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Today’s Agenda 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics Lecture Grains Pilaf, Risotto Method-Review Fruit- Vegetables Peppers Lab 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Today’s Agenda 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics Lecture Grains Pilaf, Risotto Method-Review Fruit- Vegetables Peppers Lab 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Today’s Agenda 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics Lecture Grains Pilaf, Risotto Method-Review Fruit- Vegetables Peppers Lab 1

2 Grains Aka, Cereals, or Cereal Grains – Mostly Wheat, Barley, Rye, Maize (Corn), & Rice 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 2

3 Cooking Rice and Other Grains On the stove- combination cooking simmer & steamed In the steamer or combi cooking – Liquid to rice cover Oven Method – Absorption Method for larger Quantities – Add boiling liquid to rice, cover Pilaf Method Risotto Method 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 3

4 Perfectly Cooked Rice 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 4

5 Pilaf Method 1.Sweat Aromatics (shallots, spices, etc.) in a little fat. 2.Saute Grain 3.Add hot liquid (water, stock, etc) to grain, stir, season, and bring to a simmer 4.Cover (DO NOT STIR) and finish on low heat 5.Fluff Grain and Serve 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 5

6 Risotto Method 1.Same as Pilaf EXCEPT 2.Add Liquid in stages (often beginning with a little wine) 3.Cook uncovered and stir occasionally adding additional hot liquid as needed 4.Finish with butter and/or grated cheese 5.Served warm and creamy 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 6

7 Rice Second only to Corn in worldwide production Most important staple grain to humans – Provides 20-50% of needed calories to people worldwide (Most corn is grown for animal fed) Labor intensive to cultivate Needs abundant water sources 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 7

8 Rice, Con’t. Two Main Cultivars, “Indica” & “Japonica” “Indica" produces long-grain rice and is grown in tropical areas such as South-East Asia Short-grained "japonica" is cultivated in temperate areas including Japan and northern China Wild rice is an entirely different and is harvested from wild plants in North America. 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 8

9 Rice, Con’t. All rice starts out as brown rice. White rice, the fibrous bran layer and underlying germ are milled off—along with nutrients and natural oils – Less nutritious – more shelf-stable than the brown stuff. Long grain, medium grain, and short grains 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 9

10 Rice - Alton Brown 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 10

11 Rice, Texture Fluffy, sticky, or in between. Texture of cooked rice depends on the ratio of two starch molecules: amylose and amylopectin. High-amylose rices (longer Grains) cook up firm, fluffy, and distinct; high-amylopectin (Short Grains) rices come out tender and sticky and require more water (and cooking time) than the latter. 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 11

12 Texture Texture ratio of two starch molecules: amylose and amylopectin. High-amylose rices (longer Grains) cook up firm, High-amylopectin (Short Grains) rices come out tender and sticky and require more water (and cooking time) 124/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

13 Long-Grain vs. Short-Grain Rice Long-Grain RiceShort/Medium-Grain Rice For Most Savory Dishes Dry, Separate Grains In India, the aromatic basmati rice is very popular; the word basmati means fragrant. creamy when cooked used in milk puddings and risottos Japan and Korea, glutinous “sticky” rice is preferred because it is sticky when cooked and is easier to eat with chop-sticks. 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 13

14 White Rice Milled rice with Husk, Bran, & Germ Removed. Prevents spoilage & Extends Storage life After milling, the rice is polished, resulting in a seed with a bright, white, shiny appearance 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 14

15 White Rice, Con’t. Polishing removes important nutrients. A diet based on un-enriched white rice leaves people vulnerable to the neurological disease beriberi, due to a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1). Enrichment of white rice with B1, B3, and iron is required by law in the United States. 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 15

16 Brown Rice Un-milled or Partly Milled Rice Mild nutty Flavor, Chewier Superior Nutrition (Compared to White) – Fiber – B Vitamins Becomes Rancid More Quickly 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 16

17 Parboiled Rice Rice cooked in the husk Improved Nutrition, 80% similar to Brown Rice Less Time to Cook Firmer and Less Sticky 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 17

18 Converted or Minute Rice Precooked and Dehydrated Cooks Quicker More Expensive Less Nutrition, Less Flavor 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 18

19 Jasmine Rice “Thai Fragrant Rice” long-grain& Nutty Aroma Grains will cling when cooked, though it is less sticky than other rices (less amylopectin) 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 19

20 Basmati Rice Very Fragrant – “Pandan Leaf” Aroma Longer Grains Free-Flowing, less Sticky) India and Pakistan 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 20

21 Forbidden Black Rice short-grained, heirloom rice Purple when Raw Dark purple cooked 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 21

22 Spanish Rice Granza &Valencia Medium-Grain Used for Spanish Paella and “Arroz Con Pollo” 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 22

23 Arborio, Carnaroli and Vialone Nano Considered the Best Rices for Risotto High-starch (amylopectin), low-amylose round medium grain “Superfino”, Semifino” and “Fino” refer to the size and shape (narrowness) of the grains, not the quality. 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 23

24 Risotto & Rice Pilaf What is the difference 244/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

25 Risotto Rich and creamy “Al dente”, and with separate grains Italian 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 25

26 Rice Pilaf Light and Fluffy “Al dente”, and with separate grains Indian and Middle Eastern Cuisines 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 26

27 Webquest 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 27

28 Corn or Maize 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 28

29 Corn Eaten Fresh as a Vegetable Eaten Dried as A Grain – Cornmeal – Flour Eaten indirectly in products such as Corn Syrup, Corn Starch, etc Dent Corn vs. Sweet Corn 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 29

30 Cornmeal Dried Corn milled Course to Fine Maybe Yellow, White or Blue Sometimes Known as “Corn Flour” “Stone-ground” Retains some of bran and germ Polenta, aka “Cornmeal Mush” is a course grind of cornmeal 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 30

31 Polenta Polenta is Northern Italian in Origin Served as Porridge or as a Cake 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 31

32 Hominy and Grits Corn Kernals are soaked in lime Softens Outer skin Increases Protein by Releasing – Bound Niacin Acts as a Preservative 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 32

33 Grits Madefrom nixtamalized corn, or hominy. Southern US Served as a porridge, with butter and sometimes sugar Grated Cheese may also be added 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 33

34 Masa Harina Flour Made from Finely Ground Hominy Used for Tortillas and Flat Breads 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 34

35 Wheat 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 35

36 Wheat Third most-produced cereal after maize Mostly used for flour for baked goods By-products-bulgur, cracked wheat, & couscous used as side dishes…and beer. 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 36

37 Wheat Winter and Spring Varieties High & Low Protein Varieties Durham Wheat Hard Winter wheat used for making semolina flour…pasta 1 in every people has Celiac disease-Wheat Gluten Allergy 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 37

38 Cracked Wheat Or “Wheat Berries” Bran & Germ Intact Must Be Soaked before Cooking Used also for Sprouting 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 38

39 Bulgur Bran Removed, Par cooked & Dried Turkish Cuisine Used in Pilafs, Soups and Baked Goods More Nutritional Substitute for Rice and Couscous 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 39

40 Couscous Moroccan Cuisine Bran and Germ Removed from Durham Wheat Berries Similar to Pasta Steamed or use a “Couscousiére” 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 40

41 Couscous 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 41

42 Vegetables Any herbaceous plant that can be eaten in part or in whole. – i.e. leaves, stems, roots, tubers, seeds and flowers Usually Cooked 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 42

43 Baby Vegetables Regular varieties picked before maturity Also includes, heirloom, hybrids & miniature varieties Bruise easily and highly perishable Highly valued for taste and tenderness. 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 43

44 Vegetable Nutrition Most are 80%+ water (water soluble Vitamins) Carbohydrates (Starches) and small amounts of protein & fat Fiber, cellulose and lignin. To peel or not to peel. 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 44

45 USDA Organic “100% Organic=no added hormones, pesticides, synthetic pesticides, etc. Soil must be free of synthetics for 3 years. “Organic” = 95% organic ingredients by weight “Made with organic ingredients”=70=90% <70% not labeled as organic 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 45

46 Vegetable Grading Voluntary based on appearance, and conditions affecting waste or eating quality. U.S. Extra Fancy, U.s. Fancy, U.S. Extra No.1, U.s. No.1 Potatoes, carrots & onions and mandatory consumer (retail) grades…”Grade A, etc. 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 46

47 Fresh Vegetable Storing Most Fresh vegetables at 40˚F to 60 ˚F Winter Squash, Potatoes, Onions, Shallots & Garlic at room temperature in a dry area with good ventilation. Other vegetables like greens, may be stored in cold storage between 34 ˚F and 40 ˚F Store Apples, Peaches Tomatoes, Bananas & melons away from others due to emission of ethylene gas 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 47

48 Preserved Vegetables Irradiated – Store like Fresh – Avoids the Use of harvest pesticides – Kills Bacteria, Bugs, etc – Slows ripening and sprouting Canned Frozen – “IQF” – Expensive Freezer Space Dried 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 48

49 Pigments Pigment Vegetable Chlorophyll Carotenoid Flavonoid (White) Flavonoid (Red) Spinach & Broccoli Carrots & Rutabagas Cauliflower Red Cabbage 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 49

50 Acid/Alkali Reactions Texture – Acids Toughen, Lengthen Cooking Time – Alkali Softens, (often “Mushy) AND causes nutrient loss (thiamin) and may impart bitterness Color – Acids destroy chlorophyll, have no effect on carotenoids and brighten flavonoids – Alkali brightens chlorophyll, has no effect on carotenoids and makes white flavonoids-yellow and red flavonoids - blue 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 50

51 Green Beans Cooked with Vinegar and in Salted water 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 51

52 Cooking Vegetables Cut to uniform shape and Size Cook Short Time to Preserve Nutrients, Color & texture Cook Close to Service Time. Don’t hold hot Blanch in advance and hold in ice water White and Red Vegetable MAY be cooked with SMALL amount of acid for color retention Cook assorted Vegetable Separately Check Doneness…Al Dente and Bright Color 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 52

53 Starches Potatoes, Grains and Pastas Some are Vegetables, Some are Grasses Staples of a Cuisine, i.e. Can be Stored Define the Cuisine Generally, Inexpensive High in Carbohydrates, Low in in Fat 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 53

54 FRUIT-VEGETABLES 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 54

55 Hass & Fuerte Avocados 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 55

56 Eggplants (Fr. Aubergine) Asian & West. Var. Sub. For Turnip Mid. East. Cuisine Salting… Bitterness 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 56

57 Peppers 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics Chiles aka hot peppers Green Peppers vs. Red Peppers=degree of ripeness Generally, smaller peppers are hottest Where gloves…use caution when cleaning 57

58 Roasting a pepper Remove the Skin… Do not Rinse 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 58

59 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics Peppers and Chiles 59

60 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 60

61 Dried Chiles 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics Ancho (dried Poblano) Chipotle (dried and Smoked Jalapeno) Paprika, dried powered pimento 61

62 Tomatoes Fr. Tomate or pomme d’amour; It. Pomodoro Harvested Green and Unripe “Ripened” Artificially…inferior taste Canned Tomatoes….can be good Used in all cooking applications world-wide The three gifts from the New World…tomatoes, potatoes & corn 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 62

63 Tomatoes, Con’t Pear-Shaped Better for Sauces Round better to Eat Raw 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 63

64 San Marzano Tomatoes Must Have “DOP” seal Many Imitation 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 64

65 Tomatillos Related to Tomato Can be used Raw Or, Cooked in soups and salsas 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 65

66 Today’s Menu Each Group Choose One: 1) Eggplant and Manchego Cheese Chile Relleno & Mexican Rice 2) Paella Espania 3) Eggplant Parmesan Zucchini & Porcini Risotto 4) Ratatouille and Wild Rice & Dried Fruit Pilaf 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 66

67 Eggplant and Manchego Cheese Chile Relleno & Mexican Rice 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 67

68 Paella Espania 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 68

69 Eggplant Parmesan 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 69

70 Ratatouille and Wild Rice & Dried Fruit Pilaf 4/29/2015 CHRM 1035 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics 70


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