OMJ-98 Institutional prerequisites for transition from flood plain agriculture to irrigated agriculture Flood plains as ”Cradles of civilization” Population density and ”Ecology Control” v/ Wilderness Marx’s Asiatic mode of Production – the driving forces? Wittfogel’s hydraulic society and oriental despotism The idea of an agricultural involution Egypt, Mesopotamia, Indus and the Garden of Eden ? The large transitions in 2500 BC shaped our cultures Transitions in 21 st century AD must be different: Different time and place Differences in technology and genetics What are the driving forces in unregulated flood plain Social-Ecological Systems today ?
OMJ-98 Rufiji Flood plain as a Risk Management System 9 Agro-economic zones Flood characterics: Hights Duration Volumes Micro environments Old levees Present levees Storm beaches Mud depressions Ox-bow lakes Soils of the Plain & Delta Kitope (Clays) Mbaragilwa (mixed) Gongo (Sand) 3-D overlays Soil dynamics
OMJ-98 The Agricultural Calendar JanuaryPlant Rice, fast/slow > high/low FebruaryRice is growing MarchRice is growing Harvest maize from river banks AprilRice grows MayRice ripens Plant maize on highest places Plant Cowpeas on highest places JunePlant maize on Mbaragilwa Plant Cotton on Kitope Harvest Rice JulyHarvest and market rice Plant Cotton on lowest clays AugustHarvest maize from high places SeptemberPlant maize on lowest clays OctoberHarvest Cow-peas Start harvesting Cotton NovemberPlant Maize on high river banks Start preparing rice fields Harvest and market cotton Harvest and market mango fruits DecemberHarvest maize from low clays Preparing rice fields continue Plant Maize on high river banks Harvest and market mango fruits
OMJ-98 Land preparation before floods
OMJ-98 Ecology Control initiatives Rice bowl for the Zanzibar Sultanate Forced Cotton cultivation by German colonial powers Maji Maji Rebellion Rice and Cotton was adopted into the agricultural system Ujamaa villagization campaign Resettlement of flood prone farmers to 25 villages on high ground Increased distance to flood plane fields Increased vulnerability to vermin attacs – West Valley Stiglers Gorge Hydroelectric project From multipurpose to single purpose to multipurpose design The idea of a controlled flood for continued flood farming World Bank: the lack of feasibility for all purposes !
OMJ-98 The Village Structure
OMJ-98 Farming in the Miyombo Woodland
OMJ-98 Traditional settlement pattern in Rufiji Flood Plain
OMJ-98 Land tenure changes Risk management = low returns to labour Relocation of peasants = cumbersome land use World Bank Structural adjustments effects: From Ujamaa to Economic Liberalization From working and living together To Institutionalizing a market for land National Land Policy vs. The Land Act Codification of village land vs. Freedom of transactions Individual titles for successful villagers ”Land Grabbing” for power holders Commercial farming for foreign investors
OMJ-98 Modernization and Robustness of Systems Who absorbs the risk ? Risks in subsistence economies = famine Risks in commercial farming = loss and bancruptcy Cashew-nuts on high ground Mango as non-risk fruit in flood plain Emerging large urban food markets in Dar es Salaam (3,5 mill) Commercial farmers and political power Robustness as adaptability to Ecology or to Markets ?