook and what the texture will be like. Two starches in particular play a big role in this: Amylose and Amylopectin. Both are present in rice, but it is the ratio of each that determines a particular rice’s qualities. Amylose is soluble, will absorb water and will also be absorbed by water. Non-waxy rice with a high ratio of amylose will absorb more water (so you need to add more water in cooking). They will cook up dry and fluffy, and the grains will be distinct. You need to be careful of overcooking, or else the grains get mushy. Non-waxy rice is good for pilaf dishes and biryani, a classic Indian dish that has meat or vegetables and spices. Amylopectin is less soluble. Waxy or sticky rice with a high ratio of amylopectin will not absorb as much water (so you put less in). As they cook, the grains get sticky or glutinous (that is not the same as gluten, what we talked about in wheat). Waxy, high amylopectin rice is ideal for such dishes as risotto (which uses Arborio rice) and sushi. It is also good for sticky rice desserts that are popular in Asia. You can see in the two examples of foods how waxy and non-waxy rice differ in appearance. On the left is a sticky rice cake made with Jasmine sticky rice. The grains are translucent, they appear almost gelatinous, and they obviously stick together for this dessert. On the right there is biryani, a rice dish with basmati. The grains are long, thin, bright white and don’t stick together.

7 Rice: Classifications
Milled rice Long Medium There are three categories of rice length: long, medium and short. The categories are determined not by the actual length, but by the ratio of the length to width as defined by the USDA Federal Grain Inspection Service Grain Inspection Handbook.
Here is the formula for how it is done: The actual length to width ratio is determined by laying 15 grains side by side and measuring them, then lining up the same 15 grains end to end and measuring them.  The ratio of length to width determines the grain class. The ratios are roughly: Long       3.0 to 1 and more 
 Medium   2.0 to 2.9 to 1 
 Short       1.9 to 1 and less. The ratios are set for paddy rice (rice that is still in husks), brown rice (rice that has husks removed), and milled rice (rice that has germ and bran removed). Short Length is ratio of how length compares to width of each grain

8 Rice: Long Grain Long, slender kernel, >3:1 ratio
Amylose content 19-23% Cooked grains are separate, firm and fluffy Typically used in applications requiring distinct shape and texture, such as prepared and frozen entrees, side dishes, soups and some casseroles Basmati Long grain rice has a ratio of 3 to 1 or more, and has a high amylose content, typically between 19 and 23 percent. The grains cook up firm, dry and fluffy. Long grain rice is good for dishes such as pilafs, casseroles, rice salads, soups and frozen entrees, where you want the rice to stay distinct and separate. Examples of long grain rice are basmati from India, Texmati grown in the U.S., Carolina and Jasmine rice. Jasmine

9 Rice: Medium Grain Shorter, wider kernel, 2.0-2.9:1 ratio
Amylose content 12-19% Cooked grains are moist, tender and tend to cling together Typically used for creamy consistency, such as desserts and puddings Medium grain rice has a ratio from 2 to 2.9 to 1 for length/width. The amylose content is normally 12 to 19 percent. When they cook, they are moist and tender and tend to cling together, but they don’t stick together like short grain or sticky rice. Examples are Japanese rice, Cal Rose rice, and Arborio used for risotto. Sometimes short and medium grain rice are grouped together and simply referred to as short grain.

10 Rice: Short Grain Short, plump, almost round kernel <2:1 ratio
Also called round grain, sushi rice Amylose 12-19% (1% for sticky rices) Cooked grains moist, cling together, ideal for puddings, desserts, sushi Short grain rice is almost round, with a 2 to 1 or less ratio of length to width. Some people call it sushi rice or round grain. The amylose content is 12 to 19 percent, but for sticky rice it can be as little as 1 percent. This rice is great for Asian desserts, some sushi, and some Spanish rice fit this category.

11 Rice: Sub-species Indica Japonica Javanica Rice paddy in Japan
Kaetsu/kaetsu.html Rice can also be categorized by sub-species, and Asian rice have three. Indica: Usually longer grain rice widely grown throughout the tropics and subtropics, . Examples include Basmati and Jasmine Japonica: These medium or shorter grain rice flourish in temperate climates. It is usually grown in cooler subtropics and temperate climates, such as Japan, Portugal, Spain, Russia, Italy, and France.  Javanica (bulu): Is a lesser known sub-species, and they flourish in tropical to subtropical climates, producing short to medium grain rice.

12 Rice: Grades of Processing
Paddy (rough) rice Parboiled rice Milled white rice Here is what the USA Rice Federation has for definitions of rice in different grades of processing. Rough (paddy) rice is rice as it comes from the field.  Rice kernels are still encased in an inedible, protective hull. Brown rice has the outer hull removed, but still retains the bran layers that give it a tan color, chewy texture and nut-like flavor. Retaining the nutrient-dense bran layer makes brown rice a 100% whole grain food, rich in minerals and vitamins, especially the B-complex group. Regular brown rice cooks in 40 to 45 minutes and quicker-cooking brown rice products are available. Keep in mind that when we talk about brown rice, we are not talking about a specific variety of rice, but instead, any rice that is not milled. Regular-milled white rice has the outer husk removed and the layer of bran milled away until the grain is white. It also has the germ removed. Most U.S. milled rice is enriched after milling. Parboiled rice is rough (still in hull) rice that has gone through a steam-pressure process before milling. This procedure gelatinizes the starch in the grain, and ensures a firmer, more separate grain. The technique of parboiling has been around for centuries, and was developed in Southern India as a way to store rice for longer periods. The process actually drives nutrients form the bran into the the center of the rice. Even though the rice is polished afterwards, many nutritional qualities of brown rice are preserved. Parboiled rice actually takes longer to cook than milled rice, but it cooks up in a very nice, fluffy texture. Precooked rice, also called quick-cooking or instant, is white or brown rice that has been completely cooked and dehydrated. This process reduces the time required for cooking. Retort rice or ready-to-heat rice is precooked rice that can be heated in the microwave in just a couple of minutes. Brown rice Precooked rice Retort rice Text and photo source: (USA Rice Federation)

13 Rice: Other Classifications
Aromatic rice Brokens Converted™ rice Genmai Pearl rice Polished rice Brokens When we talk about specific types of rice shortly, there are some other descriptive terms that are useful to know. We’ll go through them here. AROMATIC rice, such as basmati and jasmine, give off a lovely, mild, almost perfume-like aroma when they cook. BROKENS are broken bits of rice grains that are put in lower grades in most rice-producing countries. Because the grains are broken, they release more starch into the cooking liquid. Brokens are actually good for dishes such as congee, Chinese rice porridge, and rice puddings. CONVERTED RICE is a trademark of Uncle Ben’s used for the company’s parboiled rice. GENMAI: Japanese term defining any brown or un-milled rice. PEARL RICE is a term used in North America to describe short-grain rice used for puddings. POLISHED RICE is an all-purpose descriptor for white rice, or rice that has been milled to remove the germ and bran. It has fewer nutrients than brown rice, but it stores longer and is easier to digest. This workforce solution was funded by a grant awarded under the President’s High Growth Job Training Initiative as implemented by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration.  The solution was created by the grantee and does not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Labor.  The Department of Labor makes no guarantees, warranties, or assurances of any kind, express or implied, with respect to such information, including any information on linked sites and including, but not limited to, accuracy of the information or its completeness, timeliness, usefulness, adequacy, continued availability, or ownership.  This solution is copyrighted by the institution that created it.  Internal use by an organization and/or personal use by an individual for non-commercial purposes is permissible.  All other uses require the prior authorization of the copyright owner.

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