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India-Bangladesh Cooperation in Rice Seeds Need for Structural Changes ASAE’s 8th International Conference 15-17 October 2014 Savar, Bangladesh A. K. Enamul.

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Presentation on theme: "India-Bangladesh Cooperation in Rice Seeds Need for Structural Changes ASAE’s 8th International Conference 15-17 October 2014 Savar, Bangladesh A. K. Enamul."— Presentation transcript:

1 India-Bangladesh Cooperation in Rice Seeds Need for Structural Changes ASAE’s 8th International Conference 15-17 October 2014 Savar, Bangladesh A. K. Enamul Haque, East West University, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Suresh P Singh, CUTS International, Jaipur (India) Mahfuz Kabir, BIISS, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

2 Outline  Background  Importance of quality rice seeds  Availability and accessibility of HYV rice seeds  Role of informal trade in boosting local availability and accessibility  Why Informal trade in inbred rice seeds is a recurring phenomenon?  Cooperation between the two countries – Status  Why formal trade and knowledge sharing is important?  Need for Structural Changes: What needs to be done?  Conclusion 2

3 Background: Addressing Barriers to Rice Seeds Trade between India and Bangladesh 3 Goal  to develop an enabling environment to promote seeds trade and knowledge-sharing on HYV rice between India and Bangladesh Objectives  Understanding of factors that drive demand and flow (production, marketing and use) of HYV rice seeds in Eastern Indian States and Bangladesh to identify varieties with bilateral trade potential  Understanding of systemic enabling factors and challenges (institutions, laws, policies, regulations and practices) to bilateral knowledge-sharing and trade of seeds between India and Bangladesh, particularly on HYV rice seeds  Influence changes to policies and practices to facilitate formalisation and expansion of bilateral trade and knowledge-sharing on HYV rice seeds varieties between Bangladesh and India

4 Importance of quality rice seeds  Rice is a staple food for both India and Bangladesh, and its sustainable production is critically linked to availability and accessibility to quality seeds  Sustainable rice production is important not only for meeting food demand of those under poverty line, but also for a growing population in both India and Bangladesh  Quality seed is a relatively low cost input  Rice seed is a least cost input with a high yield potential -- quality rice seed can increase rice yield by 15 to 20 percent  Climate change to pose greater risk to food security and sustainable food production requires continuous research and innovation. 4

5 Availability and accessibility of HYV rice seeds Common issues and challenges  Low SRR and lack of farmers’ awareness on type of seeds suitable for local conditions  Inadequate government support with regard to extension services  Inadequate infrastructure in relation to production, up-liftment, certification, marketing and distribution  Adulteration of certified seeds is a major problem  Monopoly of state seeds corporation in production, seeds marketing  Generation related information of seed is not available in case of farmers preserved seed. This is particularly true for informally traded Indian varieties 5

6 Contd… Common issues and challenges  Small farms with highly scattered and fragmented plots limiting the use of improved technology in rice seed production.  There are high post-harvest losses due to factors such inclement weather and defective infrastructure causing failure in germination and high rejection  Quality of seed is inflicted. This is one major concern of the growers.  A large area in India and Bangladesh are under the cultivation of informally traded seeds such as Miniket and Swarna. These seeds informally pass through porous border 6

7 Role of informal trade in boosting local availability and accessibility 7

8 Contd… Some examples: Popular varieties in India and Bangladesh Indian VeritiesBangladeshi Varieties Bihar Swarna, Naveen, Konark, Rajendra- Shweta, Rajendra-Bhagwati, MTU-1001 BR-9 (Bangla Rice), BR-12 (Moyna) Jharkhand Naveen, Lalat, Swarna, Vandana, IR-64, Rajendra-Mansoori, Sehbhagi, Abhishek, Basmati-307, Sugandha BR-8 (Asha) Odisha MTU-1001, Swarna, Pooja, MTU-1010, Lalat, Khandagiri, Pratikshya West Bengal Swarna, Masuri, Pratikshya, Ranajit, Lalat, Parijat, ananda BR-11 (Banga Bandhu), Hira (Hybrid) BangladeshSwarna, Parijat, Somsa, Minikit, Rajendra-Shweta, Swarna-Masuri BR-28, BR-29, Bina-7, BR-39, BRRI-Dhan-50, BR-26, BR-Dhan- 34, BR-Dhan-11 8

9 Why Informal trade in inbred rice seeds is a recurring phenomenon? Major standards: Inbred Rice Seed in India and Bangladesh Factors Standards of Certified Seeds IndiaBangladesh Pure seed (minimum percent by weight)98.0%96.0% Inert matter (maximum percent by weight)2.0%3.0% Other crop seed10/kg Germination (minimum percent)80% Moisture content (maximum percent)13%12% Source: For Bangladesh, IRRI’s Rice Knowledge Bank, available at: management-of-seed- production/6-seed-certification-system-awareness. For India, The Central Seed Certification Board, Department of Agriculture & Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, 2013, available at management-of-seed- production/6-seed-certification-system-awarenes 9

10 Need for Structural Changes Initiatives at national, bilateral and regional levels  Trade is an important component for improving HYV seed availability. Some of the avenues to enhance bilateral cooperation between Bangladesh and India rice seed trade can be  to harmonise standards, certification process and quarantine laws;  develop regional/bilateral seed bank;  establish joint body for research and development in agriculture;  allow seed trade in Border Haat; and  share genes of existing varieties at government level so that each country can release the varieties of other  Need for creating a professional Seed Certification Authority to establish standards for germination, purity, and genetic composition.  Government extension and other seed related services need to be strengthened for minimizing weed contamination, seed cleaning and storage as well as germination testing. 10

11 Contd… Infrastructure related  Both in India and Bangladesh state certification agencies suffer from lack of infrastructure and are understaffed to carry out extended workloads. These need immediate improvement.  Seed testing for germination and purity is another important check for supply of quality HYV rice seeds. Understaffed state agencies find it difficult to cater to vast amount of HYV rice seeds that are now currently being produced and traded  Limited godown facility to store rice seeds in various Indian states and also Bangladesh This causes adulteration and loss of quality seeds. There is urgent need to increase the storage capacity to keep the seeds in sound condition Other – Supply related  In India, while there is need for creating more awareness on use and benefits of HYV rice seeds and also improving SRR  Bangladesh need to sustain and further strengthen its existing SRR 11

12 Contd… Increased role of private sector  Private sector has emerged a big player in seed industry in both India and Bangladesh. Private sector should be encouraged to participate more fully. More particularly, there is need for strengthening of their role in production, certification, marketing and distribution of seeds  It is important to ensure that there are no unnecessary barriers to entry of private firms into the industry; that government need not impose regulations that prevent the private sector from functioning efficiently; and that the private sectors have equal access to improved seeds and germ-plasm produced from the research system.  It is not necessary to have an active pro-private policy stance; but it is essential not to have an anti-private sector stance 12

13 Conclusion  Seed industry in India and Bangladesh is shrouded with several issues and challenges such as  Lack of physical and availability accessibility quality seeds  inadequate demand and also inadequate supply;  inefficiency in production, marketing and distribution;  inadequate infrastructure reinforced by and lack of technical and financial resources.  Addressing these issues calls for several initiatives relating to improvement in infrastructure, streamlining of supply chain, adequate government support, policies and regulations  These could to a large extent be addressed by increased cooperation between the two countries, especially through harmonisation of seed laws and regulations, joint research and development, and mutual acceptance of released varieties. 13

14 Thank You for your attention! 14

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