Presentation on theme: "The Most Common Insect Rice Pests in Indonesia and Their Possible Control by Arya Widyawan Plant Protection Department, College of Food Science and Agriculture,"— Presentation transcript:
The Most Common Insect Rice Pests in Indonesia and Their Possible Control by Arya Widyawan Plant Protection Department, College of Food Science and Agriculture, King Saud University
Important of rice Almost all of the 200 millions of the population use it as a primary food Million people engage in rice production, rice processing and other post-harvest activities related to rice (Sidik, 2004)
Two major factors are responsible for low yields of rice Adverse weather (floods, drought, typhoons, etc.) Pest attack (Pathak and Khan, 1994)
Insect Pest that commonly attack rice in Indonesia (Supriatna, 2003). PestLoss Production Rice brown planthopper(40%) Gall midge(14.60%) Stem borer(9.70%) Rice bug(8. 10%) Leaf folder(3.30%)
Rice brow planthopper; Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae) Adukt of Nilaparvata lugens ‘hopperburn’ symptoms (Syam et al., 2007)
Life cycle The eggs are whitish or transparent. The female insert their eggs into the midribs of the leaves. Eggs are laid in batches with their anterior ends attached to one another. Nymph are white, 0.6 mm in length when newly hatch, later become brown and grow up to 30 mm. The adults are usually found in the lower part of the plants, while the nymphs pierce the leave sheaths (Wyniger,1962).
Control 1- Cultural control – Resistant variety; such as IR 64 – Recommended distance planting; 22 cm x 22 cm 2- Biocontrol agent SpeciesAttack on Pardosa pseudoannulatanymph and adult stage Tetragnatha maxillosanymph and adult stage Cyrtorhinhus lividipenniseggs - The effectiveness of the natural enemy may be optimized by increasing the number of natural enemies in young rice stages (Suzuki et al., 2006).
3- Chemical control Soaking the seedlings in insecticide solution for 6-12 h before transplanting gives protection for 20 d Pesticide may be used if there are twenty or more plant hoppers (CFOPR, 1976) Use a highly selective insecticide such as Buprofezin which is highly selective molting- inhibitor
Gall midge; Orseolia oryzae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Adult of Orseolia oryzae Affected tillars (Syam et al., 2007)
Gall midge ; Orseolia oryzae
Gall midge Orseolia oryzae) Onion shoot s /Fact_Sheets/Pests/Rice_Gall_Midge.htm
Life cycle Fertilized females start egg-lying within a few hours of emergence. Their eggs lying capacity varies from eggs. Incubation depends on the relative humidity, 82-88% being the most favorable (CFOPR,1976).
Life cycle Larvae, soon after hatching, move down between the leaf sheaths until they reach the growing point of the apical or side buds. Once at the apical shoots, they feed at the base of the growing point. Due to their presence, a gall forms and panicle do not develop in infected tillers. (CFOPR, 1976).
control 1- Cultural control – plant a variety such as Asahan or Ciliwung which is resistant to this pest (Syam et al., 2007). – removal of the alternative host, weeds such as Cynodon dactylon, Pseudhomonylia fluitans and Panicum fluitans or wild rice species such as Oryza barthii, during the dry season may assist in cutting down the population (CPFOR,1976). – Adult stage may be controlled by using a light trap (Syam et al., 2007)
control 3- Chemical control pay attention in the early age of rice when rice is in the vegetative phase. Insecticide is used if the damage is reach the economic threshold level. Five percent silver shoot or ten percent of tillers has boring the immature larvae is a economic trehold level that warrants initiation of control measure (Hidaka and Widiarta, 1984, Kumar et al., 2008). systemic pesticide that contain carbofuran as active ingredient may be used to control the midge (Syam et al., 2007).
Life cycle Yellow stem borer The eggs are laid in oval patches of eggs and are covered by the brown anal hair of he female. They are laid near the tip of the leaf blade (CFOPR, 1976). The optimum egg hatching temperature is °C (Pathak and Khan, 1994). The yellow larva is 25 mm when fully grow. Pupa are yellowish-white and takes place inside the stem often below the soil surface (CFOPR,1976). Pupa is protected by cocoon. The threshold temperatures for pupal development are 15-16°C (Pathak and Khan, 1994). The entire life cycle may last days. Adults can emerge through water (CFOPR, 1976).
Life cycle White stem borer Eggs are laid in batches of about 100 and are covered with silky grayish hairs. Eggs are laid near the tip of the leaf blade (Pathak and Khan,1994). The larvae is similar to the yellow borer except they are white. The pupae are soft-bodied, pale and mm long (CFOPR, 1976). The entire life cycle takes days (Hill, 1975).
Life cycle Strip stem borer Eggs are laid in rows on the underside of the leaves, without cover (Pathak and Khan, 1994). The optimum temperature for hatching is o C (Pathak and Khan, 1994). The larva when fully grown is approximately 26 mm long and 2.5 mm wide (CFOPR,1976). The optimum temperature for the larval growth is between 22 and 33 o C (Pathak and Khan, 1994). In the tropic region, six or more generation per year are produced (CFOPR,1976).
Control 1- Cultural control It is advised that not plant on the December –January since at that time the temperature, moisture, and rain intensity is suitable for the development of borer(Syam et al., 2007). cutting the rice as close to ground level as possible during harvesting the majority of larvae may be removed from the field, At this time, they are cm above ground level. Stubble should be ploughed in or flooded soon after harvesting to destroy any larvae or pupae which remain (CFOPR, 1976). widespread practice of clipping the seedlings before transplanting greatly reduces the carryover of eggs from the seedbed to the transplanted fields (Pathak and Khan,1994). Nitrogenous fertilizer should be given appropriately not over the recommended value.
control 2- Biocontrol agents Species Control as Telenomus sp.Egg parasitod Tetrastichus sp. Egg parasitod Trichogramma sp. Egg parasitod Conocephalus longipennis (longhorned grasshopper) Eat eggs of Tryporyza incertulas Metioche vittaticollis (criket) feed on eggs of Chilo suppressalis Anaxipha longipennis (criket) feed on eggs of Chilo suppressalis Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (predatory mirid) feed on eggs of Chilo suppressalis
control 3- Chemical control Insecticide may be used if there are more than 10% of plant show deadheart or whitehead symptom (Syam et al., 2007). InsecticidesFormulationActive ingredient per hectare Application BHCGranule kgThe irrigation water should be present Carbofurangranule kgApply 30 days after germination or when borer population warrants it Chlordimeformgranule0.5-1 kgApply direct to water 5-20 cm deep, 2-4 treatments, when moths are on the increase, at 3-4 weeks interval
Rice bug; Leptocorisa oratorius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) Leptocorisa oratorius Leptocorisa oratorius commonly found in the rice field in the end of rainy season. Infested fields, however, can often be detected, even from a distance, because they emit a typical rice bug odor produced by scent glands on the abdomen of the insect. Rice bug is most active during early mornings and evenings when the sun is not strong. On sunny days, the insects hide at the basal parts of the plants (Pathak and Khan, 1994).
Rice bug; Leptocorisa oratorius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) Brown spot occur where the insect have fed (CFOPR,1976).
Life cycle Eggs are laid in rows, high on the leaves. A single female lays an average of eggs in batches of (Pathak and Khan, 1994). There are five nymphal instars and distinct color changes follow each of the four moults. A newly hatched nymph is green but becomes brownish as it grows. The nymphal period usually last for days. The bugs are most abundant at °C and 80-82% RH (Pathak and Khan, 1994).
Control 1- Cultural control Hand picking or catching the adults or nymph before flowering stage is suggested. Traditional method use a natural trap which is a meat or chicken that has been decayed (Syam et al., 2007).
Control 2- Biological control SpeciesAttack on Gryon nixoni Small scelionid wasps parasitize the eggs of Leptocorisa spp. Conocephalus longipennis The meadow grasshopper Preys on rice bug eggs (Pathak and Khan, 1994)
Control 3- Chemical control Insecticide is sprayed in the morning or afternoon when the pest is on the canopy of the plant. (Syam et al., 2007). InsecticideFormulationActive ingredient per hectare Application Azinphos methylDust kg ChlorofenvinphosEmulsifiable concentrate kgSpray before peak nymph emergence Dichlorvos kgUp to 2 applications depending on the infestation MalathionFollow manufacturers recommendation
Leaf folder ; Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae) Damge on rice because of leaf folder infestation (Syam et al., 2007)
Life cycle The eggs are laid singly or in pairs on along the midrib on either surface of the young leaf (Hill, 1975). They are flat, oval in shape, yellow in color. The freshly hatched larva is mm long and mm wide, has a shiny translucent body and a light- brown head. The body turns Green after the larva begins feeding. There are five larval instar (Pathak & Khan, 1994). The pupa is slender, greenish-brown colored. The life cycle is generally days (CFOPR,1976).
Control 1- Cultural control Clean the farm from the alternative host (Graminae) In a small areas of rice clipping of infested leaves and destroying them may control the pest (CFOPR, 1976). Light trapping of adults has been successful in some instances (Hill, 1975).
Control 2-Biocontrol agent s Diptera; Megaselia spp. and Argyrophylax spp. Hymenoptera; Goniozus spp., Trichogramma spp., Apanteles spp., and Bracon spp. Coleoptera; Chlaenius spp. and Coccinella spp. Orthoptera Anaxipha spp. and Metioche spp.
Control 3- Chemical control Pesticide that contains active ingredient fipronil and carbofuran may be used to control this pest (Syam et al., 2007).
Comprehensive control program TIMEACTIVITY Pre planting Remove the weeds such as Cynodon dactylon, Pseudhomonylia fluitans, Panicum fluitans, and Oryza barthii, Soaking the seedlings in insecticide solution for 6-12 h Clipping the seedlings Planting time up to 20 days after planting Transplant one fourth of the total crop as a trap crop Apply distance planting 22 x 22 cm
Comprehensive control program TimeActivityAttention on Attack of Week 1Light trap Survey the presence of gall midge and stem borer Release the biocontrol agent if there is a sign of gall midge and stem borer Apply pesticide if there is Five percent silver shoot or ten percent of tillers has boring the immature larvae (for gall midge) Apply pesticide if 10% of plant show deadheart or whitehead symptom gall midge stem borer Week 2Light trap Survey the presence of rice brown plant hoper Release the biocontrol agent if there is a sign of rice brown plant hopper Apply pesticide if there is more than 20 hoper Week 3Light trap Survey the need of Nitrogenous fertilizer. Excessive amount of N fertilizer may increase the attack of stem borer and leaf folder Survey the presence of gall midge and stem borer brown plant hopper Week 4Light trap Survey the presence of rice brown plant hopper Week 5Light trap Survey the presence of gall midge and stem borer Week 6Light trap Survey the presence of rice brown plant hopper Week 7Light trap Survey the presence of gall midge, stem borer and leaf folder Apply the insecticide if the damage caused by leaf folder reach more than 50% Week 8Light trap Survey the presence of rice bug Release the biocontrol agent if there is a sign of rice bug leaf folder
Comprehensive control program TimeActivityAttention on Attack of Week 9Natural trap to control rice bug Survey the presence of stem borer leaf folder rice bug stem borer Week 10Natural trap to control rice bug Survey the presence of rice bug Week 11Natural trap to control rice bug Survey the presence of stem borer Week 12Natural trap to control rice bug Survey the presence of rice bug Week 13Natural trap to control rice bug Survey the presence of stem borer Week 14Natural trap to control rice bug Survey the presence of rice bug Week 15Natural trap to control rice bug Survey the presence of stem borer Week 16Natural trap to control rice bug Survey the presence of rice bug Harvestingcutting the rice as close to ground level Post harvestStubble should be ploughed in or flooded soon after harvesting to destroy any larvae or pupae of stem borer.
References Center For Overseas Pest Research Pest control in rice. Hobbs the printer limited, London. Hill. D.S, Agricultural insect pest on the tropics and their control. Cambridge university press, London. Kumar L.V., A. K. Chakravarthy, K. N. Muniswamy Gowda and N. E. Thyagaraj Economic threshold level of Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason) (Diptera : Cecidomyiidae) in Coastal Karnataka. Current Biotica 2: Marheni Kemampuan beberapa predator pada pengendalian wereng batang coklat (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.). Jurnal Natur Indonesia 6: Pathak, M.D. and Z.R. Khan Insect Pests of Rice. IRRI, Manila. Sidik, M Indonesian rice policy in view of trade liberalization. FAO Rice Conference, February 2004 Rome, Italy. Supriatna, A Integrated pest management and its implementation by rice farmer in Java. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian, 22: Suzuki, Y., Y. Kobori, and Y. Sato Sustainable management of migratory rice plat hopper by conservational biology control combined with endophyte infected plant. National Agricultural Research Center, Tsukuba.
References Syam, M. Suparyono, Hermanto, D. Wuryandari Masalah lapangan hama, penyakit, hara pada padi. 3 rd ed. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Pangan, Jakarta. Wyniger. R Pest of crops in warm climates and their control. Basel printed, Switzerland.