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Bio-Energy Utilization in Developing Countries: Past Experiences and Future Challenges A.K.M. Sadrul Islam Department of Mechanical & Chemical Engineering.

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Presentation on theme: "Bio-Energy Utilization in Developing Countries: Past Experiences and Future Challenges A.K.M. Sadrul Islam Department of Mechanical & Chemical Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bio-Energy Utilization in Developing Countries: Past Experiences and Future Challenges A.K.M. Sadrul Islam Department of Mechanical & Chemical Engineering Islamic University of Bangladesh (IUT), Dhaka, Bangladesh Low Carbon Energy for Development: Past Experiences and Future Challenges, 4-5 April 2012, Loughborough University, U.K.

2 Bio-Energy Use Biomass currently supplies about a third of the developing countries’ energy varying from about 90% in countries like Uganda, Rawanda and Tanzania, to 60% in Bangladesh, 45% in India, 30% in China and Brazil and 10-15% in Mexico and South Africa. More than 2.5 billion people (83% rural and 23% urban) are solely depended on biomass energy [WEO 2006]. The increasing demand of energy implies that biomass energy will be with us forever. 2

3 Applications of Bio-energy Mostly used as cooking fuel in developing countries Industrial use: heating and steam generation Electricity generation As Transport Fuel Boiler operation in rice mill Cooking in household 3

4 Bio-energy share of global final energy consumption in 2009 Source: 4 GLOBAL BIOENERGY SCENARIO

5 Sources of Bio-energy Agro-residues Waste biomass Energy crops Municipal Solid waste(MSW) Virgin wood from forest Aquatic biomass (Algae) 5

6 Agro- residue & Waste biomass 6

7 Agro-residue and waste biomass as traditional fuel in Bangladesh (million tonne) Source: BBS 2008

8 Improved Cook Stove 8

9 Impact of the use of traditional stoves Traditional stoves cause serious indoor air pollution and the smoke is hazardous to health (e.g. eye ailment, bronchial diseases, headache, even cancer). According to the WHO Report, 2004 acute respiratory infections from indoor air pollution (IAP – pollution from burning wood, animal dung and other biofuels) are estimated to kill a million children annually in developing countries, inflicting a particularly heavy toll on poor families in South Asia and Africa. Wastage of fuel (efficiency: 5% - 10%) Consumption of biomass  Household: 5 kg/day  Bangladesh: 40 – 50 million tons/year 9

10 Improved cook stove (ICS)  Efficiency: 26%-29%  Significant fuel saving: about 50%  Reduction of indoor air pollution, especially for ICS with chimney  Reduction of GHG emission (1.8 ton/ICS/year)  Affordable to people  High acceptance level as there is no need to change cooking habits, cooking utensils and cooking fuel  Usable for all types of biomass available  Locally available raw material for stove construction 10

11 Challenges  Rural women are used to using traditional Stoves  Ego problem: Every woman can build mud stove; it is difficult for her to accept that other build better stove  Not ready to pay for a similar mud stove that she can make  Some do not accept the technical aspects  Climbing on the roof to clean chimney is difficult and not well seen by the traditional society.  Further improvement of stove will reduce the fuel consumption and improve IAQ. 11


13 World Rice Husk Production in 2009 Total husk potential is 137 million tonnes Source: FAOSTAT 13

14 Uses of Rice husk Boiler operation for parboiling Briquette fuel Electricity generation Cooking 14

15 Comparison of traditional and improved rice parboiling boiler Consumes 120 kg husk to boil each tonne of paddy Consumes 49 kg husk to boil each tonne of paddy Challenge: About 2 million ton of rice husk could be saved every year in Bangladesh if the rice millers would adopt this improved rice parboiling system. In doing so about 3.0 million tonne of CO 2 abatement could be achieved. 15 Traditional Boiler Improved Boiler (GiZ)

16 Potential of electricity generation from rice husk Steam TurbineGasification 2010203020102030 Reference2134339113662170 Scenario-12644835616925348 Scenerio-22922970418706210 CO2 abatement (million ton) Reference1.282.030.821.30 In GWh Source: A.K.M. Sadrul Islam and M. Ahiduzzaman, 2012 Scenerio-1: 90% of traditional boilers are replaced by efficient ones. Scenerio-2: Scenerio-1 plus 50% rice are unparboiled. 16

17 Bagasse 17

18 Bagasse Production 18 *Source:, 8.3.12Source: World – Sugar cane production: 1.7 billion tonne* – bagasse production: 422 million tonne Bangladesh – Sugar cane crushed in mills 2.6 million tonne – Bagasse production : 0.8 million tonne – This bagasse is used for cogeneration (for process heat and electricity). – In 14 sugar mills about 49 MWh electricity is generated per year.

19 Challenges Replacing the existing inefficient low pressure boiler turbine by high pressure Rankine cycle for combined CHP using condensing-extraction steam turbine would yield twice power. [ Zahid 2006] Use of wet bagasse reduces the burning efficiency. Improved design could save feed stock and generate more electricity. CO2 emission can be brought down to half with the improved design. 19

20 Biogas 20

21 Biogas in Bangladesh Total no. installed 38, 765 family–sized [ Dr. Eusuf 2011; New Age 29 Feb 2012] Size: 5 – 6 m3 Fixed dome technology Mostly used for cooking purposes. A few are used for electricity generation. 21

22 Biogas potential in Bangladesh Raw materialsOrganic Fertilizer (million tons) Yearly gas production (million cubic meter) 1.Cow/Buffalo dung 2.Poultry droppings 3.Human excreta 4.Garbage 5.Water hyacinth 6.Pressed mud Total 60.20 2.05 32.85 1.72 10.00 0.07 2971.10 191.60 1226.40 115.00 740.00 384.00 3628.10, accessed on 20.03.12 22

23 Challenge: Lack of proper biogas engine at local market of Bangladesh Old Toyota car engines of 1500 cc capacity with a dynamo is used to produce electricity from biogas. The maximum output: 7.5 kW. Biogas from the digester is fed into the engine only through a moisture filter unit to remove the moisture content in the gas. Source: Ashraf 2008 23

24 Biofuel 24

25 Second generation biofuel In Bangladesh and some other developing countries have a great potential of Second generation biofuel (non-food crop). Some non-food crops are: – Jatropha (Botanical name: Jatropha cucas L) – Castor (Botanical name: Ricinus communis ) – Pithraj (Botanical name: Aphanamixis polystachya ) – Karoch (Pongamiya pinata L.) 25

26 Potential of Biofuel in Bangladesh Railway side, road side and some barren land can be used for plantation of trees for biofuel. 1.76 million ha is available for this (Aminul Islam 2008) 26

27 Potential Bio-diesel Production Available land is 1.76 million ha. If 50% of this land is used for energy crop, then estimated production is [ Aminul Islam 2008]: Jatropha : 1.19 mil ton/year Castor: 0.15 mil ton/year Pithraj: 1.04 mil ton/year Karoch: 0.8 mil ton/year [M M Rahman 2011] 27

28 Challenges Land crisis and population pressure. Food security. Lack of awareness. Lack of technical know-how. 28

29 Rice Husk Briquette 29

30 - First introduced in 1990; now there are over 1000 m/c -It replaces fuel wood and improves IAQ. RestaurantTea stallStreet food stall Household use 2.5 kg/day 12 kg/day 16 kg/day 114 kg/day 1 kg densified fuel = 1.63 kg wood 30 Biomass Briquetting in Bangladesh

31 Improvement of rice husk briquette production technology Existing die heater is replaced by briquette stove to reduce electricity consumption in briquette production Briquette is coming out from new die-heater Briquette prepared using die-stove instead of electric heater 31 Ahiduzzaman 2011

32 Improvement of rice husk briquette production technology Briquette production rate, kg/h Briquette consumption in die stove, kg/tonne Electricity consumption, kWh/tonne CO2 abatement in comparison to wood fuel Existing system 86 to 9001521110kg/ton Improved system 88.8775.7779.331154kg/ton 32 Ahiduzzaman 2011

33 Challenges Maintenance of briquette machines is a problem. The screw head needs frequent repair. It needs electricity that can be optimized by improved design. 33

34 Wood fuel production and consumption 34

35 Global production of wood fuel Source: FAOSTAT 35

36 Population and deforestation in Bangladesh Source: World Bank 2012, NFA 2007, FRA 2000, FAOSTAT 2011 36

37 Population and deforestation in Philippines Source: J.C. Elauria et al (2003) 37

38 Challenge: How to combat deforestation? -Introduction of rice husk briquette with the excess amount of husk can reduce it. Production of rice husk biquette, million tonne Quantity of wood fuel replaced by briquette, million tonne Reduction of CO 2 emission, million tonne Reduction of deforestati on, 000 hectare (ha) 3.004.907.825.41 38 Source: M. Ahiduzzaman and A.K.M. Sadrul Islam, 2011

39 Municipal Solid Waste 39

40 Methane Emission from MSW landfill in Bangladesh Urban CentersAnnual DOC landfilled, ‘000’ ton Methane Emission/yr ‘000’ ton CH 4 10 6 m 3 CH 4 Dhaka city Chittagong city Khulna city Rajshahi city Other Municipalities 111.82 31.80 5.54 4.38 34.38 57.40 16.32 2.84 2.25 17.65 80.09 22.77 3.96 3.14 24.63 Total187.9296.46134.59 Source: M. F. Ahmed 2003 In Bangladesh, recovery of biogas from well designed MSW landfills has good potential. -A supply of substitute fuel -Reduction of GHG -Sound disposal of waste

41 Aquatic Biomass (Algae) Algae does not affect fresh water resources, can be produced using ocean and wastewater, and are biodegradable and relatively harmless to the environment if spilled. Algae can yield between 10 and 100 times more energy per unit area than other second-generation biofuel crops. But it is very costly (US$5000/ton) According to the Algal Biomass Organization algae fuel can reach price parity with oil in 2018 if granted production tax credits. 41

42 Conclusions 42

43 Challenges of bio-energy promotion in developing countries Traditional use of biomass is often linked to degradation of forests and woodland resources as well as soil erosion. Traditional fuels leads to emissions of greenhouse gases and soot (black carbon) due to poor combustion. These emissions are believed to represent on the order of 5% of total global warming derived from human activities*. The problems associated with traditional use of biomass are complex, as they are highly correlated with people's income levels, living habits, village structures and gender roles. Lack of awareness of bio-energy in public, industry, utility, financial institutions and policy-makers. *Source: 43

44 Challenges…… Absent of favorable policy. This includes lack of financial incentives, legal regulatory framework for the market- oriented awareness, utilization, and commitment to encourage bio-energy development as well as promotion. Lack of standardization and quality control of technology. Lack of information about bio-energy resources, technical/economic information about technologies, equipment suppliers, and potential financiers. Promising 3 rd generation biofuel from aquatic biomass (Algae) is almost absent in the developing counties. How to reduce the cost and transfer the know-how and technology to these countries is a great challenge. 44

45 References Renewable 2010 Global Status Report, REN21: Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century 2010 Survey of Energy Resources, World Energy Council EIA, International Energy Outlook 2010 R. Arun Prasath- Renewable Energy in India- in German Alumni Expert Seminar, Jan 5-12, 2012 Dhaka Md. Monwar Hasan Khan, Status Report on Renewable Energy Development in Bangladesh, MoPEMR, Government of Bangladesh, SESAM Alumni, University of Flensburg, 08 January 2012 Renewable Energy Status In Sri Lanka, Country Report By P.L.G. Kariyawasam Indonesia Country Review, by Bayuaji Kencana, Chazaro Gerbang Internasional, PT (CGI), Jakarta, Indonesia The Potential Of Energy Trees To Produce Biofuel For Combating The Energy Crisis In Bangladesh, By A.B.M. Aminul Islam 2008, Msc Thesis, SESAM, Univ of Flensburg, Germany Life cycle Assessment of Biofuel from Pongamia Pinnata(Karoch), by M M Rahman 2011, MSc Thesis, CREST, Loughborough University, U.K. date:11.03.2012 Source:, 8.3.12 Source: BSFIC: Bangladesh Sugar and Food Industries Corporation The Potential of Electricity Generation from Poultry Waste in Bangladesh. A Case Study of Gazipur District, by Sheikh Ashraf Uz Zaman 2007, Msc Thesis, SESAM, Univ of Flensburg, Germany, 13.12.09 FAOSTAT 2011 GiZ, 2012 Dr. Khursheed-ul-Islam 2009 World Bank 2012 NFA 2007, FAO 2000 and BBS 2008, M. Ahiduzzaman, “Studies and Investigation on Extraction of Energy and Value-Added Product from Rice Husk”, Ph.D. Thesis, Mechanical and Chemical Engineering Dept, Islamic University of Technology, Sept. 2011. F M Ahmed (2003). Methane Recovery from Municipal Solid Wastes in Bangladesh

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