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OMJ-98 Institutional Challenges to Robustness of Flood Plain Agricultural Systems Audun Sandberg© Bodø University College Norway.

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Presentation on theme: "OMJ-98 Institutional Challenges to Robustness of Flood Plain Agricultural Systems Audun Sandberg© Bodø University College Norway."— Presentation transcript:

1 OMJ-98 Institutional Challenges to Robustness of Flood Plain Agricultural Systems Audun Sandberg© Bodø University College Norway

2 OMJ-98 Field-Work in Rufiji in 1972

3 OMJ-98 Field work in Rufiji in 2003

4 OMJ-98 Institutional prerequisites for transition from flood plain agriculture to irrigated agriculture  Flood plains as ”Cradles of civilization”  Population density and ”Ecology Control” v/ Wilderness  Marx’s Asiatic mode of Production – the driving forces?  Wittfogel’s hydraulic society and oriental despotism  The idea of an agricultural involution  Egypt, Mesopotamia, Indus and the Garden of Eden ?  The large transitions in 2500 BC shaped our cultures  Transitions in 21 st century AD must be different: Different time and place Differences in technology and genetics  What are the driving forces in unregulated flood plain Social-Ecological Systems today ?

5 OMJ-98 Rufiji Flood plain as a Risk Management System  9 Agro-economic zones  Flood characterics: Hights Duration Volumes  Micro environments Old levees Present levees Storm beaches Mud depressions Ox-bow lakes  Soils of the Plain & Delta Kitope (Clays) Mbaragilwa (mixed) Gongo (Sand) 3-D overlays Soil dynamics

6 OMJ-98 The Agricultural Calendar  JanuaryPlant Rice, fast/slow > high/low  FebruaryRice is growing  MarchRice is growing  Harvest maize from river banks  AprilRice grows  MayRice ripens  Plant maize on highest places  Plant Cowpeas on highest places  JunePlant maize on Mbaragilwa  Plant Cotton on Kitope  Harvest Rice  JulyHarvest and market rice  Plant Cotton on lowest clays  AugustHarvest maize from high places  SeptemberPlant maize on lowest clays  OctoberHarvest Cow-peas  Start harvesting Cotton  NovemberPlant Maize on high river banks  Start preparing rice fields  Harvest and market cotton  Harvest and market mango fruits  DecemberHarvest maize from low clays  Preparing rice fields continue  Plant Maize on high river banks  Harvest and market mango fruits

7 OMJ-98 Land preparation before floods

8 OMJ-98 Ecology Control initiatives  Rice bowl for the Zanzibar Sultanate  Forced Cotton cultivation by German colonial powers Maji Maji Rebellion Rice and Cotton was adopted into the agricultural system  Ujamaa villagization campaign Resettlement of flood prone farmers to 25 villages on high ground Increased distance to flood plane fields Increased vulnerability to vermin attacs – West Valley  Stiglers Gorge Hydroelectric project From multipurpose to single purpose to multipurpose design The idea of a controlled flood for continued flood farming World Bank: the lack of feasibility for all purposes !

9 OMJ-98 The Village Structure

10 OMJ-98 Farming in the Miyombo Woodland

11 OMJ-98 Traditional settlement pattern in Rufiji Flood Plain

12 OMJ-98 Land tenure changes  Risk management = low returns to labour  Relocation of peasants = cumbersome land use  World Bank Structural adjustments effects:  From Ujamaa to Economic Liberalization From working and living together To Institutionalizing a market for land  National Land Policy vs. The Land Act Codification of village land vs. Freedom of transactions  Individual titles for successful villagers  ”Land Grabbing” for power holders  Commercial farming for foreign investors

13 OMJ-98 Modernization and Robustness of Systems Who absorbs the risk ?  Risks in subsistence economies = famine  Risks in commercial farming = loss and bancruptcy  Cashew-nuts on high ground  Mango as non-risk fruit in flood plain  Emerging large urban food markets in Dar es Salaam (3,5 mill)  Commercial farmers and political power  Robustness as adaptability to Ecology or to Markets ?


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