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Crop Diversification in Cambodia Crop diversification in lowland rice cropping systems in Cambodia Rowena Eastick Shu Fukai, CARDI staff ASEM/2006/130.

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Presentation on theme: "Crop Diversification in Cambodia Crop diversification in lowland rice cropping systems in Cambodia Rowena Eastick Shu Fukai, CARDI staff ASEM/2006/130."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crop Diversification in Cambodia Crop diversification in lowland rice cropping systems in Cambodia Rowena Eastick Shu Fukai, CARDI staff ASEM/2006/130 Workshop Battambang, 10 th – 11 th February, 2009

2 Crop Diversification in CambodiaBackground Cambodia Cambodia –Agriculture based –70% rural employment –GNI per capita US$380 –improving agricultural productivity poverty alleviation and food security LOWLAND RICE: –2.3 million ha –87% total rice area –69% total cultivated area –Under-utilised in dry season

3 Crop Diversification in Cambodia $$$$

4 Crop Diversification in Cambodia Project Aim (ACIAR CIM/2006/040) To develop a system based on rice production over the wet season, followed by legume crops over the dry season to increase farmer income

5 Crop Diversification in Cambodia 2 main objectives 1.To develop profitable double cropping options for rice / non-rice (mungbean, soybean and peanut) system for rainfed lowlands Project Outline ACTIVITIES 1. Identify suitable soil types and hydrological conditions 2. Develop agronomic and management options 3. Develop ‘best-bet’ strategies 4. Undertake economic analysis 5. Identify well adapted legume varieties

6 Crop Diversification in Cambodia 2 main objectives 2.To define the water requirements for non-rice crops and model and predict the level of risk under mainly rainfed conditions of the diversified cropping systems ACTIVITIES 1. Measure the seasonal available water on a sloping land 2. Determine the water availability and use of non-rice crops 3. Analyse level of risk using lowland water balance model

7 Crop Diversification in Cambodia Activity 1 Identify sites with suitable soil types and hydrological conditions for non-rice crops Measurements Measurements –Emergence, 50% flowering, nodulation, yield –Insect, weed and disease –Water application –Soil characteristics The major activity for initial season ( ); S&W group The major activity for initial season ( ); S&W group –3 provinces –4 soil types –3 legumes x 2 varieties –Farmer and PDA Activities Achievements and Future

8 Crop Diversification in Cambodia Activity 1. Results Site by Variety interaction for establishment and yields Site by Variety interaction for establishment and yields Crop CropSoil Yield (kg/ha) SoybeanMungbeanPeanut V1V2V1V2V1V2 PL (4) ( )475( ) BK (3) PK (2) TS (1) WHY?

9 Crop Diversification in Cambodia Activity 1. Discussion Soil type effects confounded by Soil type effects confounded by differences in crop management –Time of planting (water avail, date) –Insect control –Irrigation regime –Bed configuration

10 Crop Diversification in Cambodia Activity 1. Discussion, cont’d 9 days to harvest, 14DTS 10 days since harvest, 21 DTS 12 th Dec Premise based on residual soil moisture Premise based on residual soil moisture –Time of rice maturity –Time from rice harvest to sowing  Supplementary irrigation (WUE of system)?  Soil strength (capacity to access moisture below hard pan)

11 Crop Diversification in Cambodia Constraints Soil physical properties Soil physical properties –Puddling for previous rice  Hard pan  Hard setting surface Activity 1. Discussion, cont’d

12 Crop Diversification in Cambodia Soil chemical constraints Soil chemical constraints –Acidity –Fertility Insects Insects Water Water –Availability –Application Activity 1. Discussion, cont’d Identifying the constraints – how to address these? Identifying the constraints – how to address these? –No-till and mulch –IPM –Water monitoring –Bed configuration –Time of planting

13 Crop Diversification in Cambodia Activity 2 Develop agronomic options for rice / non-rice cropping system based mainly on rainfall 2a. Development of model farms 2a. Development of model farms –Established in Takeo and K.Thom –Feasibility of small on-farm pond technology –Set-up includes provision of pond and trench, fish, fruit trees, improved varieties (tomato, watermelon, maize, rice) –Initial socio-economic data collected

14 Crop Diversification in Cambodia 2b. Agronomy of non-rice crops 2b. Agronomy of non-rice crops –Experiments implemented in Yrs 2-3 –Currently in early phases Bed Configuration Bed Configuration –AFS: Flat, furrow, broad bed x population –AE: Raised bed x tillage Time of Planting Time of Planting –AFS: 2 weeks apart, full profile at sowing, time of season varies –SW: Time after rice harvest, residual soil moisture varies Activity 2 Irrigation management Irrigation management –AFS: Chet Kimngoy’s Master’s degree –SW: Irrigation scheduling

15 Crop Diversification in Cambodia Activity 3 Identify best bet cropping options Community surveys conducted Community surveys conducted Initial data collected from model farms Initial data collected from model farms Activity 4 Undertake economic analysis of the cropping systems Development of farmer focal groups Development of farmer focal groups –Field days Yrs 2-3 Yrs 2-3

16 Crop Diversification in Cambodia Activity 5 Identify well adapted varieties of mungbean and soybean for different locations and water availability conditions Multiplied seed of suitable existing lines Multiplied seed of suitable existing lines soybean mungbean –Pure line selection for peanut (rough v smooth) Import suitable varieties for lowland dry season cropping Import suitable varieties for lowland dry season cropping –No new MB or SB lines in , or season –45 peanut lines !!!! Examine biology of native Vigna species Examine biology of native Vigna species –Id and viability issues

17 Crop Diversification in Cambodia Activity 6 Determination of the seasonal available water on a sloping land Activity 7 Determination of the water availability and use of non-rice crops PVC tubes PVC tubes Priority this season Priority this season Use of soil moisture probes Use of soil moisture probes Influence of hard pan? Influence of hard pan?

18 Crop Diversification in Cambodia Activity 8 Analysis of the level of risk for adding non-rice crops using a lowland water model Priority for this and next season Priority for this and next season

19 Crop Diversification in CambodiaConclusion Obj: to evaluate suitability of 3 legumes on lowland rice soils Obj: to evaluate suitability of 3 legumes on lowland rice soils –Peanuts on Prey Khmer (sandy) most promising Confounding issues Confounding issues –Initial soil moisture, planting times, crop management practices  Provided opportunity to identify constraints  Experiments on these issues next season (soil water, bed configuration, no- till, mulch) Increase farmer and researcher capacity (knowledge transfer) Increase farmer and researcher capacity (knowledge transfer)

20 Crop Diversification in Cambodia A Conclusion to the Conclusion Need to decrease duplication and increase peer review Need to decrease duplication and increase peer review Are ‘we’ making a difference? How to assess? Are ‘we’ making a difference? How to assess? Increase synergies with other relevant studies Increase synergies with other relevant studies –With other orgs in Cambodia (eg.CIRAD) –Within ACIAR within Cambodia (Farming Systems… )  This workshop is a start!  Eg. Water reqts; Richard Bell / Wendy Vance work (LWR1/2001/051)  Vegetable production improvement (HORT/2003/045)  Improving small scale aquaculture (FIS/2002/068)  Improved cattle feeding systems (AH/2003/008) –Within ACIAR similar topics  Eg. Bed configuration in India and Bangladesh  Legume innoculation Vietnam  Thailand lowland rice soil diversification

21 Crop Diversification in Cambodia OWKUN SUM NUOR?


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