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Atoms for Food and Agriculture: Meeting the Challenge Application of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques.

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Presentation on theme: "Atoms for Food and Agriculture: Meeting the Challenge Application of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques."— Presentation transcript:

1 Atoms for Food and Agriculture: Meeting the Challenge Application of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

2 Corporate Mission Atomic energy for peace, health and prosperity Sustainable agricultural development, improved nutrition and food security to contribute to sustainable food security and safety by use of nuclear techniques and biotechnology

3 Our Goals : Food SecurityFood Security Food SafetyFood Safety Sustainable AgricultureSustainable Agriculture

4 Application in Food and Agriculture Nuclear Techniques Insect Pest Control by Sterile Insect Techniques Plant Breeding & Genetics by Mutation Techniques Animal Production & Health by RIA, ELISA, PCR, etc. Soil & Water Management & Crop Nutrition by Isotopic and Nuclear Techniques Food & Environmental Protection by Food Irradiation and Radio- analytical Techniques

5 1. Crop improvement by mutation techniques Variation is the source of evolutionVariation is the source of evolution Spontaneous mutation rate is 1×10 -8 ~ 1×10 -5Spontaneous mutation rate is 1×10 -8 ~ 1×10 -5 Radiation can cause genetic changes in living organisms and increase mutation rate up to 1×10 -5 ~ 1×10 -2Radiation can cause genetic changes in living organisms and increase mutation rate up to 1×10 -5 ~ 1×10 -2 Induced mutation is useful for crop improvementInduced mutation is useful for crop improvement Induced mutants are not GMOs, as there is no introduction of foreign hereditary material into induced mutantsInduced mutants are not GMOs, as there is no introduction of foreign hereditary material into induced mutants Technical basis

6 -Higher yielding -Disease-resistance -Well-adapted -Better nutrition Mutant cultivars Crop improvement by mutation techniques no mutation negative mutation

7 - Improving crop cultivars - Enhancing biodiversity - Increasing farmer’s income Mutation techniques

8 MUTANT VARIETIES Cereals 1206 Flowers 454 Legumes 203 Oil crops 198 Others 611 Total Number : 2672 Plant Species : 170 (2006) Sources: FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database Crop improvement by mutation techniques

9 The impact of mutation induction in crop improvement is measured in millions of ha and billions of $ Zhefu 802 (rice) 10.6 million ha China Baden- Wurttemberg & Bavaria VND95-20 (rice) 280,000 ha Vietnam Saarland Diamant (barley) 2.86 million ha Europe Brandenburg TAG24 (groundnut) 3 million ha India Thuringia Schleswig- Holstein

10 VND99-3 High quality for export Short duration (100 days) 3 rice harvests per year in the Mekong Delta 8 new high quality rice mutant varieties have been developed and adopted by farmers in Vietnam, where rice export is one of their main revenues. VND95-20 High quality Tolerance to salinity Key rice variety for export “National Prize of Science and Technology of Viet Nam 2005” for its “significant socio- economic contribution”

11 2. Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management Water Soil Crop Nutrition Isotopic and nuclear techniques

12 Both stable and radioactive isotopes can be used as tracers in soil and water management & crop nutrition.Both stable and radioactive isotopes can be used as tracers in soil and water management & crop nutrition. Isotopes are atoms with:Isotopes are atoms with: –the same chemical properties, but different atomic weight (mass number). –the same number of protons but different neutrons. –different mass number (atomic weight). Isotopes can be either stable or radioactiveIsotopes can be either stable or radioactive –stable isotopes: different masses ( 18 O and 16 O). –radioactive isotopes: radioactive decay ( 32 P). Technical basis 2. Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management

13 31 P 14 N 32 P 15 N 31 P 14 N 13 CO 2 12 CO 2 13 C 12 C 18 O 16 O 31 P 32 P 13 CO 2 12 CO 2 16 O 18 O 2. Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management

14 Enhance the efficient and sustainable use of soil-water- nutrient resources.Enhance the efficient and sustainable use of soil-water- nutrient resources. Quantify Biological Nitrogen Fixation.Quantify Biological Nitrogen Fixation. Minimize effects of soil erosion and degradation.Minimize effects of soil erosion and degradation. Enhance water use efficiency by crops.Enhance water use efficiency by crops. Select drought and salt-tolerant crops.Select drought and salt-tolerant crops. Evaluate effects of crop residue incorporation on soil stabilization and fertility enhancement.Evaluate effects of crop residue incorporation on soil stabilization and fertility enhancement. Track and quantify off-site water (nutrients) losses beyond the plant rooting zone.Track and quantify off-site water (nutrients) losses beyond the plant rooting zone. 2. Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management

15 12 CO 2 (99%) 13 CO 2 (1%) Plants can be grouped according to 13 C discrimination C3 plants:  13 C = -26 (rice, wheat, forest, vegetation) (maize, sorghum, sugarcane, some tropical herbs) C4 plants:  13 C = Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management

16 FRN with precipitation (P) Original soil level Resulting soil level Deposition site 137 Cs > P Erosion site 137 Cs < P 2. Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management

17  Soil conservation measures improved land productivity and reduced soil erosion rates by 55-90% in Chile, China, Morocco, Romania and Vietnam.  Improved yield and revenue by 25-50% while reduced water use by the same extent in Chile, Jordan, Syria and Uzbekistan.  % increase in P utilization efficiency in Mexico and Burkina Faso.  30% increase in BNF through improved soil and crop management practices and genotype selection in Asia and Africa. Using isotopic and nuclear techniques, Agency supported studies show that:

18 Radiation is used to induce lethal mutations in chromosomes of insect pests to cause sterility.Radiation is used to induce lethal mutations in chromosomes of insect pests to cause sterility. Sterile males are released into the wild where they compete with wild males for matings with wild females.Sterile males are released into the wild where they compete with wild males for matings with wild females. SIT relies on:SIT relies on: –mass production of the target pest –sterilization and shipment –inundative releases mostly by air –matings result in no offspring SIT integrated with other pest control methods is applied for suppression, containment, or even eradication.SIT integrated with other pest control methods is applied for suppression, containment, or even eradication. 3. Insect Pest Control by SIT Technical basis

19 Gamma Radiation No Offspring (BIRTH CONTROL) 3. Insect Pest Control by SIT Sterile Sterile Wild

20 Integrated Pest Management With SIT Component

21 Major Achievements In Chile, fruit and vegetable exports have climbed to US $1.6 billion in 2005 as a result of fruit fly-free status.In Chile, fruit and vegetable exports have climbed to US $1.6 billion in 2005 as a result of fruit fly-free status. Medfly-free status in Mexico translates to annual savings of US $2 billion in reduced crop losses and pesticide costs, and access to export markets.Medfly-free status in Mexico translates to annual savings of US $2 billion in reduced crop losses and pesticide costs, and access to export markets. In Zanzibar, eradication of tsetse and trypanosomiasis resulted in very significant increases of meat and milk production, as well as crop productivityIn Zanzibar, eradication of tsetse and trypanosomiasis resulted in very significant increases of meat and milk production, as well as crop productivity SIT developed and transferred to over 30 Member States with substantial socio-economic impact:

22 Exports of bell peppers and tomatoes from Central America to the USA ( ) Fruit fly free areas (FFFA) FFFA in progress FFFA in progress Overcoming phytosanitary trade barriers to facilitate access of high-value crops to lucrative export markets

23 TSETSE ERADICATION PROJECT ETHIOPIA (2000 – 2006) 60% reduction in disease prevalence Block-1

24 4. Animal Production & Health RIA is used to measure the presence of the reproductive hormone progesterone through immunological definitionRIA is used to measure the presence of the reproductive hormone progesterone through immunological definition Isotope I- 125 is used as a label to enable the immunological reaction to be assayedIsotope I- 125 is used as a label to enable the immunological reaction to be assayed Disease diagnosis using molecular tools (PCR-ELISA)Disease diagnosis using molecular tools (PCR-ELISA) DNA assisted selection for productivity and disease resistanceDNA assisted selection for productivity and disease resistance Production of safe standard reagents by irradiationProduction of safe standard reagents by irradiation Evaluation of locally available feeds to overcome nutritional deficienciesEvaluation of locally available feeds to overcome nutritional deficiencies Technical basis

25 DNA-Assisted Selection 80 cm Measure productivity Sample DNA (blood, hair, milk) (blood, hair, milk) Identify superior genes Develop nuclear-related test for selection and breeding 4. Animal Production & Health

26 Label with isotope e.g. 15 N, 13 C18 Feed to livestock Nutrients dispersed throughout body Tissue sampling to assay isotope distribution Local plant materials Efficient Utilization of Locally Grown Feeds

27 Take blood Analyze the result Run ELISA Protected Vaccinate Is this cow vaccinated? Use of isotope related techniques in disease management

28 Combat Bird Flu Reducing Health Risks through the early, rapid and sensitive serological and molecular detection (such as ELISA and PCR)

29 Diagnostic technologies developed and transferred to more then 70 Member StatesDiagnostic technologies developed and transferred to more then 70 Member States –Rinderpest, Brucellosis, FMD, CBPP, Newcastle Disease, Trypanosomiasis Network for DNA analysis established in AsiaNetwork for DNA analysis established in Asia Diagnostic Standards available for FMD, with other diseases in pipelineDiagnostic Standards available for FMD, with other diseases in pipeline Specific feeding regimes developed in more than 30 Member StatesSpecific feeding regimes developed in more than 30 Member States Major Achievements 4. Animal Production & Health

30 Pan African Rinderpest Campaign IAEA was involved in the development and validation of ELISA tests, the training of veterinarians and equipping Member State laboratoriesIAEA was involved in the development and validation of ELISA tests, the training of veterinarians and equipping Member State laboratories –Established diagnostic capacity –Introduced epidemiology –Sero-monitoring to verify vaccination coverage –Surveillance to monitor outbreaks –Epidemiological surveys to declare freedom of disease Rinderpest is today nearly eradicated worldwide!Rinderpest is today nearly eradicated worldwide! 4. Animal Production & Health

31 5. Food and Environmental Protection Food irradiation is the treatment of food by ionizing radiation Radiation at appropriate doses can kill harmful pests, bacteria, or parasites, and extend shelf-life of foods. Isotopic techniques are employed to monitor foods for contamination with agrochemicals – by radioisotopes –optimizing sample preparation by radioisotopes – –detecting contaminant by electron capture detector Technical basis

32 Several energy sources can be used to irradiate food Gamma RaysGamma Rays Electron BeamsElectron Beams X-raysX-rays

33 Food Irradiation Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods ENSURE FOOD HYGIENE OVERCOME QUARANTINE BARRIERS FOOD SAFETY TRADE MEAT SHRIMP CHICKEN GRAPES MANGOS ORANGES CUT FLOWERS SPICES

34 Application of Food Irradiation More than 60 countries permit the application of irradiation in over 50 different foodsMore than 60 countries permit the application of irradiation in over 50 different foods An estimated 500,000 tons of food are irradiated annuallyAn estimated 500,000 tons of food are irradiated annually About 180 Cobalt-60 irradiation facilities and a dozen electron beam (EB) machines are used to treat foods worldwideAbout 180 Cobalt-60 irradiation facilities and a dozen electron beam (EB) machines are used to treat foods worldwide More and more countries accept the use of irradiation as a phytosanitary measureMore and more countries accept the use of irradiation as a phytosanitary measure

35 Atoms for Food and Agriculture: Meeting the Challenge


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