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Rice Cookers Understanding Some of the Global and Societal Differences of Rice Cooking Initially prepared by: Kang Kang M.S. Student, Industrial Engineering.

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Presentation on theme: "Rice Cookers Understanding Some of the Global and Societal Differences of Rice Cooking Initially prepared by: Kang Kang M.S. Student, Industrial Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rice Cookers Understanding Some of the Global and Societal Differences of Rice Cooking Initially prepared by: Kang Kang M.S. Student, Industrial Engineering Penn State University Spring 2011

2 Introduction l Rice is the seed of the monocot plant: Oryza sativa l One of the oldest foods – traced to 5000 BC by archaeologists l It is the most important staple food for a large part of the world‘s human population, especially in East and South Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the West Indies [1] l When rice is harvested, it has a inedible husk (hull) that surrounds the kernel, which is removed along with the stalk and other foreign material using a variety of specialized equipment in a rice mill [1][2][3]

3 Grain Sizes Rice is divided into three types based on seed size As a rule, the shorter the grain, the more tender the rice is, and the more it clings together Long GrainMedium GrainShort Grain Cooked grains are separate, firm and fluffy Cooked grains are moist, tender and tend to cling together Cooked grains are moister, more tender, and tend to cling together

4 Types of Rice l Forms of Rice Brown rice: All rice is originally brown. Brown rice (as you buy it) is rice from which only the hull has been removed. When cooked, it has a slightly chewy texture and a nutlike flavor. In different countries brown rice has different names - Chinese: 糙米 ; pinyin: cāomǐ; literally "rough rice"; Korean: 현미 ; hyeonmi; Japanese: 玄米 ; genmai; Thai: ข้าวกล้อง ; Vietnamese: gạo lứt. [2] Regular milled rice ( White rice): Has been completely milled and polished, removing the bran layer. Brown rice [4] White rice [5]

5 Types of Rice l Forms of Rice Parboiled rice: Most commonly used in European and American cooking. The grains do not stick together giving it a 'fluffy' texture that American/UK cookbooks find desirable. The parboiled rice is soaked, steamed, and dried before milling. This way nutrients stay within the grain, and the surface starch is reduced, producing cooked rice that is somewhat more firm in texture and separate when cooked. Unmilled rice: Before polished rice was introduced, people ate unmilled rice, which was a little bit harder than polished rice. Many people still cook and eat unmilled rice. Parboiled Rice [6] Unmilled rice to milled rice [7] (From right to left)

6 Types of Rice Rice Varieties l There are more than 40,000 different varieties of rice worldwide. Two common and popular varieties: Basmati rice: It has the longest grain of all and a translucent appearance. It also has a distinctive sort of spicy aroma, which matches spicy dishes perfectly. Jasmine Rice: Sometimes known as Thai fragrant rice, it is a long-grain variety of rice that has a nutty aroma, The grains will cling when cooked, though it is less sticky than other rice. [8] Jasmine rice [9]

7 Cultural Differences Due to cultural differences, the way people eat, prepare and serve rice are very different: l Differences in types of rice l Differences in how rice is cooked [11] [12] [13] [14] l Differences in taste and consistency of rice Sticky and glutinous [15] Medium stickiness and non-glutinous [16] Non-sticky and separate grains [17]

8 World Map Of Rice Cultivation Source: Japan China India Korea Thailand

9 China l Traditional Chinese ways of cooking rice [18] [19] [20] l Rice varieties in China Indica rice is dominant in the south (long-grain, medium stickiness), while japonica rice is widely planted in the north (short-grain, more sticky)

10 China l Different Needs Side dish Stir fried rice … Rice porridge/congee [21] [22] Map

11 Japan Japonica Rice or ‘Sushi Rice’ Also called uruchi-mai, it is a medium-grain rice, which is used for almost any kind of Japanese dish, including sushi and onigiri [23][24]

12 Japan Sushi Traditional sushi rice is made from short-grained, white rice (preferably Japanese rice), and it is mixed with salt, sugar, sake and vinegar to make the rice fluffy and sticky (though there are many ways to make sushi rice) Map [25] [26] [27]

13 Korea Korean Rice l Korean rice is short grain rice like “sushi rice” and has a lot more starch than long grain rice because it is highly glutinous l Unlike rice from Southeast Asia or North America, Korean rice is moist and sticks together rather than falling apart l This makes it easy to eat with chopsticks [28]

14 Korea l Different Needs Bibimbap [29] Purple Rice [30] Beany rice [31] Map

15 Thailand Thai Fried Rice In Thailand, fried rice is often served with cucumber and a wedge of lime. The unique taste of the Thai rice comes from a mix of fish sauce, soy sauce, chili peppers and lime. The rice is decorated with cilantro and a dusting of freshly ground pepper. When you make fried rice it is good to use a little dry rice (normally Jasmine Rice) so that the rice does not stick – this is an important requirement of fried rice [32] Map

16 India Rice Varieties Rice is the staple food of all Indians. Different regions of India eat different varieties of rice and cooking methods. [33] [34]

17 India Different cooking methods and taste preference The preferred consistency is non-sticky and separate grains, which is very different from Chinese/Korean rice. There are several ways to prevent the rice from sticking (e.g., adding extra oil or ghee, or draining the rice and pouring room temperature water on top of the grains after they are cooked through to flush and drain any remaining starch). Spices can also be added before cooking the rice or after steaming it. [35] [36]

18 Middle East: Rice is a common side dish Many dishes are served over rice Normally, rice is fried first and should be non-sticky Brazil: Overwhelming majority of the population eats rice and beans every day of their lives - core of Brazilian cuisine and of Brazilian nutrition Rice and beans play a large part in the cuisines of many other parts of Latin America (Cuba, Venezuela, Mexico), but rice cookers are not often used in those regions Other Countries [37] [38]

19 United States Instant Rice: Pre-cooked rice that is dehydrated and repackaged Dehydration removes a lot of its flavor [39]

20 How to Cook Rice Cook rice in the pot Typically rinse rice first, then put two cups of water to one cup of rice in the pot, boil water, heat and stir during the process Different rice types and amounts require different amounts of water Can easily be over-cooked or unevenly cooked – need to monitor while cooking [40]

21 Poorly Cooked Rice l Over-cooked/burned rice: l Too much water added: [42] [43]

22 How to Cook Rice Cook rice in the pot Typically rinse rice first, then put two cups of water to one cup of rice in the pot, boil water, heat and stir during the process Different rice types and amounts require different amounts of water Can easily be over-cooked or unevenly cooked – need to monitor while cooking Use a rice cooker Much easier, one-bottom, and different functions to choose No need to stir/monitor during cooking No concern of over-cooking [40] [41]

23 General Operation How does a rice cooker know the rice is ready? l A heating device inside the container begins to heat up the water to its boiling point, which is 212° F (100° C). l As the water boils, the rice absorbs the steam, and some of the steam escapes through the lid. l When the water is nearly all gone, the temperature of the food will begin to rise above 212° F (about 105° C). l This change in temperature is monitored by a sensor hidden in the bottom of the rice cooker, which triggers a switch to turn the cooker off or lower the temperature to keep rice warm

24 Rice Cooker Design l Structure Pot style Separate pots Cool touch l Operation System Mechanical Electronic Micro-computer control l Cooking principle Pressure cook Heating Aroma ARC-773-1G Aroma ARC-883TC Panasonic SR-G06FGAroma ARC-914SBB Panasonic HD4761

25 Rice Cooker Features Inner Pan Essential for cooking, should be non-sticky and evenly conducting heat Good Single coat of non-sticky material Better Several layers of coding: non-sticky layer, aluminum alloy, hard anodic oxidation coating Best Vacuum insulated pan to ensure even heating Innovative coating materials such as copper-coded, morion-coded (crystal-coded), whole casserole material (argil material) Panasonic HD4761

26 Rice Cooker Features l Cooking options Single touchSingle optionKeeps rice warm auto- matically Menu with indicator light Various rice options: brown rice, white rice Delay timer LED menu Various rice and cooking options: porridge, soup, cake, slow cook Reheating element; keeps rice warm for a long time Panasonic SR-G06FG Aroma ARC-150SB Toshiba RC-10MY

27 Cooking Control Technologies Control Technologies Variable Pressure Control Computerized temperature control Fuzzy Logic (Sensor Logic or Smart Logic) Adjusts the amount of heat based on the amount of water, and the amount of heat absorbed by the food Rectifies any mistakes in water measurements or other human errors by adjusting the cooking time and temperature to cook rice to perfection Induction Heating [3] Rather than heating the inner pot in a traditional manner, induction-heating uses electromagnetic energy to heat a separate copper-coated inner pot The heat and moisture penetrate deeply and evenly into individual rice grains to produce sweet and fluffy rice Technology widely used in Japanese rice cookers and is usually powered by a micro-computerized control and combined with pressure control technology

28 Low-End vs. High-End Cookers l San Jiao Rice Cooker Features: l Automatically keep warm l Price: $9 l Zojirushi NP-LS Features: l Multi-functional l IH technology l LCD controller l A mini pump that pumps outside air into the cooker to add pressure l Programmable melody or beep on/off indicator l Price: $1000

29 References [1]http://toddyhotpants.com/blog/2009/02/23/motorbike-trip-ha-nội-sai-gon/ [2]http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2010/05/genetic-discovery-promises-to-bo.html [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]

30 References [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43]


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