2Distribution of WRC in Monsoon Asia 90% of the world’s rice is produced and consumed in Asia where 50% of the world’s population resideRice is a staple food in AsiaWet rice or padi cultivation is commonly found in Monsoon AsiaMonsoon – seasonal winds which bring rainsIn South Asia – April to October – Southwest MonsoonNovember – March – Northeast Monsoon
3Distribution in Monsoon Asia Where are they found?Ganges floodplain in India and BangladeshChang Jiang Plain and Zhu Jiang Delta in ChinaJava and Bali in IndonesiaLuzon in the Philippines
6Factors influencing Distribution: Physical Factors: Physical Conditions:ClimateHigh temperature of 21 – 27°CHigh annual rainfall of 2000mm to 2500mmReliefFlat landSoilFertile, clayey, alluvial soils
7Factors influencing Distribution: Human Factors: LabourRequires a lot of labourPractised in areas where there is an abundance of cheap labour such as India and IndonesiaCapitalPoor farmers use simple tools in their farmingAreas where labour lacking (Japan), capital is important to buy machinesCapital is also required in areas not arable to build irrigation facilities
8Factors influencing Distribution: Human Factors: TechnologyUse of technology such as irrigation in areas with low rainfallSupply water all year round and allow more than one rice crop to be plantedSocial ConditionsTraditional practices such as inheritance laws limits the size of the farmSmall farm size = low output = low incomeMarket and TransportNot important consideration for subsistence farmersFor commercial farmers, close to the market help saves transport cost
9Factors influencing Distribution: Human Factors: GovernmentPlays a significant role in improving practice of wet rice farmingProvide funding for building irrigation
12Match your descriptions to the photographs 111342761058Match your descriptions to the photographs9
13Wet Rice Cultivation in Indonesia: The Process PICTURE 2. CULTIVATING THE SAWAH The water buffalo pulls a harrow through the flooded sawah. The harrow levels the soil surface and makes a smooth bed for rice seedlings to be planted and makes water depth the same throughout the sawah.PICTURE 1. PREPARING THE SAWAH (wet rice field or paddy) Using mattocks (heavy hoe-like implements), the men break up the mostly volcanic soil into large clods which will soften and dissolve in the water.
14The Process PICTURE 4. PLANTING THE RICE SEEDLINGS Women plant the seedlings one at a time, spacing them a hand span apart. (A hand span is the distance from the thumb to little finger when the fingers are spread apart). These women worked for four days to plant this single sawah. A few days later, a man will walk through the fields casting handfuls of fertilizer to cover the fields. As weeds begin to grow, men will go through the paddy pulling them up and burying them beneath the mud, where they also act as fertilizer as they decay.PICTURE 3. THE SAWAH READY FOR PLANTING Small bundles of green seedlings, lined up along one edge of the sawah, are being transplanted from specially fertilized beds. Notice the slight rise in elevation between each sawah from foreground to back. Looking closely, you can see water trickling from a sawah to the one in front.
15The ProcessPICTURE 5. THE RICE GROWS AND MATURES Shown here in terraces, the rice has grown and branched out (called tillering), developed seed heads, and soon will be ready for harvesting. Lower on the hillside are several sawahs that are flooded and waiting to be planted. In some countries, like Bali, the rice is planted first in the highest fields. After the water is used it is allowed to flow downhill where the lower terraces then use it.PICTURE 6. HARVESTING THE RICE A woman holds a small knife (called ani-ani) in her right hand, concealed so as not to frighten the rice plant. Each stalk is cut individually and transferred to her left hand. When enough has been cut to make a small bundle, it is stacked for later threshing. Traditionally, the person doing the threshing received one stalk from each bundle.
16The ProcessPICTURE 8. DRYING THE RICE Rice is spread out on canvas along a village street to evaporate remaining moisture (about 20 percent of its weight).PICTURE 7. THRESHING THE RICE The rice seeds are separated from their stalks and husks (chaff) by being ground underfoot. (Sometimes the bundles are beaten by hand). Next the rice will be tossed in a wide, flat basket to let the wind blow away the lightweight chaff.
17The ProcessPICTURE 10. SELLING RICE Although most rice is stored unhulled in the household or village until needed for food, some rice is sold in the open market. Baskets of rice, in various stages of hulling, are offered for sale.PICTURE 9. POUNDING THE RICE A woman pounds the unhulled, dried rice with a log from a palm tree (as a pestle) in a stone bowl (mortar). This wears off the brown hull so the rice may be cooked and eaten. If pounded more, rice flour is produced. Sometimes several women pound rice in a log trough side by side.
19Rice Growing in California PICTURE 2. LEVELING THE RICE CHECK Tractors and dirt loader are used to level the surface of the rice check so the water will cover the surface to the same depth over all. The tractors are controlled by a separated machine which uses a laser to find high and low spots. Each check is tilted slightly so water will flow continuously through the field, assuring that oxygen is present is the water around the plants. Although this machinery is very expensive, the job needs to be done only about every five years.PICTURE 1. PREPARING THE CHECK (rice field) A tractor pulls a moldboard plow (its shape turns the soil over) to turn under a crop of vetch, a crop planted after the last rice crop. It will compost and act as fertilizer, adding nitrogen to the soil. The rice field is called a "check" and can be either rectangular or follow the contour of the land. Rice grows best in clay soil, which softens under water but doesn't let more water drain through once it is saturated. This keeps water on the surface for the rice plant to grow in.
20PICTURE 3. SEEDS ARE READIED FOR PLANTING Rice seed are soaked in large bins so they will sprout soon after planting. Sometime the seeds are coated with fungicides (to prevent the growth of fungus) or coated with elements to improve the acid level of the soil. In the background are white tanks holding fuel to run the machines used in rice growing.PICTURES 4. SOWING THE RICE The rice checks have been flooded through a system of canals which bring water from a nearby river. The rice is seeded from an airplane, which sows a thirty-foot wide swath before returning for reloading from a funnel moved into position by a truck. Two planes alternate in the landing-refilling-taking off process, which takes three minutes.
21PICTURE 5. CARE OF GROWING RICE The growing rice is treated periodically with pesticides and herbicides to kill insects and weeds. The rice is kept flooded with 6-8 inches of water until just before harvest, when the clay soil of the check dries very quickly.PICTURE 6. HARVESTING & THRESHING A harvester (or combine) both cuts and threshes the rice. It cuts a 20-foot wide swath of rice, then separates the rice kernels from the stems (straw), and the husks from the kernels (chaff). The combine feeds the rice into a tractor pulled carrier, which will take to rice to a truck on a nearby roadway. The combine also chops up the rice straw and deposits it onto the field behind it. Later the straw will either be burned off or ploughed under before the next harvest.
22PICTURE 8. RICE STORAGE After being dried, the rice is loaded into bins on a truck to be moved into the tall silos of a warehouse. In the warehouse it will be kept at a controlled temperature to maintain its quality.PICTURE 7. DRYING THE RICE Rice is put into wide, shallow bins, which move up, over, and down a height of three stories as hot air is blown over them. When harvested, rice contains percent moisture. It is dried to about 14 percent moisture, to help it keep for storage.
23PICTURE 9. MILLING THE RICE The rice is milled in a storage warehouse and rice mill, where machinery controlled by computers removes the brown hulls from the rice. The large building shown in the picture is owned by a cooperative of rice farmers who share the cost of operating it.PICTURE 10. SHIPPING THE RICE About 55 percent of California rice is sold in the U.S. and its territories, where it is mostly used for food. The remainder is sold on the world market. Short grain rice, preferred in Asian markets, grows well in California. The ship is loading rice at the Port of Sacramento into a Korean merchant ship.
24Process for Subsistence WRC BEFORE THE ARRIVAL OF RAIN (MONSOON)Preparing the field and nursery…repairing bunds to create a flooded conditionsSowing the seeds in the nurseryARRIVAL OF RAINPloughing by buffaloesTransplanting of rice saplings to flooded fieldsOr some practise direct seedingPatching is carried outFeritilising and weedingEND OF RAINY SEASONAfter 150 daysHarvesting using sicklesThreshing – separate rice grain from stalkWinnowing – remove unwanted stalk & husks
25Rainfed Vs Irrigated Fields Dependent on the monsoon rainsToo early/late,little/ heavy, subsistence farmers greatly affectedGrow 1 rice crop per yearIRRIGATEDWith irrigation facilities, farmers able to grow 2 – 3 rice crops per year
26Characteristics of WRC Rainfed vs Irrigated Fields: Purpose of farming Farmers are subsistence and mainly grow rice for their own consumptionEgs. China, India, IndonesiaIrrigatedFarmers practised commercial farmingEg. Japan
27Size of farms Rainfed Usually small Half a hectare to two hectares Some countries – small and fragmented due to the practice of dividing the land equally among sonsIrrigatedlarge
28Level of technology Rainfed Subsistence farmers use simple technology Use traditional ways of cultivationDepend on manual labour and buffaloes to do the workanimal manures to enrich the soilIrrigatedCommercial farmers use a higher level of technologyRely on modern irrigation methods and machinesapply chemical fertilisers to increase their yields
29Amount of inputs Rainfed lower inputs as compared to irrigated fields Work in smaller fields and use simple technology and animalsIrrigatedHigher inputs compared to rainfedCapital is needed to build irrigation facilities, buy high yielding seeds, chemical fertilisers and machinesAble to practise double cropping
30Amount of outputs & Variety Rainfedlower outputs as compared to irrigated fieldsProduce 1 crop of rice per yearDue to small farms, traditional methods and toolsGrow variety of crops such as vegetables and fruitsIrrigatedCommercial farmers produce a higher outputs than subsistence farmersWith the use of HYVs and technology, able to harvest 2 to 3 crops of rice per yearGrow 1 type of crop - monoculture
31Characteristics of WRC RainfedIrrigatedPurpose of farmingSubsistenceCommercialSize of farmsSmall, fragmentedlargeLevel of TechnologySimple technologyhigher level of technologyAmount of inputsLowHighAmount of outputsVariety of outputsGrow other cropsMonoculture
32Problems facing subsistence farmers Size of farmsLand fragmentation reduces size of farmScattered plotsDifficult for govt to plan for irrigation and drainage projectsShortage of labourEspecially able-bodied young men due to R-U migrationTenacyFarmers are less inclined to increase yields as large proportion of harvest goes to landlordsPovertyAn obstacle to invest to increase yieldsIlliteracyResistant to new farming methods such as using HYVsNatural hazardsUnreliable rainfall/ floods and droughts/ attacks by rodents
33Rain-fed Vs Irrigated Fields Rain-fed fieldsOccupy 25% of world’s rice areaProduce 17% of world’s rice outputFarmers are poor and practises monocultureCrop yield is unstableTraditional rice varieties which do not respond to fertilisers are grownIrrigated FieldsOccupy 55% of world’s rice areaProduce 75% of world’s rice outputFarmers enjoy govt support and multiple harvestCrop yield is stableUse modern rice varieties which have a shorter growth period and respond well to fertilizers & resistant to pests and diseases
34Climatic Graph of Alor Star What is the climatic pattern of Alor Star, Kedah?How would the climatic pattern help farmers in the North Kedah plain to make decisions that are related to the farming activities of the year?If farmers organise their farming activities based on the graph, how many crops can they grow?
36Green RevolutionThe period of change of wet rice cultivation brought about by modern varieties of seeds/ HYVs, technology, irrigation facilities and use of fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides.Refers to a complex change of technology which includes both improved seeds and a wide range of new management practicesModern varieties (MV) or high yielding varieties (HYVs)
37Benefits Higher rice output Use of HYVs has increased rice production Countries spend less on rice imports and earn more money from rice exportsAdoption of double cropping or triple cropping creates more jobs in rural areasHigher standard of livingFarmers who produce more rice sell their surplus and receive a source of incomeIncome earned can be used to purchase and invest in more farm outputsBreak out of the poverty cycleImprove living conditions and lifestyle
38Problems Higher cost of production HYVs, fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation facilities cost moneyUse of cultivated land throughout the year depletes soil nutrients – purchase expensive chemical fertilisersIncreased fuel cost for tractors and combined harvestersPoor farmers unable to afford these new technologyWidening income gapRich farmers – afford the use of technology – increase yield – increase incomePoor farmers – cannot afford – yields remain low or decrease
39Problems Over irrigation By careless farmers results in waterlogging and salinity which destroy cropsPollutionLarge quantities of fertilizers and pesticides contaminate the soilWash by rain into groundwater, rivers and other water bodies, polluting the water and endangering aquatic life
40Problems Spread of diseases and pests In areas where HYVs seeds are used, one or two varieties are plantedWidespread destruction if diseases or pests occurTraditional farmers select their own varieties of rice seeds to plant resulting in different varieties in adjoining farmsPrices affected by demandPrice of rice falls when yields are high/ surplusSell surplus rice at a reduced priceLoss of workMechanization of farm activities has put some workers out of jobs and R-U migration may intensify
41Spreading Benefits of GR Continual research on the development of HYVsFor different growing environment,To produce high yields in rainfed or flood prone areas to benefit those farmers who have no access to irrigation facilities or subject to floodsSet up banks and co-operativesfor providing loans at low interest rates to farmersPoor farmers able to get loan to buy better inputsProvision of storage and marking facilitiesPromotion of the use of more biological control methods and natural predators to fight pestsLess dependence on chemical fertilizers and less pollution
42Impact of GR on Rice Cultivation in Asia PositiveBumper harvestsShorter growing seasons (100 vs 180 days)More tolerant to unfavourable climateRespond well to fertilisersNegativeShorter height – submerged in water during heavy rainsGrowing of one HYV make spread of new pests & diseases a potential dangerHeavy applications of pesticides and fungicides
43Impact of GR on Rice Communities in Asia Rich farmers get richer, poor farmers get poorerLarge capital neededChemical fertilisersInsecticidesIrrigation + drainageMechanisationRich farmers double their yields & sell the surplusTo bridge the gap:Govt to provide costly infrastructureExtend credits and loansSubsidies to purchase HYVsFormation of collectives to share cost of setting up
44Impact of GR on Environment NegativeUse of HYVs requires heavy use of fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides which severely affect the ecosystem within the rice fields and cause pollution of groundwater, rivers, lakes and seas.
45Benefits P roduction T olerant S horter growg pd D oubled M ore income C reated new ind and jobsQuestionAssess/Evaluate the impact of improvement of technology on the rice community in Monsoon Asia. 
46Problems H igh cost O utbreak of p/d W eeding P ollution U nemplpymt I ncome inequality
47Case Study of Impact of the GR on WRC in India Reasons for the need to increase food productionLarge population – many suffer from malnutritionFamine and hunger widespreadReduce reliance to purchase food from other countriesAlleviate poor farmers from poverty by increasing farm outputs – income – improve standard of livingMove away from subsistence farmingHelp solve unemployment which indirectly reduce rural urban migration
48Economic impactGrowth of local manufacturing sector (fertilisers, pesticides, machines etc) which created jobs and contributed to GDPIrrigation leads to building of dams which were also used to generate hydroelectric power – create jobs, improve quality of lifeIndian govt able to furnish loans from world bank for the purpose of GRSharing of experienced rice farmers to other countries generated income for the country(read up on social impact)