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Dr. B. C. Viraktamath Project Director Directorate of Rice Research Bringing Green Revolution in Eastern Region Increasing rice production in Eastern India.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. B. C. Viraktamath Project Director Directorate of Rice Research Bringing Green Revolution in Eastern Region Increasing rice production in Eastern India."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. B. C. Viraktamath Project Director Directorate of Rice Research Bringing Green Revolution in Eastern Region Increasing rice production in Eastern India by promoting hybrid rice as well as other technologies

2 Zone Area ('Mha) % India Production ('Mt) % India Productivity (Kg/ha) % India East23.754.938.043.81594.679.4 North9.8422.824.928.72410.1120.0 South6.7315.618.921.82707.8134.9 West2.345.43.94.51895.694.4 India43.21100.086.8100.02007.8100.0 Region -wise rice area, production and productivity (mean of 2002-2007) Eastern India has the great potential to enhance rice production in the coming years

3 Rice Area (%) in Eastern region – Ecology-wise Upland Rainfed lowland Semi-deep water Deep water Floating Total area = 23.4 Mha

4 Present (2008-09) % of the Total Rice Ecologies Area (m.ha) Production (m.t.) Productivity (t/ha) AreaProductionProductivity Irrigated 24.766.72.8756.167.4142.8 Rainfed lowland 1422.41.3531.822.667.2 Rainfed upland Flood prone Toal 44992.01 Rice Production and Productivity in Different Ecologies

5 Area (m.ha)Production (m.t)Productivity (Kg/ha) StateMean RankRating Assam2.413.51145312Low Bihar3.384.29125915Low Jharkhand1.401.98139513Low Orissa4.436.03135514Low West Bengal5.7914.6425296High Chhattisgarh 3.764.53120216Low All India42.6385.732008 State-wise rice area, production and productivity during 2005-2006(In Eastern region)

6 Production constraints in Eastern India Physical  Over dependence on unpredictable monsoon  Frequent drought/floods  Low light intensity during kharif Technical  Slow spread of HYV’s  Lower use of fertilizers/other inputs  Low seed replacement rate Extension  Weak extension machinery  Lower credit facilities

7 Bringing Green Revolution in Eastern India “Green Revolution in eastern India should be ushered in based on the principles of sustainability, soil health and environmental protection” Increasing the yields should not be the only criteria that has derailed the sustainability of rice production system

8 Bringing green revolution to the east : needs caution Lessons learnt from green revolution in other parts of the country  Over-emphasis on input intensive technologies  Excessive and imbalanced use of chemical fertilizers leading to micro nutrient deficiencies  Neglecting the use of organics in rice cultivation  Excessive exploitation of ground water leading to soil problems  Over dependent on chemical based pest control leading to environmental pollution  Benefited only the medium and large farmers

9 Strategies for bringing green revolution in Eastern India  Adoption of new high yielding varieties  Strengthening seed production and encouraging seed replacement rate  Increasing area under hybrid rice  Encouraging balanced use of fertilizers (INM, SSNM)  Enhanced use of organics  Adoption of IPM practices to control pests/diseases  Increasing irrigation facilities and judicious use of water  Increasing area under boro rice wherever ground water is abundant

10 Adoption of High Yielding Varieties in Eastern India StateNo. of varieties available for cultivation IRRSLRUPBoroTotal Assam0919020333 Bihar1921130356 Chhattisgarh1506 -27 Jharkhand121604-32 Orissa453028-103 West Bengal2310060140 Total1231025907291 IR-Irrigated; RSL-Rainfed shallow lands; RUP-Rainfed uplands;

11 Most popular rice varieties in Eastern India StatePopular varieties Assam Ranjeet, Mahsuri, Luit, IR 50 Bihar Rajashree, Sita, Rajendra Mahsuri, Prabhat Chhattisgarh IR 64, IR 36, Mahamaya, Kranti, Purnima, Swarna, MTU 1010, Danteswari, Bamleshwari JharkhandIR 64, Vandana, IR 36, Anjali, Birsamati Orissa I R 64, IR 36, Pooja, CR 1018, Savitri, Ratna, Khitish, Annada, CR 1017, Lunishree, CR 1014 West Bengal Khitish, Satabdi, Sabita, Shashi TripuraIR 64, Kalikhasa, Tapaswani MeghalayaBhalum

12 Rice varieties released during the last 5 years for Eastern India Sl. NoStateIrrigatedRainfed Upland Rainfed Lowland Boro 1AssamChandrama-- 2Manipur-- Ginphou, Maniphou-10, Pariphou -- 3OrissaPratikshya, CR Dhan 10, Tejaswini, Ajay, Rajalaxmi, Manaswini Jogesh, Naveen, Sidhanta, Jaldi Dhan 6, Mandakini Ketekijoha, CR Sugandh Dhan-3, Nua Kalajeera, Mrunalini, Rani Dhan, Swarna Sub1 CR Boro Dhan-2 4Uttar Pradesh Narendra Dhan 3112-1,Prakhar, NDR 2064, Narendra Usar Sankar Dhan 3 --Narendra Jal Pushp, Narendra Dhan, Narendra Mayank, Swarna Sub1 --

13 Hybrid Rice One of the key components that can help in bringing green revolution to Eastern India. The potential is seen already as the region is leading in hybrid rice cultivation.

14 The Need for Hybrid Rice  Rapidly increasing population  Plateuing yield trend of HYV’s.  Declining resources (Land, Water)  Yield advantage of hybrids (15-20%) over varieties Hybrid Rice is one of the practically feasible and readily adoptable technologies to enhance productivity of rice in the country.

15 Eastern India: Harbinger of hybrid rice cultivation Appreciable yield advantage of the hybrids over the inbred varieties (30-40%) Farmers’ enthusiasm in accepting the technology Hybrid rice quality suiting to the requirement of the people in the region Aggressive marketing strategies by the private seed companies

16 Total hybrids evaluated : 2000 Hybrids Released : 43 Public Sector hybrids : 28 Private Sector hybrids : 15 Central Releases : 20 State Releases : 23 Total hybrids evaluated : 2000 Hybrids Released : 43 Public Sector hybrids : 28 Private Sector hybrids : 15 Central Releases : 20 State Releases : 23 Evaluation of Hybrids

17 Hybrids Released by CSCCSN&RV Public SectorPrivate Sector KRH-2PHB-71 (Pioneer)PA 6201 (Pro-Agro) Pusa RH-10PA 6129 (Pro Agro)PA 6444 (Pro Agro) DRRH-2 RH-204 (Parry Monsanto) Ganga (Paras Co.) Sahyadri-4Suruchi (Mahyco)JKRH-401 (JK Agri.) DRRH-3*GK 5003 (Ganga Kaveri) DRH 775 (Metahelix)* HRI 157 (Pro Agro)* PAC 835 (Advanta)* PAC 837 (Advanta)* NK-5251 (Syngenta)# US 312 ( US Agri Gen.) * Five hybrids released during 2009; # Under consideration

18 Hybrid with medium slender grain type DRRH-3 Year DFF Yield (kg/ha) Advantage (%) over BPT 5204 2005103573918 2006101553920 200798605130 Mean101577623 DRRH-3 BPT-5204

19 State/RegionHybrids Uttarakhand, Eastern UP and Bihar NSD-2, KRH-2, PHB-71, PA-6201, DRRH-3, PA 6444, Sahyadri-4, JKRH-401 Chattisgarh, JharkhandIndira Sona, DRH-775, HRI-157, PAC-837, PA 6201, Suruchi OrissaRajlakshmi, Ajay, HRI-157, PAC-835, DRRH-3, JKRH-401, KRH-2, PA 6201, PA 6444, Suruchi KarnatakaKRH-2, PHB-71, PA-6201, GK-5003, HRI-157, PAC-837 Andhra PradeshPHB-71, PA-6201, DRRH-3, GK-5003, HRI-157, PAC-837 Tamil NaduCORH-3, DRRH-2, HRI-157 MaharashtraKRH-2, PHB-71, Sahyadri-4, HRI-157 West BengalCNRH-3, PHB-71, DRRH-2, Sahyadri-4 GujaratSahyadri, KRH-2, HRI-157, PAC-835, PAC-837, DRRH-3 Punjab, HaryanaPHB-71, 6444,Pusa RH-10, DRRH-2, Sahyadri-4 Hybrids available for cultivation in different states Besides private sector is selling 30-40 non notified hybrids in the region

20 Hybrids resistant to pests and diseases HybridResistantTolerantModerately resistant suruchi Blast-WBPH DRRH 2 Blast, RTV-Brown spot, WBPH Ajay --Blast, BLB, Stemborer, BPH, WBPH, Gall midge JKRH-401 -Blast,RTV, sheath blight, brown spot, Stemborer, WBPH, Gall midge, Leaf folder CORH 3 -Blast, RTV, GLH,BPH, WBPH PA 6129 Blast, Gall midge-Brown spot and GLH GK 5003 Blast, RTV-sheath blight, brown spot, WBPH HRI 157 --RTV, brown spot PAC 835 Blast-BLB, RTV PAC 837 Blast-RTV, brown spot and GLH NK 5251 Blast-WBPH DRRH 3 -WBPHBlast, RTV US 312 Blast, Gall MidgeRTV, Brown spot, WBPH


22 Hybrid rice cultivation (region-wise) 2009

23 Hybrids suitable for rainfed/aerobic conditions PSD-1PSD-3 HRI-126ADTRH-1 PRH-122DRRH-3 Hybrids tolerant to salinity/alkalinity Salinity : PHB-71, ADTRH-1, CORH-3 Alkalinity : Suruchi, DRRH-3

24 Strategies for promoting Hybrid rice in Eastern India  Providing a special fund for hybrid rice research with special focus on Eastern India  Constituting a task force to oversee the progress on hybrid rice  Creating conducive environment to boost seed production both by public and private sector  Procurement of hybrid rice produce by FCI and other agencies for PDS Policy Contd….

25 Technical  Development of long duration hybrids for shallow low lands and coastal areas  Further enhancing the level of heterosis  Optimizing hybrid rice seed production in boro areas Extension  Conducting large number of demonstrations in farmers’ fields  Line Departments to play a key role in promoting hybrid rice  Advance seed indent system to be developed and implemented

26 Other technologies to usher into green revolution in Eastern India  Adopting Integrated Nutrient Management practices  Going for soil health cards and practicing site specific nutrient management  Use of organics/green manures should be an integral part in rice cultivation  Use of Leaf Colour Chart to improve the ‘N’ efficiency  Crop diversification (rotation and recycling of crop residues)  Judicious use of water by adopting innovative cultivation methods  Integrated pest management

27 Adoption of SRI to save water and other inputs  Plant young seedlings (8-12 days old)  Single seedling per hill with soil  Wider spacing (20 x 25 cm)  Use of more organics  Weeding by cono weeder  Bio-pesticides (IPM)

28  Cultivation of rice in un puddled, direct seeded without standing water (need based irrigation as like wheat & maize)  Combines features of high yielding irrigated lowland and drought tolerant upland cultivars. Aerobic rice cultivation Promising varieties/hybrids suitable for aerobic cultivation VareitiesRasi, Vandana, Jaya, PKM 3, MAS-96 HybridsKRH-2, PA 6444, DRRH-3, PA 6201, CORH-3, PHB-71 and Sahyadri

29 Direct seeding with 8 row drum seeder Simple method to save labour  Sprouted seeds are sown with the help of a 8 row drum seeder  Duration reduced by 8- 10 days  Yields on par with he transplanted crop  Good leveling is a must

30 Optimum Sowing / Planting Time Pest Monitoring in Nursery/ Main field Economic thresholds RESISTANT VARIETY Integrated pest management in rice Need based insecticide use Ecofriendly and safe insecticides Natural biocontrol Avoid persistent insecticides Pheromones Cultural Practices Optimum Spacing Optimum ‘ N’ Crop sanitation Alleyways Mid season drying

31 Trap Crop- A cost effective environmental friendly way to control the stem borer Growing one row of Basmati variety after every 9 rows of farmers’ variety could reduce the stem borer damage to considerable extent

32 Conclusions  Faster spread of newly developed varieties and hybrids  Efficient and effective seed production mechanism to ensure the availability of quality seeds  Selective mechanization to save the rice farming from labour shortage  Enhancing profitability of rice farming by economizing the input use  Intensifying research on water saving technologies such as Aerobic rice, AWD, SRI etc  Aggressive technology transfer efforts by all the concerned

33 Thank You

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