2 Fig. 10-5a: Locations of the major types of subsistence and commercial agriculture.
3 World Climate RegionsFig. 10-5b: Simplified map of the main world climate regions (see also Fig. 2.2).
4 Key Issue 2: Where Are Agricultural Regions in LDCs? Shifting CultivationCharacteristics Of Shifting CultivationThe Process Of Shifting CultivationCrops Of Shifting CultivationOwnership In Use Of Land In Shifting CultivationPastoral NomadismCharacteristics Of Pastoral NomadismChoice Of AnimalsMovements Of Pastoral NomadsIntensive Subsistence AgricultureIntensive Subsistence With Wet Rice DominantIntensive Subsistence With Wet Rice Not DominantVocabularyshifting cultivationslash-and-burn agricultureswiddenpastoral nomadismtranshumancepastureintensive subsistence agriculturesawahpaddychaffthreshedwinnowedhullwet ricedouble croppingcrop rotation
5 Agriculture in Less Developed Countries Shifting cultivationcultivation vs. agriculture = small scale vs. large scaleCharacteristics of shifting cultivationClear (slash-and-burn agriculture) vegetation from landCleared land = swiddenPotash (potassium) = fertilizer from burned debrisPlant crops for a few years then leave fallowLand fertile for 3 or less yearsNative vegetation returnsSoil recovery slow takes years
7 Agriculture in Less Developed Countries Shifting cultivation cont’dVillages may expand or move due to depletion of soilCrops vary by local custom and taste and mostly subsistence agricultureSoutheast Asia: rice; South America: maize, manioc; Africa: millet, sorghumVaried crops planted for use by one family or communityLand often owned by community rather than individualsRequires more land per person¼ of world’s land area cultivated by 5% of population
8 Agriculture in Less Developed Countries Future of shifting cultivationReplaced by cash crops, ranching and loggingEliminating difficult as farming part of culturePressure on tropical countries to curb destruction of rain forest
9 Agriculture in Less Developed Countries Pastoral nomadismform of subsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animalsArid/semiarid regions of Africa and SW Asia and Central Asia15 million people on 20% of land areaCharacteristics of pastoral nomadismProducts: Milk, skin/hair for clothing or tentsStill eat mostly grainspart community farms or trade animal productOften in conjunction with agricultureDesert communicators
10 Agriculture in Less Developed Countries Choice of animals: cultural and practicalMovements of Pastoral NomadsTerritorialIntimate knowledge of the terrainClimate and political instability alter routesTranshumance (seasonally migratory)Historically messengersAnimalNumbersProsConsCamel10 – 25Infrequent watering, heavy loads, fastAttracts flies, sleeping sickness, long gestation periodGoat25 – 60Tough, agile, eats any vegetationMore water than camelSheepwoolSlow moving, affected by climate change
11 Agriculture in Less Developed Countries Future of pastoral nomadismDeclining practice… once considered the cultural stage between hunting/gathering and farming settlementNow… Offshoot of sedentary agriculturePractical method for drier climatesCommunication technology eliminates some of their power/usefulnessLow population density practiceForced end by “progress”… population, space and lifestyle changes
12 Agriculture in Less Developed Countries Intensive subsistence agriculture¾ of world population lives in LDCsEast, South and Southeast AsiaChina – efficient and very small lotsRequires large labor force (no $ for machines)Efficient land useContrast JapanRice producer for in country consumptionMore mechanized – MDC, more tertiary labor force
13 World Rice ProductionFig. 10-6: Asian farmers grow over 90% of the world’s rice. India and China alone account for over half of world rice production.
14 Agriculture in Less Developed Countries Intensive subsistence with wet rice dominantRelatively small amount of land but rice vital food source in AsiaChina and India produce largest quantities world wideElaborate, time and labor consuming processAll family members contribute to work – traditional agrarianNear river valleys and deltas on flat lands or terraced along hillsidesOther crops may be present in some wet rice regionsRice growth processRice planted in soil in nursery to maturePlow field – will use oxen/water buffaloFlood land w/rain, river or irrigation = sawahNursery plants transferred to flooded fieldsHarvest by hand with knivesGrain – threshed, winnowed
15 Agriculture in Less Developed Countries Intensive subsistence with wet rice NOT dominantClimate–lack of rain or excess cold—prevents wet rice farmingElaborate, time and labor consuming processUse of hand tools and some animalsAll family members contribute to work – traditional agrarianWheat most prominent then barley, other grains and legumes with some cash crops – cotton, flax and tobaccoMultiple crops using crop rotation
16 Agriculture in Less Developed Countries Crop Rotation Systems2 or more crops rotated with one round fallowMaintains field fertility nutrients one crop takes another will replaceField AField BField CField DResultTwo fieldsYear 1Cereal grainfallown/a3 crops per field over 6 yearsYear 2FallowThree fieldsWinter cerealSpring cereal4 crops per field over 6 yearsYear 3Four fieldsRoot cropCereal“rest” cropcereal3 crops per field over 4 yearsYear 4
17 Classifying Agricultural Regions Mapping agricultural regionsWorld Agricultural Regions: Derwent Whittlesey, 193611 main agricultural regions5 important to LDCs6 important to MDCsClimate influences the crop that is grown and/or animals raisedRelationship exists between climate and agricultureDry climate often equates to livestock ranching rather than farmingCulture influences agricultureHog (pig/swine) production low to nonexistent in predominantly Muslim (and Jewish) regions due to religious taboo on pork.
19 World Climate RegionsFig. 10-5b: Simplified map of the main world climate regions (see also Fig. 2.2).
20 Classifying Agricultural Regions LDCs = subsistence agricultureMDCs = commercial agricultureSubsistence vs. commercial agricultureSubsistence agriculture is the production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer’s familyCommercial agriculture is the production of food primarily for sale off the farmPracticeAreaPurposeLabor forceMachineryFarm sizeOff farm contactSubsistence agricultureLDCsPersonal consumptionOn average 55% of workforce engaged in farmingHuman and animal powered toolsVery smallOccasional surplus soldCommercial agricultureMDCsGrow crops and raise animals primarily for sale off the farm for profitOn average 5% of workforce engaged in farmingMechanized farm machines, computer technology and scienceLarge[US average in 2008 = 418 acres]agribusiness – farms one part of a large food production industry including food processing, packaging, sorting, distributing, and retailing
21 Key Issue 3: Where Are Agricultural Regions in MDCs? Mixed Crop And Livestock FarmingCharacteristics Of Mixed Crop And Livestock FarmingCrop Rotation SystemsChoice Of CropsDairy FarmingWhy Dairy Farms Locate Near Urban AreasRegional Differences In Dairy ProductsProblems For Dairy FarmersGrain FarmingGrain-Farming RegionsImportance Of WheatLivestock RanchingCattle Ranching In U.S. Popular CultureBeginning Of U.S. Cattle RanchingTransporting Cattle To MarketFixed Location RanchingRange WarsChanges In Cattle BreedingRanching Outside The United StatesMediterranean AgricultureMediterranean CropsCommercial Gardening And Fruit FarmingPlantation FarmingVocabularycereal grainmilkshedgrainwinter wheatspring wheatreapercombineranchinghorticulturetruck farmingplantation
22 Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Characteristics Of Mixed Crop And Livestock FarmingMost common form of commercial agriculture in the United States Great PlainsIntegration of crops and livestockCrops fed to animals (little sold); Manure used to fertilize crops¾ income derived from animal products – these, milk and eggsCrop seasonal labor – livestock year roundCrop Rotation Systems2 or more crops rotated with one round fallowMaintains field fertility nutrients one crop takes another will replaceChoice Of CropsCorn Belt – Ohio to the DakotasCorn (most common) used for livestock feed, or human consumption including oil, margarine, etc.Soybean (2nd choice)Tofu (Japan and China), processed food additive and animal feedField AField BField CField DResultTwo fieldsYear 1Cereal grainfallown/a3 crops per field over 6 yearsYear 2FallowThree fieldsWinter cerealSpring cereal4 crops per field over 6 yearsYear 3Four fieldsRoot cropCereal“rest” cropcereal3 crops per field over 4 yearsYear 4
23 World Corn (Maize) Production Fig. 10-7: The U.S. and China are the leading producers of corn (maize) in the world. Much of the corn in both countries is used for animal feed.
24 World Milk ProductionFig 10-8: Milk production reflects wealth, culture, and environment. It is usually high in MDCs, especially production per capita, and varies considerably in LDCs.
25 Dairy FarmingDairying most important commercial agriculture near large urban areas (20% of agriculture $$ output)Why Dairy Farms Locate Near Urban AreasMilkshed close to market due to perishability of milk productsProximity to market less important now due to transportation optionsRegional Differences In Dairy ProductsFarmers far from urban centers usually sell to diary product (cheese, butter, etc) processorsNE USA milk sold to urban center consumers; farther west (Wisconsin) milk is all processedProblems For Dairy FarmersDeclining revenues and rising costsLabor intensive, cows milked twice dailyWinter feed expenses
26 Dairy Production in the U.S. Fig. 10-9:Milk production (top right) is widely dispersed because of its perishability, though there are areas with greater production.As a whole the US produces tons of milk (left).Cheese production (bottom right) is far more concentrated.
27 Grain Farming Grain Farming Grain-Farming Regions Importance Of Wheat Some form of grain major on most farms – wheat most importantMeant for human consumption (unlike integrated farming)Grain-Farming RegionsUS largest grain producers; other large scale: Canada, Australia, Argentina, France and the UKWinter wheat Belt: Kansas, Colorado and OklahomaSpring wheat Belt: the Dakotas, Montana and southern Saskatchewan (Canada)Palouse in Washington StateHeavily mechanized planting and harvesting (combine) cropImportance Of WheatWorld’s leading export cropNorth American prairies the “Breadbasket” producing ½ world exports of wheatEconomic and political strength for the US2/3 of US wheat
28 World Wheat Production Fig : China is the world’s leading wheat producer, but the U.S. and Canada account for about half of world wheat exports.
29 Livestock Ranching Livestock Ranching Adapted to semi-arid or arid lands of MDCsCattle Ranching In U.S. Popular CultureTaught to us in cowboy filmsBeginning Of U.S. Cattle RanchingFirst brought to the Americas by Columbus on his second voyageCattle ranching migrated west with the settlersTransporting Cattle To MarketBest market prices in Chicago – birth of the cattle driveCattle transported “on the hoof” to railroad along the Chisholm Trail then to slaughter housesMajor cattle ranching center in TexasFixed Location RanchingConflict between ranchers and farmers over range rightsEarly cattle ranchers in the West owned cattle but little landRange WarsUS government sold land to farmers who put up fences which angered ranchersRanchers were compelled to buy or lease landToday 60% of cattle grazing occurs on land leased from the US governmentChanges In Cattle BreedingSwitch from Longhorn (sturdy for cattle drives but poor meat quality) to Hereford (superior meat but not suited to long-range drives) cattleChange in cattle breed ended trail drivesLivestock fattening farms/feed lots are stop before slaughter housesFig : The Chisholm Trail became famous as the main route for cattle drives from Texas to the railheads in Kansas.
30 Meat Production on Ranches Ranching outside of the USFig : Cattle, sheep, and goats are the main meat animals raised on ranches.
31 Mediterranean Agriculture Practiced in the lands that border the Mediterranean Sea in southern Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia as well as California, central Chile, the southwestern part of South Africa, and southwestern AustraliaSimilar physical environmentsHilly or mountainous land bordering a seaOn West coasts of continents (except for Mediterranean area)Prevailing sea winds provide moisture and moderate the winter temperaturesSummers are hot dry with sea breezes
32 Mediterranean Agriculture Mediterranean CropsAnimal productsSmall percentage of productionPrimarily sheep and goatsTranshumance: graze on coastal plains in the winter and the hills in the summerHorticulture – fruits, vegetables, flowers, and tree cropsOlives, grapes, fruits, and vegetablesTwo thirds of the world’s wine is produced in the Mediterranean – Italy, France and SpainOne third of world’s wine produced in other Mediterranean regionsCereal grains – for pasta and breadCalifornia – mostly fruits and vegetables, citrus fruits, tree nuts, and deciduous (drop leaves in winter) fruits
33 Commercial Gardening And Fruit Farming Truck farming“Truck” – Middle Eastern word for bartering for the exchange of commoditiesPredominant in Southeast United StatesFruits and vegetables-apples, asparagus, cherries, lettuce, mushrooms, tomatoes, etc.Much of the crop is sold to large processing companies for use in canning and freezingLarge-scale mechanized operations
34 Plantation Farming Plantation Farming Large farm that specializes in one or two cropscoffee, rubber, cocoa, jute, bananas, tea, coconuts, palm oil,Less so today than in the past - cotton, sugarcane, and tobaccoCommercial agriculture found in the tropics and subtropicsGenerally situated in LDCs but often owned and operated by European or North American transnational corporationsCrops produced for sale primarily in MDC’sUsually situated in sparsely settled locationsrequires the import of workersOwners provide food, housing and social services for workers
35 SourcesRubenstein, James M., The Cultural Landscape An Introduction to Human Geography, 8th Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2005Google pictures