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AGRICULTURE Unit 3: Subsistence Wet Rice Farming.

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1 AGRICULTURE Unit 3: Subsistence Wet Rice Farming

2 Distribution of WRC in Monsoon Asia  90% of the world’s rice is produced and consumed in Asia where 50% of the world’s population reside  Rice is a staple food in Asia  Wet rice or padi cultivation is commonly found in Monsoon Asia  Monsoon – seasonal winds which bring rains  In South Asia – April to October – Southwest Monsoon  November – March – Northeast Monsoon

3 Distribution in Monsoon Asia Where are they found?  Ganges floodplain in India and Bangladesh  Chang Jiang Plain and Zhu Jiang Delta in China  Java and Bali in Indonesia  Luzon in the Philippines

4 Distribution of WRC in Monsoon Asia

5 The Rice Plant

6 Factors influencing Distribution: Physical Factors: Physical Conditions: Climate High temperature of 21 – 27°C High annual rainfall of 2000mm to 2500mm Relief Flat land Soil Fertile, clayey, alluvial soils

7 Factors influencing Distribution: Human Factors:  Labour  Requires a lot of labour  Practised in areas where there is an abundance of cheap labour such as India and Indonesia  Capital  Poor farmers use simple tools in their farming  Areas where labour lacking (Japan), capital is important to buy machines  Capital is also required in areas not arable to build irrigation facilities

8 Factors influencing Distribution: Human Factors:  Technology  Use of technology such as irrigation in areas with low rainfall  Supply water all year round and allow more than one rice crop to be planted  Social Conditions  Traditional practices such as inheritance laws limits the size of the farm  Small farm size = low output = low income  Market and Transport  Not important consideration for subsistence farmers  For commercial farmers, close to the market help saves transport cost

9 Factors influencing Distribution: Human Factors:  Government  Plays a significant role in improving practice of wet rice farming  Provide funding for building irrigation

10  C apital  L abour  T ech  D emand/market  G ovt

11 WRC as IPO system

12 Match your descriptions to the photographs

13 Wet Rice Cultivation in Indonesia: The Process PICTURE 1. PREPARING THE SAWAH (wet rice field or paddy) Using mattocks (heavy hoe-like implements), the men break up the mostly volcanic soil into large clods which will soften and dissolve in the water.PREPARING THE SAWAH (wet rice field or paddy) PICTURE 2. CULTIVATING THE SAWAH The water buffalo pulls a harrow through the flooded sawah. The harrow levels the soil surface and makes a smooth bed for rice seedlings to be planted and makes water depth the same throughout the sawah.CULTIVATING THE SAWAH

14 The Process PICTURE 3. THE SAWAH READY FOR PLANTING Small bundles of green seedlings, lined up along one edge of the sawah, are being transplanted from specially fertilized beds. Notice the slight rise in elevation between each sawah from foreground to back. Looking closely, you can see water trickling from a sawah to the one in front.THE SAWAH READY FOR PLANTING Women plant the seedlings one at a time, spacing them a hand span apart. (A hand span is the distance from the thumb to little finger when the fingers are spread apart). These women worked for four days to plant this single sawah. A few days later, a man will walk through the fields casting handfuls of fertilizer to cover the fields. As weeds begin to grow, men will go through the paddy pulling them up and burying them beneath the mud, where they also act as fertilizer as they decay. PICTURE 4. PLANTING THE RICE SEEDLINGS PLANTING THE RICE SEEDLINGS

15 The Process PICTURE 5. THE RICE GROWS AND MATURES Shown here in terraces, the rice has grown and branched out (called tillering), developed seed heads, and soon will be ready for harvesting. Lower on the hillside are several sawahs that are flooded and waiting to be planted. In some countries, like Bali, the rice is planted first in the highest fields. After the water is used it is allowed to flow downhill where the lower terraces then use it.THE RICE GROWS AND MATURES PICTURE 6. HARVESTING THE RICE A woman holds a small knife (called ani- ani) in her right hand, concealed so as not to frighten the rice plant. Each stalk is cut individually and transferred to her left hand. When enough has been cut to make a small bundle, it is stacked for later threshing. Traditionally, the person doing the threshing received one stalk from each bundle.HARVESTING THE RICE

16 The Process PICTURE 7. THRESHING THE RICE The rice seeds are separated from their stalks and husks (chaff) by being ground underfoot. (Sometimes the bundles are beaten by hand). Next the rice will be tossed in a wide, flat basket to let the wind blow away the lightweight chaff.THRESHING THE RICE PICTURE 8. DRYING THE RICE Rice is spread out on canvas along a village street to evaporate remaining moisture (about 20 percent of its weight).DRYING THE RICE

17 The Process PICTURE 9. POUNDING THE RICE A woman pounds the unhulled, dried rice with a log from a palm tree (as a pestle) in a stone bowl (mortar). This wears off the brown hull so the rice may be cooked and eaten. If pounded more, rice flour is produced. Sometimes several women pound rice in a log trough side by side.POUNDING THE RICE PICTURE 10. SELLING RICE Although most rice is stored unhulled in the household or village until needed for food, some rice is sold in the open market. Baskets of rice, in various stages of hulling, are offered for sale.SELLING RICE


19 Rice Growing in California PICTURE 1. PREPARING THE CHECK (rice field) A tractor pulls a moldboard plow (its shape turns the soil over) to turn under a crop of vetch, a crop planted after the last rice crop. It will compost and act as fertilizer, adding nitrogen to the soil. The rice field is called a "check" and can be either rectangular or follow the contour of the land. Rice grows best in clay soil, which softens under water but doesn't let more water drain through once it is saturated. This keeps water on the surface for the rice plant to grow in.PREPARING THE CHECK (rice field) PICTURE 2. LEVELING THE RICE CHECK Tractors and dirt loader are used to level the surface of the rice check so the water will cover the surface to the same depth over all. The tractors are controlled by a separated machine which uses a laser to find high and low spots. Each check is tilted slightly so water will flow continuously through the field, assuring that oxygen is present is the water around the plants. Although this machinery is very expensive, the job needs to be done only about every five years.LEVELING THE RICE CHECK

20 PICTURE 3. SEEDS ARE READIED FOR PLANTING Rice seed are soaked in large bins so they will sprout soon after planting. Sometime the seeds are coated with fungicides (to prevent the growth of fungus) or coated with elements to improve the acid level of the soil. In the background are white tanks holding fuel to run the machines used in rice growing.SEEDS ARE READIED FOR PLANTING PICTURES 4. SOWING THE RICE The rice checks have been flooded through a system of canals which bring water from a nearby river. The rice is seeded from an airplane, which sows a thirty-foot wide swath before returning for reloading from a funnel moved into position by a truck. Two planes alternate in the landing-refilling-taking off process, which takes three minutes.SOWING THE RICE

21 PICTURE 5. CARE OF GROWING RICE The growing rice is treated periodically with pesticides and herbicides to kill insects and weeds. The rice is kept flooded with 6-8 inches of water until just before harvest, when the clay soil of the check dries very quickly.CARE OF GROWING RICE PICTURE 6. HARVESTING & THRESHING A harvester (or combine) both cuts and threshes the rice. It cuts a 20-foot wide swath of rice, then separates the rice kernels from the stems (straw), and the husks from the kernels (chaff). The combine feeds the rice into a tractor pulled carrier, which will take to rice to a truck on a nearby roadway. The combine also chops up the rice straw and deposits it onto the field behind it. Later the straw will either be burned off or ploughed under before the next harvest.HARVESTING & THRESHING

22 PICTURE 7. DRYING THE RICE Rice is put into wide, shallow bins, which move up, over, and down a height of three stories as hot air is blown over them. When harvested, rice contains percent moisture. It is dried to about 14 percent moisture, to help it keep for storage.DRYING THE RICE PICTURE 8. RICE STORAGE After being dried, the rice is loaded into bins on a truck to be moved into the tall silos of a warehouse. In the warehouse it will be kept at a controlled temperature to maintain its quality.RICE STORAGE

23 PICTURE 9. MILLING THE RICE The rice is milled in a storage warehouse and rice mill, where machinery controlled by computers removes the brown hulls from the rice. The large building shown in the picture is owned by a cooperative of rice farmers who share the cost of operating it.MILLING THE RICE PICTURE 10. SHIPPING THE RICE About 55 percent of California rice is sold in the U.S. and its territories, where it is mostly used for food. The remainder is sold on the world market. Short grain rice, preferred in Asian markets, grows well in California. The ship is loading rice at the Port of Sacramento into a Korean merchant ship.SHIPPING THE RICE

24 Process for Subsistence WRC BEFORE THE ARRIVAL OF RAIN (MONSOON)  Preparing the field and nursery…repairing bunds to create a flooded conditions  Sowing the seeds in the nursery ARRIVAL OF RAIN  Ploughing by buffaloes  Transplanting of rice saplings to flooded fields  Or some practise direct seeding  Patching is carried out  Feritilising and weeding END OF RAINY SEASON  After 150 days  Harvesting using sickles  Threshing – separate rice grain from stalk  Winnowing – remove unwanted stalk & husks

25 Rainfed Vs Irrigated Fields RAINFED  Dependent on the monsoon rains  Too early/late, little/ heavy, subsistence farmers greatly affected little/ heavy, subsistence farmers greatly affected  Grow 1 rice crop per year IRRIGATED  With irrigation facilities, farmers able to grow 2 – 3 rice crops per year

26 Characteristics of WRC Rainfed vs Irrigated Fields: Purpose of farming Rainfed  Farmers are subsistence and mainly grow rice for their own consumption  Egs. China, India, Indonesia Irrigated  Farmers practised commercial farming  Eg. Japan

27 Size of farms Rainfed  Usually small  Half a hectare to two hectares  Some countries – small and fragmented due to the practice of dividing the land equally among sons Irrigated  large

28 Level of technology Rainfed  Subsistence farmers use simple technology  Use traditional ways of cultivation  Depend on manual labour and buffaloes to do the work  animal manures to enrich the soil Irrigated  Commercial farmers use a higher level of technology  Rely on modern irrigation methods and machines  apply chemical fertilisers to increase their yields

29 Amount of inputs Rainfed  lower inputs as compared to irrigated fields  Work in smaller fields and use simple technology and animals Irrigated  Higher inputs compared to rainfed  Capital is needed to build irrigation facilities, buy high yielding seeds, chemical fertilisers and machines  Able to practise double cropping

30 Amount of outputs & Variety Rainfed  lower outputs as compared to irrigated fields  Produce 1 crop of rice per year  Due to small farms, traditional methods and tools  Grow variety of crops such as vegetables and fruits Irrigated  Commercial farmers produce a higher outputs than subsistence farmers  With the use of HYVs and technology, able to harvest 2 to 3 crops of rice per year  Grow 1 type of crop - monoculture

31 Characteristics of WRC RainfedIrrigated Purpose of farming SubsistenceCommercial Size of farms Small, fragmented large Level of Technology Simple technology higher level of technology Amount of inputs LowHigh Amount of outputs LowHigh Variety of outputs Grow other crops Monoculture

32 Problems facing subsistence farmers Size of farms  Land fragmentation reduces size of farm  Scattered plots  Difficult for govt to plan for irrigation and drainage projects Shortage of labour  Especially able-bodied young men due to R-U migration Tenacy  Farmers are less inclined to increase yields as large proportion of harvest goes to landlords Poverty  An obstacle to invest to increase yields Illiteracy  Resistant to new farming methods such as using HYVs Natural hazards  Unreliable rainfall/ floods and droughts/ attacks by rodents

33 Rain-fed Vs Irrigated Fields Rain-fed fields  Occupy 25% of world’s rice area  Produce 17% of world’s rice output  Farmers are poor and practises monoculture  Crop yield is unstable  Traditional rice varieties which do not respond to fertilisers are grown Irrigated Fields  Occupy 55% of world’s rice area  Produce 75% of world’s rice output  Farmers enjoy govt support and multiple harvest  Crop yield is stable  Use modern rice varieties which have a shorter growth period and respond well to fertilizers & resistant to pests and diseases

34 Climatic Graph of Alor Star  What is the climatic pattern of Alor Star, Kedah?  How would the climatic pattern help farmers in the North Kedah plain to make decisions that are related to the farming activities of the year?  If farmers organise their farming activities based on the graph, how many crops can they grow?


36 Green Revolution  The period of change of wet rice cultivation brought about by  The period of change of wet rice cultivation brought about by modern varieties of seeds/ HYVs, technology, irrigation facilities and use of fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides.  Refers to a complex change of technology which includes both improved seeds and a wide range of new management practices  Modern varieties (MV) or high yielding varieties (HYVs)

37 Benefits Higher rice output  Use of HYVs has increased rice production  Countries spend less on rice imports and earn more money from rice exports  Adoption of double cropping or triple cropping creates more jobs in rural areas Higher standard of living  Farmers who produce more rice sell their surplus and receive a source of income  Income earned can be used to purchase and invest in more farm outputs  Break out of the poverty cycle  Improve living conditions and lifestyle

38 Problems Higher cost of production  HYVs, fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation facilities cost money  Use of cultivated land throughout the year depletes soil nutrients – purchase expensive chemical fertilisers  Increased fuel cost for tractors and combined harvesters  Poor farmers unable to afford these new technology Widening income gap  Rich farmers – afford the use of technology – increase yield – increase income  Poor farmers – cannot afford – yields remain low or decrease

39 Problems Over irrigation  By careless farmers results in waterlogging and salinity which destroy crops Pollution  Large quantities of fertilizers and pesticides contaminate the soil  Wash by rain into groundwater, rivers and other water bodies, polluting the water and endangering aquatic life

40 Problems Spread of diseases and pests  In areas where HYVs seeds are used, one or two varieties are planted  Widespread destruction if diseases or pests occur  Traditional farmers select their own varieties of rice seeds to plant resulting in different varieties in adjoining farms Prices affected by demand  Price of rice falls when yields are high/ surplus  Sell surplus rice at a reduced price Loss of work  Mechanization of farm activities has put some workers out of jobs and R-U migration may intensify

41 Spreading Benefits of GR  Continual research on the development of HYVs  For different growing environment,  To produce high yields in rainfed or flood prone areas to benefit those farmers who have no access to irrigation facilities or subject to floods  Set up banks and co-operatives  for providing loans at low interest rates to farmers  Poor farmers able to get loan to buy better inputs  Provision of storage and marking facilities  Promotion of the use of more biological control methods and natural predators to fight pests  Less dependence on chemical fertilizers and less pollution

42 Impact of GR on Rice Cultivation in Asia Positive  Bumper harvests  Shorter growing seasons (100 vs 180 days)  More tolerant to unfavourable climate  Respond well to fertilisers Negative  Shorter height – submerged in water during heavy rains  Growing of one HYV make spread of new pests & diseases a potential danger  Heavy applications of pesticides and fungicides

43 Impact of GR on Rice Communities in Asia  Rich farmers get richer, poor farmers get poorer  Large capital needed  Chemical fertilisers  Insecticides  Irrigation + drainage  Mechanisation  Rich farmers double their yields & sell the surplus To bridge the gap:  Govt to provide costly infrastructure  Extend credits and loans  Subsidies to purchase HYVs  Formation of collectives to share cost of setting up

44 Impact of GR on Environment Negative  Use of HYVs requires heavy use of fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides which severely affect the ecosystem within the rice fields and cause pollution of groundwater, rivers, lakes and seas.

45 Benefits  P roduction  T olerant  S horter growg pd  D oubled  M ore income  C reated new ind and jobs Question Assess/Evaluate the impact of improvement of technology on the rice community in Monsoon Asia. [8]

46 Problems  H igh cost  O utbreak of p/d  W eeding  P ollution  U nemplpymt  I ncome inequality

47 Case Study of Impact of the GR on WRC in India  Reasons for the need to increase food production  Large population – many suffer from malnutrition  Famine and hunger widespread  Reduce reliance to purchase food from other countries  Alleviate poor farmers from poverty by increasing farm outputs – income – improve standard of living  Move away from subsistence farming  Help solve unemployment which indirectly reduce rural urban migration

48 Economic impact  Growth of local manufacturing sector (fertilisers, pesticides, machines etc) which created jobs and contributed to GDP  Irrigation leads to building of dams which were also used to generate hydroelectric power – create jobs, improve quality of life  Indian govt able to furnish loans from world bank for the purpose of GR  Sharing of experienced rice farmers to other countries generated income for the country (read up on social impact)

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