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Data Gathering Purpose: –To collect sufficient, relevant and appropriate data to develop a set of stable requirements Data: –Tasks performed –Goals –Context.

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Presentation on theme: "Data Gathering Purpose: –To collect sufficient, relevant and appropriate data to develop a set of stable requirements Data: –Tasks performed –Goals –Context."— Presentation transcript:

1 Data Gathering Purpose: –To collect sufficient, relevant and appropriate data to develop a set of stable requirements Data: –Tasks performed –Goals –Context –Rationale for status quo

2 Data gathering techniques Interviews Focus Groups and workshops Questionnaires Naturalistic Observation Studying Documentation

3 Choosing between techniques

4 Some basic data gathering guidelines Focus on stakeholders ’ needs Involve all stakeholder groups Involve multiple representatives from each group Use a combination of techniques Support sessions with props Run a pilot session Know what you ’ re looking for Record the session carefully (video/audio?)

5 Data interpretation and analysis There are a variety of methodologies for describing the data and diagramming for analysis Bottom line: find a method which is comfortable for you and your organization Develop templates so that all members of your organization are using the same method

6 Task Description Much of the data gathered will consist of descriptions of tasks performed by users –Now (old system) –Future (new system) Important to consider alternative ways to capture this information

7 Scenarios An “ informal narrative description ” Describes human activities or tasks in a story Using vocabulary of the user Relatively unstructured Often the way users will describe a task User ’ s task orientation – not necessarily technology Caution: are they saying what they really do, or what they SHOULD do?

8 Use Cases Emphasis on user-system interaction, rather than user ’ s task itself Identify “ actors ”, then capture the actors goals Define the “ normal course ” through the use case, numbering the steps Then identify alternative courses, with numbers corresponding to steps replaced

9 Essential Use Cases Tries to combine best of both Scenarios and Use Cases More general than scenarios (i.e. abstract) Avoid system assumptions of use cases

10 Task Analysis A form of analysis developed to understand cognitive processes Historically used in human factors engineering to evaluate training needs and incremental workplace improvements Readily applied to human/computer interaction

11 Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) Break a task down into subtasks, recursively Group subtasks together as “ plans ” that specify how they might actually be performed Focuses on physical and observable actions, including those not related to technology Starts with a user goal, and tasks associated with achieving it

12 Example: Making sushi Make Makisushi 3 Prepare Fish 2 Prepare Veggies 1 Make Rice 4 Make Rolls 1.2 Prepare Vinegar 1.1 Cook Rice 1.3 Mix and Cool

13 Example Make Makisushi 3 Prepare Fish 2 Prepare Veggies 1 Make Rice 4 Make Rolls 2.2 Slice Cucumber 2.1 Slice Avocado 2.3 Cut Scallions 2.4 Slice Daikon

14 Example Make Makisushi 3 Prepare Fish 2 Prepare Veggies 1 Make Rice 4 Make Rolls 3.1 Slice Salmon 3.2 Slice Tuna 3.3 Prepare Prawns Steam Prawns Flay Prawns

15 Example Make Makisushi 3 Prepare Fish 2 Prepare Veggies 1 Make Rice 4 Make Rolls 4.2 Ingred on Rice 4.1 Rice on Nori 4.3 Roll with Mat 4.4 Slice Rolls

16 HTA (cont’d) Tasks within a level are not necessarily performed sequentially –Could be any order, or even be concurrent

17 Make Makisushi 3 Prepare Fish 2 Prepare Veggies 1 Make Rice 4 Make Rolls 3.1 Slice Salmon 3.2 Slice Tuna 3.3 Prepare Prawns Steam Prawns Flay Prawns e.g. Can cook rice while preparing veggies

18 HTA (cont’d) Tasks within a level are not necessarily performed sequentially –Could be any order, or even be concurrent Tasks are best numbered to facilitate documentation and reference

19 Make Makisushi 3 Prepare Fish 2 Prepare Veggies 1 Make Rice 4 Make Rolls 3.1 Slice Salmon 3.2 Slice Tuna 3.3 Prepare Prawns Steam Prawns Flay Prawns

20 HTA (cont’d) Tasks within a level are not necessarily performed sequentially –Could be any order, or even be concurrent Tasks are best numbered to facilitate documentation and reference Tasks are decomposed until they are “atomic” –Not readily decomposed further –Relatively simple and easy to understand –Things needed to complete the task can be identified

21 Make Makisushi 3 Prepare Fish 2 Prepare Veggies 1 Make Rice 4 Make Rolls 3.1 Slice Salmon 3.2 Slice Tuna 3.3 Prepare Prawns Steam Prawns Flay Prawns e.g. Just need a knife

22 Needs Assessment Exercise In groups, choose one person to be the “ user ” Gather data about how that person looks for an apartment Write down a hierarchical task analysis

23 Exercise Discussion Which method or combination of data gathering methods did you use? Why?


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